Publications by Michele Cappellari


SDSS-IV MaNGA: Global stellar population and gradients for about 2000 early-type and spiral galaxies on the mass-size plane

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 476 (2018) 1765–1775-

H Li, S Mao, M Cappellari, J Ge, RJ Long, R Li, HJ Mo, C Li, Z Zheng, K Bundy, D Thomas, AR Lopes, N Drory

We perform full spectrum fitting stellar population analysis and Jeans Anisotropic modelling (JAM) of the stellar kinematics for about 2000 early-type galaxies (ETGs) and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR14 sample. Galaxies with different morphologies are found to be located on a remarkably tight mass plane which is close to the prediction of the virial theorem, extending previous results for ETGs. By examining an inclined projection (‘the mass-size’ plane), we find that spiral and early-type galaxies occupy different regions on the plane, and their stellar population properties (i.e. age, metallicity and stellar mass-to-light ratio) vary systematically along roughly the direction of velocity dispersion, which is a proxy for the bulge fraction. Galaxies with higher velocity dispersions have typically older ages, larger stellar mass-to-light ratios and are more metal rich, which indicates that galaxies increase their bulge fractions as their stellar populations age and become enriched chemically. The age and stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients for low-mass galaxies in our sample tend to be positive ( centre


A quartet of black holes and a missing duo: probing the low end of the M-BH-sigma relation with the adaptive optics assisted integral-field spectroscopy

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 477 (2018) 3030-3064

D Krajnovic, M Cappellari, RM McDermid, S Thater, K Nyland, PT de Zeeuw, J Falcon-Barroso, S Khochfar, H Kuntschner, M Sarzi, LM Young


Two channels of supermassive black hole growth as seen on the galaxies mass-size plane

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 473 (2018) 5237-5247

D Krajnovic, M Cappellari, RM McDermid


SDSS-IV MaNGA: Stellar angular momentum of about 2300 galaxies: unveiling the bimodality of massive galaxy properties

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 477 (2018) 4711–4737-

MT Graham, M Cappellari, H Li, S Mao, M Bershady, D Bizyaev, J Brinkmann, K Bundy, N Drory, K Pan, D Thomas, DA Wake, A-M Weijmans, KB Westfall, R Yan

We measure λRe, a proxy for galaxy specific stellar angular momentum within one effective radius, and the ellipticity, ∈, for about 2300 galaxies of all morphological types observed with integral field spectroscopy as part of the MaNGA survey, the largest such sample to date. We use the (λRe; ∈) diagram to separate early-type galaxies into fast and slow rotators. We also visually classify each galaxy according to its optical morphology and two-dimensional stellar velocity field. Comparing these classifications to quantitative λRe measurements reveals tight relationships between angular momentum and galaxy structure. In order to account for atmospheric seeing, we use realistic models of galaxy kinematics to derive a general approximate analytic correction for λRe . Thanks to the size of the sample and the large number of massive galaxies, we unambiguously detect a clear bimodality in the (λRe; ∈) diagram which may result from fundamental differences in galaxy assembly history. There is a sharp secondary density peak inside the region of the diagram with low λRe and ∈ < 0:4, previously suggested as the definition for slow rotators. Most of these galaxies are visually classified as non-regular rotators and have high velocity dispersion. The intrinsic bimodality must be stronger, as it tends to be smoothed by noise and inclination. The large sample of slow rotators allows us for the first time to unveil a secondary peak at ±90° in their distribution of the misalignments between the photometric and kinematic position angles. We confirm that genuine slow rotators start appearing above a stellar mass of 2 x 10^11 M⊙ where a significant number of high-mass fast rotators also exist.


WISDOM Project – III: Molecular gas measurement of the supermassive black hole mass in the barred lenticular galaxy NGC4429

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 473 (2017) 3818–3834-

TA Davis, M Bureau, K Onishi, FVD Voort, M Cappellari, S Iguchi, L Liu, EV North, M Sarzi, MD Smith

As part of the mm-Wave Interferometric Survey of Dark Object Masses project we present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby fast-rotating early-type galaxy NGC4429, that is barred and has a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge. This estimate is based on Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-2 observations of the 12CO(3-2) emission line with a linear resolution of ≈13 pc (0.18 arcsec × 0.14 arcsec). NGC4429 has a relaxed, flocculent nuclear disc of molecular gas that is truncated at small radii, likely due to the combined effects of gas stability and tidal shear. The warm/dense 12CO(3-2) emitting gas is confined to the inner parts of this disc, likely again because the gas becomes more stable at larger radii, preventing star formation. The gas disc has a low velocity dispersion of 2.2+0.68−0.65 km s−1. Despite the inner truncation of the gas disc, we are able to model the kinematics of the gas and estimate a mass of (1.5 ± 0.1+0.15−0.35) × 108 M⊙ for the SMBH in NGC4429 (where the quoted uncertainties reflect the random and systematic uncertainties, respectively), consistent with a previous upper limit set using ionized gas kinematics. We confirm that the V-band mass-to-light ratio changes by ≈30 per cent within the inner 400 pc of NGC4429, as suggested by other authors. This SMBH mass measurement based on molecular gas kinematics, the sixth presented in the literature, once again demonstrates the power of ALMA to constrain SMBH masses.


The KMOS Cluster Survey (KCS). II. The effect of environment on the structural properties of massive cluster galaxies at redshift 1.39 < z < 1.61

Astrophysical Journal American Astronomical Society 856 (2018) 8

JCC Chan, A Beifiori, RP Saglia, JT Mendel, J Stott, R Bender, A Galametz, DJ Wilman, M Cappellari, R Davies, R Houghton, L Prichard, I Lewis, R Sharples, M Wegner

We present results on the structural properties of massive passive galaxies in three clusters at 1.39 < z < 1.61 from the KMOS Cluster Survey. We measure light-weighted and mass-weighted sizes from optical and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope imaging and spatially resolved stellar mass maps. The rest-frame R-band sizes of these galaxies are a factor of ∼2-3 smaller than their local counterparts. The slopes of the relation between the stellar mass and the light-weighted size are consistent with recent studies in clusters and the field. Their mass-weighted sizes are smaller than the rest-frame R-band sizes, with an average mass-weighted to light-weighted size ratio that varies between ∼0.45 and 0.8 among the clusters. We find that the median light-weighted size of the passive galaxies in the two more evolved clusters is ∼24% larger than that for field galaxies, independent of the use of circularized effective radii or semimajor axes. These two clusters also show a smaller size ratio than the less evolved cluster, which we investigate using color gradients to probe the underlying gradients. The median color gradients are ∇z - H ∼ -0.4 mag dex -1 , twice the local value. Using stellar populations models, these gradients are best reproduced by a combination of age and metallicity gradients. Our results favor the minor merger scenario as the dominant process responsible for the observed galaxy properties and the environmental differences at this redshift. The environmental differences support that clusters experience accelerated structural evolution compared to the field, likely via an epoch of enhanced minor merger activity during cluster assembly.


The Fourteenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Spectroscopic Data from the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and from the Second Phase of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment

ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES 235 (2018) ARTN 42

B Abolfathi, DS Aguado, G Aguilar, CA Prieto, A Almeida, TT Ananna, F Anders, SF Anderson, BH Andrews, B Anguiano, A Aragon-Salamanca, M Argudo-Fernandez, E Armengaud, M Ata, E Aubourg, V Avila-Reese, C Badenes, S Bailey, C Balland, KA Barger, J Barrera-Ballesteros, C Bartosz, F Bastien, D Bates, F Baumgarten, J Bautista, R Beaton, TC Beers, F Belfiore, CF Bender, M Bernardi, MA Bershady, F Beutler, JC Bird, D Bizyaev, GA Blanc, MR Blanton, M Blomqvist, AS Bolton, M Boquien, J Borissova, J Bovy, CAB Diaz, WN Brandt, J Brinkmann, JR Brownstein, K Bundy, AJ Burgasser, E Burtin, NG Busca, CI Canas, M Cano-Diaz, M Cappellari, R Carrera, AR Casey, BC Sodi, Y Chen, B Cherinka, C Chiappini, PD Choi, D Chojnowski, C-H Chuang, H Chung, N Clerc, RE Cohen, JM Comerford, J Comparat, JC do Nascimento, L da Costa, M-C Cousinou, K Covey, JD Crane, I Cruz-Gonzalez, K Cunha, GDS Ilha, GJ Damke, J Darling, DJW Jr, K Dawson, MAC de Icaza Lizaola, A de la Macorra, S de la Torre, N de Lee, V de Sainte Agathe, AD Machado, F Dell'Agli, T Delubac, AM Diamond-Stanic, J Donor, JJ Downes, N Drory, HDMD Bourboux, CJ Duckworth, T Dwelly, J Dyer, G Ebelke, AD Eigenbrot, DJ Eisenstein, YP Elsworth, E Emsellem, M Eracleous, G Erfanianfar, S Escoffier, X Fan, EF Alvar, JG Fernandez-Trincado, RF Cirolini, D Feuillet, A Finoguenov, SW Fleming, A Font-Ribera, G Freischlad, P Frinchaboy, H Fu, YG Maqueo Chew, L Galbany, AEG Perez, R Garcia-Dias, DA Garcia-Hernandez, LA Garma Oehmichen, P Gaulme, J Gelfand, H Gil-Marin, BA Gillespie, D Goddard, JI Gonzalez Hernandez, V Gonzalez-Perez, K Grabowski, PJ Green, CJ Grier, A Gueguen, H Guo, J Guy, A Hagen, P Hall, P Harding, S Hasselquist, S Hawley, CR Hayes, F Hearty, S Hekker, J Hernandez, HH Toledo, DW Hogg, K Holley-Bockelmann, JA Holtzman, J Hou, B-C Hsieh, JAS Hunt, TA Hutchinson, HS Hwang, CE Jimenez Angel, JA Johnson, A Jones, H Jonsson, E Jullo, FS Khan, K Kinemuchi, D Kirkby, CC Kirkpatrick, F-S Kitaura, GR Knapp, J-P Kneib, JA Kollmeier, I Lacerna, RR Lane, D Lang, DR Law, J-M Le Goff, Y-B Lee, H Li, C Li, J Lian, Y Liang, M Lima, L Lin, D Long, S Lucatello, B Lundgren, JT Mackereth, CL MacLeod, S Mahadevan, MAG Maia, S Majewski, C Maraston, V Mariappan, R Marques-Chaves, T Masseron, KL Masters, RM McDermid, ID McGreer, M Melendez, S Meneses-Goytia, A Merloni, MR Merrifield, S Meszaros, A Meza, I Minchev, D Minniti, E-M Mueller, F Muller-Sanchez, D Muna, RR Munoz, AD Myers, P Nair, K Nandra, M Ness, JA Newman, RC Nichol, DL Nidever, C Nitschelm, P Noterdaeme, J O'Connell, RJ Oelkers, A Oravetz, D Oravetz, EA Ortiz, Y Osorio, Z Pace, N Padilla, N Palanque-Delabrouille, PA Palicio, H-A Pan, K Pan, T Parikh, I Paris, C Park, S Peirani, M Pellejero-Ibanez, S Penny, WJ Percival, I Perez-Fournon, P Petitjean, MM Pieri, M Pinsonneault, A Pisani, F Prada, A Prakash, AB de Andrade Queiroz, MJ Raddick, A Raichoor, SB Rembold, H Richstein, RA Riffel, H-W Rix, AC Robin, SR Torres, C Roman-Zuniga, AJ Ross, G Rossi, J Ruan, R Ruggeri, J Ruiz, M Salvato, AG Sanchez, SF Sanchez, JS Almeida, JR Sanchez-Gallego, FA Santana Rojas, BX Santiago, RP Schiavon, JS Schimoia, E Schlafly, D Schlegel, DP Schneider, WJ Schuster, A Schwope, H-J Seo, A Serenelli, S Shen, Y Shen, M Shetrone, M Shull, VS Aguirre, JD Simon, M Skrutskie, A Slosar, R Smethurst, V Smith, J Sobeck, G Somers, BJ Souter, D Souto, A Spindler, DV Stark, K Stassun, M Steinmetz, D Stello, T Storchi-Bergmann, A Streblyanska, GS Stringfellow, G Suarez, J Sun, L Szigeti, M Taghizadeh-Popp, MS Talbot, B Tang, C Tao, J Tayar, M Tembe, J Teske, AR Thakar, D Thomas, P Tissera, R Tojeiro, C Tremonti, NW Troup, M Urry, O Valenzuela, R Van den Bosch, J Vargas-Gonzalez, M Vargas-Magana, JA Vazquez, S Villanova, N Vogt, D Wake, Y Wang, BA Weaver, A-M Weijmans, DH Weinberg, KB Westfall, DG Whelan, E Wilcots, V Wild, RA Williams, J Wilson, WM Wood-Vasey, D Wylezalek, T Xiao, R Yan, M Yang, JE Ybarra, C Yeche, N Zakamska, O Zamora, P Zarrouk, G Zasowski, K Zhang, C Zhao, G-B Zhao, Z Zheng, Z Zheng, Z-M Zhou, G Zhu, JC Zinn, H Zou


SDSS-IV MaNGA: The intrinsic shape of slow rotator early-type galaxies

Astrophysical Journal Letters American Astronomical Society 863 (2018) L19

H Li, S Mao, M Cappellari, MT Graham, E Emsellem, RJ Long

By inverting the distributions of galaxies' apparent ellipticities and misalignment angles (measured around the projected half-light radius R e) between their photometric and kinematic axes, we study the intrinsic shape distribution of 189 slow rotator early-type galaxies with stellar masses 2 × 1011 M ⊙ < M * < 2 × 1012 M ⊙, extracted from a sample of about 2200 galaxies with integral-field stellar kinematics from the data release 14 (DR14) of the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) integral field unit (IFU) survey. Thanks to the large sample of slow rotators, Graham et al. showed that there is clear structure in the misalignment angle distribution, with two peaks at both 0° and 90° misalignment (characteristic of oblate and prolate rotation, respectively). Here we invert the observed distribution from Graham et al. The large sample allows us to go beyond the known fact that slow rotators are weakly triaxial and to place useful constraints on their intrinsic triaxiality distribution (around 1 R e) for the first time. The shape inversion is generally non-unique. However, we find that, for a wide set of model assumptions, the observed distribution clearly requires a dominant triaxial-oblate population. For some of our models, the data suggest a minor triaxial-prolate population, but a dominant prolate population is ruled out.


Stellar populations and star formation histories of the nuclear star clusters in six nearby galaxies

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 480 (2018) 1973–1998-

N Kacharov, N Neumayer, AC Seth, M Cappellari, R McDermid, CJ Walcher, T Böker

The majority of spiral and elliptical galaxies in the Universe host very dense and compact stellar systems at their centres known as nuclear star clusters (NSCs). In this work we study the stellar populations and star formation histories (SFH) of the NSCs of six nearby galaxies with stellar masses ranging between 2 and 8×109M⊙ (four late-type spirals and two early-types) with high resolution spectroscopy. Our observations are taken with the X-Shooter spectrograph at the VLT. We make use of an empirical simple stellar population (SSP) model grid to fit composite stellar populations to the data and recover the SFHs of the nuclei. We find that the nuclei of all late-type galaxies experienced a prolonged SFH, while the NSCs of the two early-types are consistent with SSPs. The NSCs in the late-type galaxies sample appear to have formed a significant fraction of their stellar mass already more than 10 Gyr ago, while the NSCs in the two early-type galaxies are surprisingly younger. Stars younger than 100 Myr are present in at least two nuclei: NGC 247 & NGC 7793, with some evidence for young star formation in NGC 300’s NSC. The NSCs of the spirals NGC 247 and NGC 300 are consistent with prolonged in situ star formation with a gradual metallicity enrichment from ∼−1.5 dex more than 10 Gyr ago, reaching super-Solar values few hundred Myr ago. NGC 3621 appears to be very metal rich already in the early Universe and NGC 7793 presents us with a very complex SFH, likely dominated by merging of various massive star clusters coming from different environments.


Recovering stellar population parameters via two full-spectrum fitting algorithms in the absence of model uncertainties

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 478 (2018) 2633–2649-

J Ge, R Yan, M Cappellari, S Mao, H Li, Y Lu

Using mock spectra based on Vazdekis/MILES library fitted within the wavelength region 3600-7350\AA, we analyze the bias and scatter on the resulting physical parameters induced by the choice of fitting algorithms and observational uncertainties, but avoid effects of those model uncertainties. We consider two full-spectrum fitting codes: pPXF and STARLIGHT, in fitting for stellar population age, metallicity, mass-to-light ratio, and dust extinction. With pPXF we find that both the bias in the population parameters and the scatter in the recovered logarithmic values follows the expected trend. The bias increases for younger ages and systematically makes recovered ages older, M∗/Lr larger and metallicities lower than the true values. For reference, at S/N=30, and for the worst case (t=108yr), the bias is 0.06 dex in M∗/Lr, 0.03 dex in both age and [M/H]. There is no significant dependence on either E(B-V) or the shape of the error spectrum. Moreover, the results are consistent for both our 1-SSP and 2-SSP tests. With the STARLIGHT algorithm, we find trends similar to pPXF, when the input E(B-V)<0.2 mag. However, with larger input E(B-V), the biases of the output parameter do not converge to zero even at the highest S/N and are strongly affected by the shape of the error spectra. This effect is particularly dramatic for youngest age, for which all population parameters can be strongly different from the input values, with significantly underestimated dust extinction and [M/H], and larger ages and M∗/Lr. Results degrade when moving from our 1-SSP to the 2-SSP tests. The STARLIGHT convergence to the true values can be improved by increasing Markov Chains and annealing loops to the "slow mode". For the same input spectrum, pPXF is about two order of magnitudes faster than STARLIGHT's "default mode" and about three order of magnitude faster than STARLIGHT's "slow mode".


The black hole in the most massive ultracompact dwarf galaxy M59-UCD3

Astrophysical Journal American Astronomical Society 858 (2018) 102

CP Ahn, AC Seth, M Cappellari, E al.

We examine the internal properties of the most massive ultracompact dwarf galaxy (UCD), M59-UCD3, by combining adaptive-optics-assisted near-IR integral field spectroscopy from Gemini/NIFS and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging. We use the multiband HST imaging to create a mass model that suggests and accounts for the presence of multiple stellar populations and structural components. We combine these mass models with kinematics measurements from Gemini/NIFS to find a best-fit stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) and black hole (BH) mass using Jeans anisotropic models (JAMs), axisymmetric Schwarzschild models, and triaxial Schwarzschild models. The best-fit parameters in the JAM and axisymmetric Schwarzschild models have BHs between 2.5 and 5.9 million solar masses. The triaxial Schwarzschild models point toward a similar BH mass but show a minimum χ 2 at a BH mass of ~0. Models with a BH in all three techniques provide better fits to the central V rms profiles, and thus we estimate the BH mass to be ${4.2}_{-1.7}^{+2.1}\times {10}^{6}$ M ⊙ (estimated 1σ uncertainties). We also present deep radio imaging of M59-UCD3 and two other UCDs in Virgo with dynamical BH mass measurements, and we compare these to X-ray measurements to check for consistency with the fundamental plane of BH accretion. We detect faint radio emission in M59cO but find only upper limits for M60-UCD1 and M59-UCD3 despite X-ray detections in both these sources. The BH mass and nuclear light profile of M59-UCD3 suggest that it is the tidally stripped remnant of a ~109–1010 M ⊙ galaxy.


Nearby Early-type Galactic Nuclei at High Resolution: Dynamical Black Hole and Nuclear Star Cluster Mass Measurements

ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 858 (2018) ARTN 118

DD Nguyen, AC Seth, N Neumayer, S Kamann, KT Voggel, M Cappellari, A Picotti, PM Nguyen, T Boker, V Debattista, N Caldwell, R McDermid, N Bastian, CC Ahn, R Pechetti


Integral-field kinematics and stellar populations of early-type galaxies out to three half-light radii

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 471 (2017) 4005-4026

NF Boardman, A-M Weijmans, R van den Bosch, H Kuntschner, E Emsellem, M Cappellari, T de Zeeuw, J Falcón-Barroso, D Krajnović, R McDermid, T Naab, G van de Ven, A Yildirim

We observed 12 nearby HI-detected early-type galaxies (ETGs) of stellar mass ∼10^10M⊙ ≤ M∗ ≤ ∼10^11 M⊙ with the Mitchell Integral-Field Spectrograph, reaching approximately three half-light radii in most cases. We extracted line-of-sight velocity distributions for the stellar and gaseous components. We find little evidence of transitions in the stellar kinematics of the galaxies in our sample beyond the central effective radius, with centrally fast-rotating galaxies remaining fast-rotating and centrally slow-rotating galaxies likewise remaining slow-rotating. This is consistent with these galaxies having not experienced late dry major mergers; however, several of our objects have ionized gas that is misaligned with respect to their stars, suggesting some kind of past interaction. We extract Lick index measurements of the commonly used Hβ, Fe5015, Mgb, Fe5270 and Fe5335 absorption features, and we find most galaxies to have flat Hβ gradients and negative Mgb gradients. We measure gradients of age, metallicity and abundance ratio for our galaxies using spectral fitting, and for the majority of our galaxies find negative age and metallicity gradients.We also find the stellar mass-to-light ratios to decrease with radius for most of the galaxies in our sample. Our results are consistent with a view in which intermediate-mass ETGs experience mostly quiet evolutionary histories, but in which many have experienced some kind of gaseous interaction in recent times.


WISDOM Project – II. Molecular gas measurement of the supermassive black hole mass in NGC 4697

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 468 (2017) 4675-4690

TA Davis, M Bureau, K Onishi, M Cappellari, S Iguchi, M Sarzi

As part of the mm-Wave Interferometric Survey of Dark Object Masses (WISDOM) project, we present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby fast-rotating early-type galaxy NGC 4697. This estimate is based on Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-3 observations of the 12CO(2–1) emission line with a linear resolution of 29 pc (0.53 arcsec). We find that NGC 4697 hosts a small relaxed central molecular gas disc with a mass of 1.6 × 107 M⊙, co-spatial with the obscuring dust disc visible in optical Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We also resolve thermal 1 mm continuum emission from the dust in this disc. NGC 4697 is found to have a very low molecular gas velocity dispersion, σgas = 1.65+0.68−0.65 km s^−1. This seems to be partially because the giant molecular cloud mass function is not fully sampled, but other mechanisms such as chemical differentiation in a hard radiation field or morphological quenching also seem to be required. We detect a Keplerian increase of the rotation of the molecular gas in the very centre of NGC 4697, and use forward modelling of the ALMA data cube in a Bayesian framework with the KINematic Molecular Simulation (KINMS) code to estimate an SMBH mass of (1.3+0.18−0.17) × 108 M⊙ and an i-band mass-to-light ratio of 2.14+0.04−0.05M⊙/L⊙ (at the 99 per cent confidence level). Our estimate of the SMBH mass is entirely consistent with previous measurements from stellar kinematics. This increases confidence in the growing number of SMBH mass estimates being obtained in the ALMA era.


Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV: Mapping the Milky Way, nearby galaxies, and the distant Universe

Astronomical Journal Institute of Physics 154 (2017) 28-

MA Bershady, B Abolfathi, M Cappellari, R Davies

We describe the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV), a project encompassing three major spectroscopic programs. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment 2 (APOGEE-2) is observing hundreds of thousands of Milky Way stars at high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratios in the near-infrared. The Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey is obtaining spatially resolved spectroscopy for thousands of nearby galaxies (median $z\sim 0.03$). The extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) is mapping the galaxy, quasar, and neutral gas distributions between $z\sim 0.6$ and 3.5 to constrain cosmology using baryon acoustic oscillations, redshift space distortions, and the shape of the power spectrum. Within eBOSS, we are conducting two major subprograms: the SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources (SPIDERS), investigating X-ray AGNs and galaxies in X-ray clusters, and the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS), obtaining spectra of variable sources. All programs use the 2.5 m Sloan Foundation Telescope at the Apache Point Observatory; observations there began in Summer 2014. APOGEE-2 also operates a second near-infrared spectrograph at the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, with observations beginning in early 2017. Observations at both facilities are scheduled to continue through 2020. In keeping with previous SDSS policy, SDSS-IV provides regularly scheduled public data releases; the first one, Data Release 13, was made available in 2016 July.


The 13th Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Spectroscopic Data from the SDSS-IV Survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES 233 (2017) ARTN 25

FD Albareti, C Allende Prieto, A Almeida, F Anders, S Anderson, BH Andrews, A Aragon-Salamanca, M Argudo-Fernandez, E Armengaud, E Aubourg, V Avila-Reese, C Badenes, S Bailey, B Barbuy, K Barger, J Barrera-Ballesteros, C Bartosz, S Basu, D Bates, G Battaglia, F Baumgarten, J Baur, J Bautista, TC Beers, F Belfiore, M Bershady, S Bertran de Lis, JC Bird, D Bizyaev, GA Blanc, M Blanton, M Blomqvist, AS Bolton, J Borissova, J Bovy, WN Brandt, J Brinkmann, JR Brownstein, K Bundy, E Burtin, NG Busca, HO Camacho Chavez, MC Diaz, M Cappellari, R Carrera, Y Chen, B Cherinka, E Cheung, C Chiappini, D Chojnowski, C-H Chuang, H Chung, RF Cirolini, N Clerc, RE Cohen, JM Comerford, J Comparat, JC do Nascimento, M-C Cousinou, K Covey, JD Crane, R Croft, K Cunha, J Darling, DJW Jr, K Dawson, L Da Costa, GDS Ilha, AD Machado, T Delubac, N De Lee, A De la Macorra, S De la Torre, AM Diamond-Stanic, J Donor, J Jose Downes, N Drory, C Du, HDMD Bourboux, T Dwelly, G Ebelke, A Eigenbrot, DJ Eisenstein, YP Elsworth, E Emsellem, M Eracleous, S Escoffier, ML Evans, J Falcon-Barroso, X Fan, G Favole, E Fernandez-Alvar, JG Fernandez-Trincado, D Feuillet, SW Fleming, A Font-Ribera, G Freischlad, P Frinchaboy, H Fu, Y Gao, RA Garcia, R Garcia-Dias, DA Garcia-Hernandez, AE Garcia Perez, P Gaulme, J Ge, D Geisler, B Gillespie, HG Marin, L Girardi, D Goddard, YG Maqueo Chew, V Gonzalez-Perez, K Grabowski, P Green, CJ Grier, T Grier, H Guo, J Guy, A Hagen, M Hall, P Harding, RE Harley, S Hasselquist, S Hawley, CR Hayes, F Hearty, S Hekker, H Hernandez Toledo, S Ho, DW Hogg, K Holley-Bockelmann, JA Holtzman, PH Holzer, J Hu, D Huber, TA Hutchinson, HS Hwang, HJ Ibarra-Medel, II Ivans, K Ivory, K Jaehnig, TW Jensen, JA Johnson, A Jones, E Jullo, T Kallinger, K Kinemuchi, D Kirkby, M Klaene, J-P Kneib, JA Kollmeier, I Lacerna, RR Lane, D Lang, P Laurent, DR Law, A Leauthaud, J-M Le Goff, C Li, C Li, N Li, R Li, F-H Liang, Y Liang, M Lima, L Lin, L Lin, Y-T Lin, C Liu, D Long, S Lucatello, N MacDonald, CL MacLeod, JT Mackereth, S Mahadevan, MA Geimba Maia, R Maiolino, SR Majewski, O Malanushenko, V Malanushenko, ND Mallmann, A Manchado, C Maraston, R Marques-Chaves, I Martinez Valpuesta, KL Masters, S Mathur, ID McGreer, A Merloni, MR Merrifield, S Meszaros, A Meza, A Miglio, I Minchev, K Molaverdikhani, AD Montero-Dorta, B Mosser, D Muna, A Myers, P Nair, K Nandra, M Ness, JA Newman, RC Nichol, DL Nidever, C Nitschelm, J O'Connell, A Oravetz, DJ Oravetz, Z Pace, N Padilla, N Palanque-Delabrouille, K Pan, J Parejko, I Paris, C Park, JA Peacock, S Peirani, M Pellejero-Ibanez, S Penny, WJ Percival, JW Percival, I Perez-Fournon, P Petitjean, M Pieri, MH Pinsonneault, A Pisani, F Prada, A Prakash, N Price-Jones, MJ Raddick, M Rahman, A Raichoor, SB Rembold, AM Reyna, J Rich, H Richstein, J Ridl, RA Riffel, R Riffel, H-W Rix, AC Robin, CM Rockosi, S Rodriguez-Torres, TS Rodrigues, N Roe, AR Lopes, C Roman-Zuniga, AJ Ross, G Rossi, J Ruan, R Ruggeri, JC Runnoe, S Salazar-Albornoz, M Salvato, SF Sanchez, AG Sanchez, JR Sanchez-Gallego, BX Santiago, R Schiavon, JS Schimoia, E Schlafly, DJ Schlegel, DP Schneider, R Schonrich, M Schultheis, A Schwope, H-J Seo, A Serenelli, B Sesar, Z Shao, M Shetrone, M Shull, VS Aguirre, MF Skrutskie, A Slosar, M Smith, VV Smith, J Sobeck, G Somers, D Souto, DV Stark, KG Stassun, M Steinmetz, D Stello, TS Bergmann, MA Strauss, A Streblyanska, GS Stringfellow, G Suarez, J Sun, M Taghizadeh-Popp, B Tang, C Tao, J Tayar, M Tembe, D Thomas, J Tinker, R Tojeiro, C Tremonti, N Troup, JR Trump, E Unda-Sanzana, O Valenzuela, R Van den Bosch, M Vargas-Magana, JA Vazquez, S Villanova, M Vivek, N Vogt, D Wake, R Walterbos, Y Wang, E Wang, BA Weaver, A-M Weijmans, DH Weinberg, KB Westfall, DG Whelan, E Wilcots, V Wild, RA Williams, J Wilson, WM Wood-Vasey, D Wylezalek, T Xiao, R Yan, M Yang, JE Ybarra, C Yeche, F-T Yuan, N Zakamska, O Zamora, G Zasowski, K Zhang, C Zhao, G-B Zhao, Z Zheng, Z Zheng, Z-M Zhou, G Zhu, JC Zinn, H Zou


The KMOS Cluster Survey (KCS). I. The fundamental plane and the formation ages of cluster galaxies at redshift 1.4 < Z < 1.6

Astrophysical Journal American Astronomical Society 846 (2017) 1-25

A Beifiori, JT Mendel, JCC Chan, RP Saglia, R Bender, M Cappellari, RL Davies, A Galametz, RCW Houghton, LJ Prichard, R Smith, JP Stott, DJ Wilman, IJ Lewis, R Sharples, M Wegner

The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We present the analysis of the fundamental plane (FP) for a sample of 19 massive red-sequence galaxies (M· > ×4 10 10 M·) in three known overdensities at 1.39 1.61 < < z from the K-band Multi-object Spectrograph (KMOS) Cluster Survey, a guaranteed-time program with spectroscopy from the KMOS at the VLT and imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope. As expected, we find that the FP zero-point in B band evolves with redshift, from the value 0.443 of Coma to -0.10±0.09, -0.19±0.05, and -0.29±0.12 for our clusters at z = 1.39, z = 1.46, and z = 1.61, respectively. For the most massive galaxies (log 1 M M· > 1) in our sample, we translate the FP zero-point evolution into a mass-to-light-ratio M/L evolution, finding D log 0.46 0.10 M L z B = - (D log )0.52 0.07 M L z B = -to(D log ) 0.55 0.10 M L z B = - respectively. We assess the potential contribution of the galaxy structural and stellar velocity dispersion evolution to the evolution of the FP zero-point and find it to be ∼6%-35% of the FP zero-point evolution. The rate of M/L evolution is consistent with galaxies evolving passively. Using single stellar population models, we find an average age of 2.33- +0.51 0.86 Gyr for the log 1 M M· > 1 galaxies in our massive and virialized cluster at z = 1.39,1.59- +0.62 1.40 Gyr in a massive but not virialized cluster at z = 1.46, and 1.20- +0.47 1.03 Gyr in a protocluster at z = 1.61. After accounting for the difference in the age of the universe between redshifts, the ages of the galaxies in the three overdensities are consistent within the errors, with possibly a weak suggestion that galaxies in the most evolved structure are older.


The Spectroscopy and H-band Imaging of Virgo Cluster Galaxies (SHIVir) survey: Scaling relations and the stellar-to-total mass relation

Astrophysical Journal Institute of Physics 843 (2017) 74-

NN-Q Ouellette, S Courteau, JA Holtzman, AA Dutton, M Cappellari, JJ Dalcanton, M McDonald, JC Roediger, JE Taylor, RB Tully, P Côté, L Ferrarese, EW Peng

We present here parameter distributions and fundamental scaling relations for 190 galaxies as part of the Spectroscopy and H-bang Imaging of Virgo cluster galaxies (SHIVir) survey. We find the distribution of galaxy velocities to be bimodal about $V_{\rm circ} \sim 125$ km ${\rm s^{-1}}$, hinting at the existence of dynamically unstable modes in the inner regions of galaxies. An analysis of the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) of late-type galaxies (LTGs) and fundamental plane (FP) of early-type galaxies (ETGs) is also presented, yielding a compendium of galaxy scaling relations. The slope and zero-point of the Virgo TFR match those of field galaxies, while scatter differences likely reflect distinct evolutionary histories. The velocities minimizing scatter for the TFR and FP are measured at large apertures where the baryonic fraction becomes subdominant. While TFR residuals remain independent of any galaxy parameters, FP residuals (i.e. the FP "tilt") correlate strongly with the dynamical-to-stellar mass ratio, yielding stringent galaxy formation constraints. Furthermore, we construct a stellar-to-total mass relation (STMR) for ETGs and LTGs and find linear but distinct trends over the range $M_{*} = 10^{8-11} M_{\odot}$. Stellar-to-halo mass relations (SHMRs), which probe the extended dark matter halo, can be scaled down to masses estimated within the optical radius, showing a tight match with the Virgo STMR at low masses; however, possibly inadequate halo abundance matching prescriptions and broad radial scalings complicate this comparison at all masses. While ETGs appear to be more compact than LTGs of the same stellar mass in projected space, their mass-size relations in physical space are identical. The trends reported here call for validation through well-resolved numerical simulations.


Detection of Enhanced Central Mass-to-light Ratios in Low-mass Early-type Galaxies: Evidence for Black Holes?

ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 850 (2017) ARTN 15

R Pechetti, A Seth, M Cappellari, R McDermid, M den Brok, S Mieske, J Strader


The KMOS Cluster Survey (KCS). III. Fundamental Plane of Cluster Galaxies at z ≃ 1.80 in JKCS 041

Astrophysical Journal 850 (2017)

LJ Prichard, RL Davies, A Beifiori, JCC Chan, M Cappellari, RCW Houghton, JT Mendel, R Bender, A Galametz, RP Saglia, JP Stott, DJ Wilman, IJ Lewis, R Sharples, M Wegner

© 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We present data for 16 galaxies in the overdensity JKCS 041 at z ≃ 1.80 as part of the K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph (KMOS) Cluster Survey (KCS). With 20 hr integrations, we have obtained deep absorption-line spectra from which we derived velocity dispersions for seven quiescent galaxies. We combined photometric parameters derived from Hubble Space Telescope images with the dispersions to construct a fundamental plane (FP) for quiescent galaxies in JKCS 041. From the zero-point evolution of the FP, we derived a formation redshift for the galaxies of z form = 3.0 ± 0.3, corresponding to a mean age of 1.4 ± 0.2 Gyr. We tested the effect of structural and velocity dispersion evolution on our FP zero-point and found a negligible contribution when using dynamical mass-normalized parameters (∼3%) but a significant contribution from stellar-mass-normalized parameters (∼42%). From the relative velocities of the galaxies, we probed the 3D structure of these 16 confirmed members of JKCS 041 and found that a group of galaxies in the southwest of the overdensity had systematically higher velocities. We derived ages for the galaxies in the different groups from the FP. We found that the eastextending group had typically older galaxies (2.1 +0.3 0.2 Gyr) than those in the southwest group (0.3 ± 0.2 Gyr). Although based on small numbers, the overdensity dynamics, morphology, and age results could indicate that JKCS 041 is in formation and may comprise two merging groups of galaxies. This result could link large-scale structure to ages of galaxies for the first time at this redshift.

Pages