Publications by Michele Cappellari


Improved dynamical constraints on the mass of the central black hole in NGC 404

Astrophysical Journal Institute of Physics 836 (2017) 237-

DD Nguyen, AC Seth, M den Brok, N Neumayer, M Cappellari, AJ Barth, N Caldwell, BF Williams, B Binder

We explore the nucleus of the nearby 109 M⊙ early-type galaxy, NGC 404, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/STIS spectroscopy and WFC3 imaging. We first present evidence for nuclear variability in UV, optical, and infrared filters over a time period of 15 years. This variability adds to the already substantial evidence for an accreting black hole at the center of NGC 404. We then redetermine the dynamical black hole mass in NGC 404 including modeling of the nuclear stellar populations. We combine HST/STIS spectroscopy with WFC3 images to create a local color-M/L relation derived from stellar population modeling of the STIS data. We then use this to create a mass model for the nuclear region. We use Jeans modeling to fit this mass model to adaptive optics stellar kinematic observations from Gemini/NIFS. From our stellar dynamical modeling, we find a 3σ upper limit on the black hole mass of 1.5 × 105 M⊙. Given the accretion evidence for a black hole, this upper limit makes NGC 404 the lowest mass central black hole with dynamical mass constraints. We find that the kinematics of H2 emission line gas show evidence for non-gravitational motions preventing the use of gas dynamical modeling to constrain the black hole mass. Our stellar population modeling also reveals that the central, counter-rotating region of the nuclear cluster is dominated by ∼1 Gyr old populations.


Untangling galaxy components: full spectral bulge–disc decomposition

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016)

M Tabor, M Merrifield, A Aragón-Salamanca, M Cappellari, SP Bamford, E Johnston


WISDOM project – I. Black hole mass measurement using molecular gas kinematics in NGC 3665

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 468 (2017) 4663-4674

K Onishi, S Iguchi, TA Davis, MG Bureau, M Cappellari, M Sarzi, L Blitz

As a part of the mm-Wave Interferometric Survey of Dark Object Masses (WISDOM) project, we present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby fast-rotator early-type galaxy NGC 3665. We obtained the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) B and C array observations of the 12CO(J = 2 − 1) emission line with a combined angular resolution of 0.59 arcsec. We analysed and modelled the three-dimensional molecular gas kinematics, obtaining a best-fitting SMBH mass MBH=5.75+1.49−1.18×10^8 M⊙, a mass-to-light ratio at H-band (M/L)H = 1.45 ± 0.04 (M/L)⊙,H and other parameters describing the geometry of the molecular gas disc (statistical errors, all at 3σ confidence). We estimate the systematic uncertainties on the stellar M/L to be ≈0.2 (M/L)⊙,H, and on the SMBH mass to be ≈0.4 × 108 M⊙. The measured SMBH mass is consistent with that estimated from the latest correlations with galaxy properties. Following our older works, we also analysed and modelled the kinematics using only the major-axis position–velocity diagram, and conclude that the two methods are consistent.


SDSS-IV MaNGA: variation of the stellar initial mass function in spiral and early-type galaxies

Astrophysical Journal IOP Publishing 838 (2017)

H Li, J Ge, S Mao, M Cappellari, RJ Long, R Li, E Emsellem, AA Dutton, C Li, K Bundy, D Thomas, N Drory, AR Lopes

We perform Jeans anisotropic modeling (JAM) on elliptical and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR13 sample. By comparing the stellar mass-to-light ratios estimated from stellar population synthesis and from JAM, we find a systematic variation of the initial mass function (IMF) similar to that in the earlier ${\mathrm{ATLAS}}^{3{\rm{D}}}$ results. Early-type galaxies (elliptical and lenticular) with lower velocity dispersions within one effective radius are consistent with a Chabrier-like IMF, while galaxies with higher velocity dispersions are consistent with a more bottom-heavy IMF such as the Salpeter IMF. Spiral galaxies have similar systematic IMF variations, but with slightly different slopes and larger scatters, due to the uncertainties caused by the higher gas fractions and extinctions for these galaxies. Furthermore, we examine the effects of stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients on our JAM modeling, and we find that the trends become stronger after considering the gradients.


Systematic trends in total-mass profiles from dynamical models of early-type galaxies

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 467 (2017) 1397-1413

A Poci, M Cappellari, RM McDermid

<p>We study trends in the slope of the total mass profiles and dark matter fractions within the central half-light radius of 258 early-type galaxies, using data from the volume-limited ATLAS3D survey. We use three distinct sets of dynamical models, which vary in their assumptions and also allow for spatial variations in the stellar mass-to-light ratio, to test the robustness of our results. We confirm that the slopes of the total mass profiles are approximately isothermal, and investigate how the total mass slope depends on various galactic properties. The most statistically significant correlations we find are a function of either surface density, Σe, or velocity dispersion, σe. However there is evidence for a break in the latter relation, with a nearly universal logarithmic slope above log10[σe/(km s−1)] ∼ 2.1 and a steeper trend below this value. For the 142 galaxies above that critical σe value, the total mass–density logarithmic slopes have a mean value 〈γ΄〉 = −2.193 ± 0.016 (1σ error) with an observed rms scatter of only σγ′=0.168±0.015. Considering the observational errors, we estimate an intrinsic scatter of σγ′intr≈0.15. These values are broadly consistent with those found by strong lensing studies at similar radii and agree, within the tight errors, with values recently found at much larger radii via stellar dynamics or H I rotation curves (using significantly smaller samples than this work).</p>


In and out star formation in z ~ 1.5 quiescent galaxies from rest-frame UV spectroscopy and the far-infrared

Astronomy & Astrophysics EDP Sciences 599 (2017) A95-

R Gobat, E Daddi, V Strazzullo, B Garilli, M Mignoli, Z Ma, S Jin, C Maraston, G Magdis, M Béthermin, M Cappellari, M Carollo, A Cimatti, C Feruglio, M Moresco, M Onodera, L Pozzetti, A Renzini, M Sargent, F Valentino, A Zanella

We present a sample of 34 spectroscopically confirmed BzK-selected 1011 M quiescent galaxies (pBzK) in the COSMOS field. The targets were initially observed with VIMOS on the VLT to facilitate the calibration of the photometric redshifts of massive galaxies at z and 1:5. Here we describe the reduction and analysis of the data, and the spectrophotometric properties of these pBzK galaxies. In particular, using a spatially resolved median 2D spectrum, we find that the fraction of stellar populations with ages &lt;1 Gyr is at least 3 times higher in the outer regions of the pBzK galaxies than in their cores. This results in a mild age gradient of age 0:4 Gyr over 6 kpc and suggests either the occurrence of widespread rejuvenation episodes or that inside-out quenching played a role in the passivization of this galaxy population. We also report on low-level star formation rates derived from the [OII]3727 emission line, with SFROII 3:74:5 M yr1. This estimate is confirmed by an independent measurement on a separate sample of similarly-selected quiescent galaxies in the COSMOS field, using stacked far-infrared data (SFRFIR 24 M yr1). This second, photometric sample also displays significant excess at 1.4 GHz, suggestive of the presence of radio-mode AGN activity.


Improving the full spectrum fitting method: accurate convolution with Gauss-Hermite functions

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 466 (2016) 798-811

M Cappellari

<p>I start by providing an updated summary of the penalized pixel-fitting (ppxf) method, which is used to extract the stellar and gas kinematics, as well as the stellar population of galaxies, via full spectrum fitting. I then focus on the problem of extracting the kinematic when the velocity dispersion σ is smaller than the velocity sampling ΔV, which is generally, by design, close to the instrumental dispersion σinst. The standard approach consists of convolving templates with a discretized kernel, while fitting for its parameters. This is obviously very inaccurate when σ ≲ ΔV=2, due to undersampling. Oversampling can prevent this, but it has drawbacks. Here I present a more accurate and efficient alternative. It avoids the evaluation of the under-sampled kernel, and instead directly computes its well-sampled analytic Fourier transform, for use with the convolution theorem. A simple analytic transform exists when the kernel is described by the popular Gauss-Hermite parametrization (which includes the Gaussian as special case) for the line-of-sight velocity distribution. I describe how this idea was implemented in a significant upgrade to the publicly available ppxf software. The key advantage of the new approach is that it provides accurate velocities regardless of σ. This is important e.g. for spectroscopic surveys targeting galaxies with σ &lt;&lt; σinst, for galaxy redshift determinations, or for measuring line-of-sight velocities of individual stars. The proposed method could also be used to fix Gaussian convolution algorithms used in today’s popular software packages.</p>


A low upper-mass limit for the central black hole in the late-type galaxy NGC 4414

Astronomy & Astrophysics EDP Sciences 597 (2016) A18

S Thater, D Krajnovic, MA Bourne, M Cappellari, T de Zeeuw, E Emsellem, J Magorrian, RM McDermid, M Sarzi, G van de Ven

We present our mass estimate of the central black hole in the isolated spiral galaxy NGC 4414. Using natural guide star adaptive optics assisted observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) and the natural seeing Gemini MultiObject Spectrographs-North (GMOS), we derived two-dimensional stellar kinematic maps of NGC 4414 covering the central 1.5 arcsec and 10 arcsec, respectively, at a NIFS spatial resolution of 0.13 arcsec. The kinematic maps reveal a regular rotation pattern and a central velocity dispersion dip down to around 105 km/s. We constructed dynamical models using two different methods: Jeans anisotropic dynamical modeling and axisymmetric Schwarzschild modeling. Both modeling methods give consistent results, but we cannot constrain the lower mass limit and only measure an upper limit for the black hole mass of MBH = 1.56 × 106 M (at 3σ level) which is at least 1σ below the recent MBH − σe relations. Further tests with dark matter, mass-to-light ratio variation and different light models confirm that our results are not dominated by uncertainties. The derived upper mass limit is not only below the MBH − σe relation, but is also five times lower than the lower limit black hole mass anticipated from the resolution limit of the sphere of influence. This proves that via high quality integral field data we are now able to push black hole measurements down to at least five times less than the resolution limit.


Dominant dark matter and a counter rotating disc: MUSE view of the low luminosity S0 galaxy NGC 5102

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 464 (2016) 4789–4806-

M Mitzkus, M Cappellari, CJ Walcher

<p>The kinematics and stellar populations of the low-mass nearby S0 galaxy NGC 5102 are studied from integral field spectra taken with the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer. The kinematic maps reveal for the first time that NGC 5102 has the characteristic 2σ peaks indicative of galaxies with counter-rotating discs. This interpretation is quantitatively confirmed by fitting two kinematic components to the observed spectra. Through stellar population analysis, we confirm the known young stellar population in the centre and find steep age and metallicity gradients. We construct axisymmetric Jeans anisotropic models of the stellar dynamics to investigate the initial mass function (IMF) and the dark matter halo of the galaxy. The models show that this galaxy is quite different from all galaxies previously studied with a similar approach: even within the half-light radius, it cannot be approximated with the self-consistent mass-follows-light assumption. Including a Navarro, Frenk &amp; White dark matter halo, we need a heavy IMF and a dark matter fraction of 0.37 ± 0.04 within a sphere of one Re radius to describe the stellar kinematics. The more general model with a free slope of the dark matter halo shows that slope and IMF are degenerate, but indicates that a light weight IMF (Chabrier-like) and a higher dark matter fraction, with a steeper (contracted) halo, fit the data better. Regardless of the assumptions about the halo profile, we measure the slope of the total mass density to be −1.75 ± 0.04. This is shallower than the slope of −2 of an isothermal halo and shallower than published slopes for more massive early-type galaxies.</p>


Sizes, colour gradients and resolved stellar mass distributions for the massive cluster galaxies in XMMUJ2235-2557 at z=1.39

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 458 (2016) 3181-3209

JCC Chan, A Beifiori, JT Mendel, RP Saglia, R Bender, M Fossati, A Galametz, M Wegner, DJ Wilman, M Cappellari, RL Davies, RCW Houghton, LJ Prichard, IJ Lewis, R Sharples, JP Stott


The atlas 3D Project – XXXI. Nuclear radio emission in nearby early-type galaxies

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 458 (2016) 2221–2268-

K Nyland, LM Young, JM Wrobel, M Sarzi, R Morganti, K Alatalo, L Blitz, F Bournaud, M Bureau, M Cappellari, AF Crocker, RL Davies, TA Davis, PT de Zeeuw, P-A Duc, E Emsellem, S Khochfar, D Krajnović, H Kuntschner, RM McDermid, T Naab, T Oosterloo, N Scott, P Serra, A-M Weijmans

We present the results of a high-resolution, 5 GHz, Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array study of the nuclear radio emission in a representative subset of the ATLAS3D survey of early-type galaxies (ETGs). We find that 51 ± 4 per cent of the ETGs in our sample contain nuclear radio emission with luminosities as low as 1018 W Hz-1. Most of the nuclear radio sources have compact (≲25-110 pc) morphologies, although ~10 per cent display multicomponent core+jet or extended jet/lobe structures. Based on the radio continuum properties, as well as optical emission line diagnostics and the nuclear X-ray properties, we conclude that the majority of the central 5 GHz sources detected in the ATLAS3D galaxies are associated with the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, even at subarcsecond spatial resolution, the nuclear radio emission in some cases appears to arise from low-level nuclear star formation rather than an AGN, particularly when molecular gas and a young central stellar population is present. This is in contrast to popular assumptions in the literature that the presence of a compact, unresolved, nuclear radio continuum source universally signifies the presence of an AGN. Additionally, we examine the relationships between the 5 GHz luminosity and various galaxy properties including the molecular gas mass and - for the first time - the global kinematic state. We discuss implications for the growth, triggering, and fuelling of radio AGNs, as well as AGN-driven feedback in the continued evolution of nearby ETGs.


Structure and kinematics of early-type galaxies from integral field spectroscopy

Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics Annual Reviews 54 (2016) 597-665

M Cappellari

Observations of galaxy isophotes, long-slit kinematics, and high-resolution photometry suggested a possible dichotomy between two distinct classes of elliptical galaxies. But these methods are expensive for large galaxy samples. Instead, integral field spectroscopy can efficiently recognize the shape, dynamics, and stellar population of complete samples of early-type galaxies (ETGs). These studies showed that the two main classes, the fast and slow rotators, can be separated using stellar kinematics. I show that there is a dichotomy in the dynamics of the two classes. The slow rotators are weakly triaxial and dominate above Mcrit ≈ 2 1011 M . Below Mcrit, the structure of fast rotators parallels that of spiral galaxies. There is a smooth sequence along which the age, the metal content, the enhancement in α-elements, and the weight of the stellar initial mass function all increase with the central mass density slope, or bulge mass fraction, while the molecular gas fraction correspondingly decreases. The properties of ETGs on galaxy scaling relations, in particular the (M*, Re) diagram, and their dependence on environment, indicate two main independent channels for galaxy evolution. Fast-rotator ETGs start as star-forming disks and evolve through a channel dominated by gas accretion, bulge growth, and quenching, whereas slow rotators assemble near the centers of massive halos via intense star formation at high redshift and remain as such for the rest of their evolution via a channel dominated by gas poor mergers. This is consistent with independent studies of the galaxies redshift evolution.


Linear relation between H i circular velocity and stellar velocity dispersion in early-type galaxies, and slope of the density profiles

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 460 (2016) 1382-1389

P Serra, T Oosterloo, M Cappellari, M den Heijer, GIG Józsa

© 2016 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. We report a tight linear relation between the H i circular velocity measured at 6 R e and the stellar velocity dispersion measured within 1 R e for a sample of 16 early-type galaxies with stellar mass between 1010 and 1011 M ⊙ . The key difference from previous studies is that we only use spatially resolved v circ (H i) measurements obtained at large radius for a sizeable sample of objects. We can therefore link a kinematical tracer of the gravitational potential in the dark-matter dominated outer regions of galaxies with one in the inner regions, where baryons control the distribution of mass. We find that v circ (H i)= 1.33 σ e with an observed scatter of just 12 per cent. This indicates a strong coupling between luminous and dark matter from the inner- to the outer regions of early-type galaxies, analogous to the situation in spirals and dwarf irregulars. The v circ (H i)-σ e relation is shallower than those based on v circ measurements obtained from stellar kinematics and modelling at smaller radius, implying that v circ declines with radius - as in bulge-dominated spirals. Indeed, the value of v circ (H i) is typically 25 per cent lower than the maximum v circ derived at ~0.2 R e from dynamical models. Under the assumption of power-law total density profiles ρ ∝ r -γ , our data imply an average logarithmic slope 〈γ〉 = 2.18 ± 0.03 across the sample, with a scatter of 0.11 around this value. The average slope and scatter agree with recent results obtained from stellar kinematics alone for a different sample of early-type galaxies.


The SLUGGS survey: A new mask design to reconstruct the stellar populations and kinematics of both inner and outer galaxy regions

Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia Cambridge University Press 33 (2016)

N Pastorello, DA Forbes, A Poci, AJ Romanowsky, R McDermid, AB Alabi, JP Brodie, M Cappellari, V Pota, C Foster

Integral field unit spectrographs allow the 2D exploration of the kinematics and stellar populations of galaxies, although they are generally restricted to small fields-of-view. Using the large field-of-view of the DEIMOS multislit spectrograph on Keck and our Stellar Kinematics using Multiple Slits (SKiMS) technique, we are able to extract sky-subtracted stellar light spectra to large galactocentric radii. Here we present a new DEIMOS mask design named SuperSKiMS that explores large spatial scales without sacrificing high spatial sampling. We simulate a set of observations with such a mask design on the nearby galaxy NGC 1023, showing that the kinematic and metallicity measurements can reach radii where the galaxy surface brightness is several orders of magnitude fainter than the sky. Such a technique is also able to reproduce the kinematic and metallicity 2D distributions obtained from literature integral field spectroscopy in the innermost galaxy regions. In particular, we use the simulated NGC 1023 kinematics to model its total mass distribution to large radii, obtaining comparable results with those from published integral field unit observation. Finally, from new spectra of NGC 1023 we obtain stellar 2D kinematics and metallicity distributions that show good agreement with integral field spectroscopy results in the overlapping regions. In particular, we do not find a significant offset between our SKiMS and the ATLAS 3D stellar velocity dispersion at the same spatial locations.


The low dark matter content of the lenticular galaxy NGC 3998

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 460 (2016) 3029-3043

NF Boardman, A-M Weijmans, R van den Bosch, L Zhu, A Yildirim, G van de Ven, M Cappellari, T de Zeeuw, E Emsellem, D Krajnović, T Naab

We observed the lenticular galaxy NGC 3998 with the Mitchell Integral-Field Spectrograph and extracted line-of-sight velocity distributions out to three half-light radii. We constructed collisionless orbit models in order to constrain NGC 3998's dark and visible structure, using kinematics from both the Mitchell and SAURON instruments. We find NGC 3998 to be almost axisymmetric, seen nearly face-on with a flattened intrinsic shape - i.e. a face-on fast rotator. We find an I-band mass-to-light ratio of 4.7 -0.45 +0.32 in good agreement with previous spectral fitting results for this galaxy. Our best-fitting orbit model shows a both a bulge and a disc component, with a non-negligible counter-rotating component also evident. We find that relatively little dark matter is needed to model this galaxy, with an inferred dark mass fraction of just (7.1 -7.1 +8.1 ) per cent within one half-light radius.


Kinematic properties of double-barred galaxies: Simulations versus integral-field observations

Astrophysical Journal Institute of Physics 828 (2016)

M Du, VP Debattista, J Shen, M Cappellari

Using high-resolution N-body simulations, we recently reported that a dynamically cool inner disk embedded in a hotter outer disk can naturally generate a steady double-barred (S2B) structure. Here we study the kinematics of these S2B simulations, and compare them to integral-field observations from ATLAS3D and SAURON. We show that S2B galaxies exhibit several distinct kinematic features, namely: (1) significantly distorted isovelocity contours at the transition region between the two bars, (2) peaks in σLOS along the minor axis of inner bars, which we term "σ-humps," that are often accompanied by ring/spiral-like features of increased σLOS, (3)h3-V anti-correlations in the region of the inner bar for certain orientations, and (4) rings of positive h4 when viewed at low inclinations. The most impressive of these features are the σ-humps; these evolve with the inner bar, oscillating in strength just as the inner bar does as it rotates relative to the outer bar. We show that, in cylindrical coordinates, the inner bar has similar streaming motions and velocity dispersion properties as normal large-scale bars, except for σz, which exhibits peaks on the minor axis, i.e., humps. These σz humps are responsible for producing the σ-humps. For three well-resolved early-type S2Bs (NGC 2859, NGC 2950, and NGC 3941) and a potential S2B candidate (NGC 3384), the S2B model qualitatively matches the integral-field data well, including the "σ-hollows" previously identified. We also discuss the kinematic effect of a nuclear disk in S2Bs.


Radial constraints on the initial mass function from TiO features and Wing-Ford band in early-type galaxies

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 457 (2016) 1468-1489

F La Barbera, A Vazdekis, I Ferreras, A Pasquali, M Cappellari, I Martin-Navarro, F Schoenebeck, J Falcon-Barroso


The mass discrepancy acceleration relation in early-type galaxies: extended mass profiles and the phantom menace to MOND

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 461 (2016) 2367-2373

J Janz, M Cappellari, AJ Romanowsky, L Ciotti, A Alabi, DA Forbes

The dark matter (DM) haloes around spiral galaxies appear to conspire with their baryonic content: empirically, significant amounts of DM are inferred only below a universal characteristic acceleration scale. Moreover, the discrepancy between the baryonic and dynamical mass, which is usually interpreted as the presence of DM, follows a very tight mass discrepancy acceleration (MDA) relation. Its universality, and its tightness in spiral galaxies, poses a challenge for the DM interpretation and was used to argue in favour of MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). Here, we test whether or not this applies to early-type galaxies. We use the dynamical models of fast-rotator early-type galaxies by Cappellari et al. based on ATLAS 3D and SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) data, which was the first homogenous study of this kind, reaching ∼4Re, where DM begins to dominate the total mass budget. We find the early-type galaxies to follow an MDA relation similar to spiral galaxies, but systematically offset. Also, while the slopes of the mass density profiles inferred from galaxy dynamics show consistency with those expected from their stellar content assuming MOND, some profiles of individual galaxies show discrepancies.


Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black hole winds

Nature Nature Publishing Group 533 (2016) 504–508-

E Cheung, K Bundy, M Cappellari, S Peirani, W Rujopakarn, K Westfall, R Yan, M Bershady, JE Greene, TM Heckman, N Drory, DR Law, KL Masters, D Thomas, DA Wake, AM Weijmans, K Rubin, F Belfiore, B Vulcani, YM Chen, K Zhang, JD Gelfand, D Bizyaev, A Roman-Lopes, DP Schneider

Quiescent galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation dominate the population of galaxies with masses above 2 × 10(10) times that of the Sun; the number of quiescent galaxies has increased by a factor of about 25 over the past ten billion years (refs 1-4). Once star formation has been shut down, perhaps during the quasar phase of rapid accretion onto a supermassive black hole, an unknown mechanism must remove or heat the gas that is subsequently accreted from either stellar mass loss or mergers and that would otherwise cool to form stars. Energy output from a black hole accreting at a low rate has been proposed, but observational evidence for this in the form of expanding hot gas shells is indirect and limited to radio galaxies at the centres of clusters, which are too rare to explain the vast majority of the quiescent population. Here we report bisymmetric emission features co-aligned with strong ionized-gas velocity gradients from which we infer the presence of centrally driven winds in typical quiescent galaxies that host low-luminosity active nuclei. These galaxies are surprisingly common, accounting for as much as ten per cent of the quiescent population with masses around 2 × 10(10) times that of the Sun. In a prototypical example, we calculate that the energy input from the galaxy's low-level active supermassive black hole is capable of driving the observed wind, which contains sufficient mechanical energy to heat ambient, cooler gas (also detected) and thereby suppress star formation.


SDSS-IV MaNGA IFS Galaxy Survey --- Survey Design, Execution, and Initial Data Quality

Astronomical Journal Institute of Physics 152 (2016) 197-

M Cappellari, MT Graham

The MaNGA Survey (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) is one of three core programs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV. It is obtaining integral field spectroscopy (IFS) for 10K nearby galaxies at a spectral resolution of R ~ 2000 from 3622 − 10, 354Å. The design of the survey is driven by a set of science requirements on the precision of estimates of the following properties: star formation rate surface density, gas metallicity, stellar population age, metallicity, and abundance ratio, and their gradients; stellar and gas kinematics; and enclosed gravitational mass as a function of radius. We describe how these science requirements set the depth of the observations and dictate sample selection. The majority of targeted galaxies are selected to ensure uniform spatial coverage in units of effective radius (Re) while maximizing spatial resolution. About 2/3 of the sample is covered out to 1.5Re (Primary sample), and 1/3 of the sample is covered to 2.5Re (Secondary sample). We describe the survey execution with details that would be useful in the design of similar future surveys. We also present statistics on the achieved data quality, specifically, the point spread function, sampling uniformity, spectral resolution, sky subtraction, and flux calibration. For our Primary sample, the median r-band signal-to-noise ratio is ~ 73 per 1.4Å pixel for spectra stacked between 1–1.5 Re. Measurements of various galaxy properties from the first year data show that we are meeting or exceeding the defined requirements for the majority of our science goals.

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