# Publications by Gavin Salam

## The Lund Jet Plane

Journal of High Energy Physics Springer Verlag (Germany) (0)

Lund diagrams, a theoretical representation of the phase space within jets, have long been used in discussing parton showers and resummations. We point out that they can be created for individual jets through repeated Cambridge/Aachen declustering, providing a powerful visual representation of the radiation within any given jet. Concentrating here on the primary Lund plane, we outline some of its analytical properties, highlight its scope for constraining Monte Carlo simulations and comment on its relation with existing observables such as the $z_g$ variable and the iterated soft-drop multiplicity. We then examine its use for boosted electroweak boson tagging at high momenta. It provides good performance when used as an input to machine learning. Much of this performance can be reproduced also within a transparent log-likelihood method, whose underlying assumption is that different regions of the primary Lund plane are largely decorrelated. This suggests a potential for unique insight and experimental validation of the features being used by machine-learning approaches.

## Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions

ArXiv (0)

This Report summarises the results of the second year's activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) focuses on predictions (central values and errors) for total Higgs production cross sections and Higgs branching ratios in the Standard Model and its minimal supersymmetric extension, covering also related issues such as Monte Carlo generators, parton distribution functions, and pseudo-observables. This second Report represents the next natural step towards realistic predictions upon providing results on cross sections with benchmark cuts, differential distributions, details of specific decay channels, and further recent developments.

## Angular ordering and small-x evolution

ArXiv (0)

This talks examines the effect of angular ordering on the small-x evolution of the unintegrated gluon distribution, and discusses the characteristic function for the CCFM equation, as well as some preliminary results on final-state properties.

## Physics at a 100 TeV pp collider: Standard Model processes

ArXiv (0)

This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

## Les Houches 'Physics at Tev Colliders 2003' QCD/SM Working Group: Summary Report

ArXiv (0)

This report documents the results obtained by the Working Group on Quantum Chromodynamics and the Standard Model for the Workshop `Physics at TeV Colliders'', Les Houches, France, 26 May - 6 June 2003. After a Monte Guide description, the first contributions report on progress in describing multiple interactions, important for the LHC, and underlying events. An announcement of a Monte Carlo database, under construction, is then followed by a number of contributions improving parton shower descriptions. Subsequently, a large number of contributions address resummations in various forms, after which follow studies of QCD effects in pion pair, top quark pair and photon pair plus jet production. After a study of electroweak corrections to hadronic precision observables, the report ends by presenting recent progress in methods to compute finite order corrections at one-loop with many legs, and at two-loop.

## The QCD/SM Working Group: Summary Report

ArXiv (0)

This Report documents the results obtained by the Working Group on Quantum ChromoDynamics and the Standard Model for the Workshop ``Physics at TeV Colliders'', Les Houches, France, 21 May - 1 June 2001. The account of uncertainties in Parton Distribution Functions is reviewed. Progresses in the description of multiparton final states at Next-to-Leading Order and the extension of calculations for precision QCD observables beyond this order are summarized. Various issues concerning the relevance of resummation for observables at TeV colliders is examined. Improvements to algorithms of jet reconstruction are discussed and predictions for diphoton and photon pi-zero production at the LHC are made for kinematic variables of interest regarding searches for a Higgs boson decaying into two photons. Finally, several improvements implemented in Monte-Carlo event generators are documented.

## The QCD dipole picture of small-x physics

ArXiv (0)

The QCD dipole picture of BFKL dynamics provides an attractive theoretical approach to the study of the QCD (resummed) perturbative expansion of small-x physics and more generally to hard high-energy processes. We discuss applications to the phenomenology of proton structure functions in the HERA range and to the longstanding problem of unitarity corrections, and outline some specific predictions of the dipole picture.

## Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 4. Deciphering the Nature of the Higgs Sector

ArXiv (0)

This Report summarizes the results of the activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group in the period 2014-2016. The main goal of the working group was to present the state-of-the-art of Higgs physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The first part compiles the most up-to-date predictions of Higgs boson production cross sections and decay branching ratios, parton distribution functions, and off-shell Higgs boson production and interference effects. The second part discusses the recent progress in Higgs effective field theory predictions, followed by the third part on pseudo-observables, simplified template cross section and fiducial cross section measurements, which give the baseline framework for Higgs boson property measurements. The fourth part deals with the beyond the Standard Model predictions of various benchmark scenarios of Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, extended scalar sector, Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and exotic Higgs boson decays. This report follows three previous working-group reports: Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002), Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions (CERN-2012-002), and Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 3. Higgs properties (CERN-2013-004). The current report serves as the baseline reference for Higgs physics in LHC Run 2 and beyond.

## Summary of the XXVIIth Rencontres de Blois: Particle Physics and Cosmology

ArXiv (0)

This writeup summarises some of the highlights from the 2015 Rencontres de Blois, with a compression ratio of about 100:1 relative to the original presentations.

## QCD calculations for jet substructure

ArXiv (0)

We present results on novel analytic calculations to describe invariant mass distributions of QCD jets with three substructure algorithms: trimming, pruning and the mass-drop taggers. These results not only lead to considerable insight into the behaviour of these tools, but also show how they can be improved. As an example, we discuss the remarkable properties of the modified mass-drop tagger.

## Elements of QCD for hadron colliders

ArXiv (0)

The aim of these lectures is to provide (experimental particle physics Ph.D.) students with an introduction to some of the core concepts and methods of QCD that are relevant in an LHC context.

## Moriond 2009, QCD and High Energy Interactions: Theory Summary

ArXiv (0)

These proceedings provide a brief summary of the theoretical topics that were covered at Moriond QCD 2009, including non-perturbative QCD, perturbative QCD at colliders, a small component of physics beyond the standard model and heavy-ion collisions.

## Standard Model Handles and Candles Working Group: Tools and Jets Summary Report

ArXiv (0)

This report summarizes the activity on comparisons of existings tools for the standard model and on issues in jet physics by the SMHC working group during and subsequent to the Workshop "Physics at TeV Colliders", Les Houches, France, 11-29 June, 2007.

## CAESAR: Computer Automated Resummations

ArXiv (0)

This talk gives a brief discussion of the motivations and principles behind computer automated expert semi-analytical resummation (CAESAR) for QCD final states.

## Heavy ions at the Future Circular Collider

ArXiv (0)

The Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study is aimed at assessing the physics potential and the technical feasibility of a new collider with centre-of-mass energies, in the hadron-hadron collision mode, seven times larger than the nominal LHC energies. Operating such machine with heavy ions is an option that is being considered in the accelerator design studies. It would provide, for example, Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at sqrt{s_NN} = 39 and 63 TeV, respectively, per nucleon-nucleon collision, with integrated luminosities above 30 nb^-1 per month for Pb-Pb. This is a report by the working group on heavy-ion physics of the FCC Study. First ideas on the physics opportunities with heavy ions at the FCC are presented, covering the physics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, of gluon saturation, of photon-induced collisions, as well as connections with other fields of high-energy physics.

## High-precision $α_s$ measurements from LHC to FCC-ee

ArXiv (0)

This document provides a writeup of all contributions to the workshop on "High precision measurements of $\alpha_s$: From LHC to FCC-ee" held at CERN, Oct. 12--13, 2015. The workshop explored in depth the latest developments on the determination of the QCD coupling $\alpha_s$ from 15 methods where high precision measurements are (or will be) available. Those include low-energy observables: (i) lattice QCD, (ii) pion decay factor, (iii) quarkonia and (iv) $\tau$ decays, (v) soft parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, as well as high-energy observables: (vi) global fits of parton distribution functions, (vii) hard parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, (viii) jets in $e^\pm$p DIS and $\gamma$-p photoproduction, (ix) photon structure function in $\gamma$-$\gamma$, (x) event shapes and (xi) jet cross sections in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (xii) W boson and (xiii) Z boson decays, and (xiv) jets and (xv) top-quark cross sections in proton-(anti)proton collisions. The current status of the theoretical and experimental uncertainties associated to each extraction method, the improvements expected from LHC data in the coming years, and future perspectives achievable in $e^+e^-$ collisions at the Future Circular Collider (FCC-ee) with $\cal{O}$(1--100 ab$^{-1}$) integrated luminosities yielding 10$^{12}$ Z bosons and jets, and 10$^{8}$ W bosons and $\tau$ leptons, are thoroughly reviewed. The current uncertainty of the (preliminary) 2015 strong coupling world-average value, $\alpha_s(m_Z)$ = 0.1177 $\pm$ 0.0013, is about 1\%. Some participants believed this may be reduced by a factor of three in the near future by including novel high-precision observables, although this opinion was not universally shared. At the FCC-ee facility, a factor of ten reduction in the $\alpha_s$ uncertainty should be possible, mostly thanks to the huge Z and W data samples available.

## Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 3. Higgs Properties

ArXiv (0)

This Report summarizes the results of the activities in 2012 and the first half of 2013 of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. This report follows the first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) and the second working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions (CERN-2012-002). After the discovery of a Higgs boson at the LHC in mid-2012 this report focuses on refined prediction of Standard Model (SM) Higgs phenomenology around the experimentally observed value of 125-126 GeV, refined predictions for heavy SM-like Higgs bosons as well as predictions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and first steps to go beyond these models. The other main focus is on the extraction of the characteristics and properties of the newly discovered particle such as couplings to SM particles, spin and CP-quantum numbers etc.

## New Physics at the LHC. A Les Houches Report: Physics at TeV Colliders 2009 - New Physics Working Group

ArXiv (0)

We present a collection of signatures for physics beyond the standard model that need to be explored at the LHC. First, are presented various tools developed to measure new particle masses in scenarios where all decays include an unobservable particle. Second, various aspects of supersymmetric models are discussed. Third, some signatures of models of strong electroweak symmetry are discussed. In the fourth part, a special attention is devoted to high mass resonances, as the ones appearing in models with warped extra dimensions. Finally, prospects for models with a hidden sector/valley are presented. Our report, which includes brief experimental and theoretical reviews as well as original results, summarizes the activities of the "New Physics" working group for the "Physics at TeV Colliders" workshop (Les Houches, France, 8-26 June, 2009).

## Workshop on Precision Measurements of alphas

ArXiv (0)

These are the proceedings of the "Workshop on Precision Measurements of alphas" held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of alphas(mZ) in the MS-bar scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, tau-decays, electroweak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

## Parton Distributions: Summary Report

ArXiv (0)

We provide an assessment of the impact of parton distributions on the determination of LHC processes, and of the accuracy with which parton distributions (PDFs) can be extracted from data, in particular from current and forthcoming HERA experiments. We give an overview of reference LHC processes and their associated PDF uncertainties, and study in detail W and Z production at the LHC. We discuss the precision which may be obtained from the analysis of existing HERA data, tests of consistency of HERA data from different experiments, and the combination of these data. We determine further improvements on PDFs which may be obtained from future HERA data (including measurements of $F_L$), and from combining present and future HERA data with present and future hadron collider data. We review the current status of knowledge of higher (NNLO) QCD corrections to perturbative evolution and deep-inelastic scattering, and provide reference results for their impact on parton evolution, and we briefly examine non-perturbative models for parton distributions. We discuss the state-of-the art in global parton fits, we assess the impact on them of various kinds of data and of theoretical corrections, by providing benchmarks of Alekhin and MRST parton distributions and a CTEQ analysis of parton fit stability, and we briefly presents proposals for alternative approaches to parton fitting. We summarize the status of large and small x resummation, by providing estimates of the impact of large x resummation on parton fits, and a comparison of different approaches to small x resummation, for which we also discuss numerical techniques.