Publications by Andrew Turberfield


Designs of autonomous unidirectional walking DNA devices

LECT NOTES COMPUT SC 3384 (2005) 410-425

P Yin, AJ Turberfield, JH Reif

Imagine a host of nanoscale DNA robots move,autonomously over a microscale DNA nanostructure, each following a programmable route and serving as a nanoparticle and/or an information carrier. The-accomplishment of this goal has many applications in nanorobotics, nano-fabrication, nano-electronics, nano-diagnostics/therapeutics, and nano-computing. Recent success in constructing large scale DNA nanostructures in a programmable way provides the structural basis to meet the above challenge. The missing link is a DNA walker that can autonomously move along a route programmably embedded in the underlying nanostructure - existing synthetic DNA mechanical devices only exhibit localized non-extensible motions such as bi-directional rotation, open/close, and contraction/extension, mediated by external environmental changes. We describe in this paper two designs of autonomous DNA walking devices in which a walker moves along a linear track unidirectionally. The track of each device consists of a periodic linear array of anchorage sites. A walker sequentially steps over the anchorages in an autonomous unidirectional way. Each walking device makes use of alternating actions of restriction enzymes and ligase to achieve unidirectional translational motion.


Holographic fabrication of photonic crystals

P SOC PHOTO-OPT INS 5720 (2005) 1-8

DN Sharp, ER Dedman, J Scrimgeour, OM Roche, CF Blanford, JC Saunders, RG Denning, AJ Turberfield

Holographic lithography is well-adapted to the production of three-dimensional photonic crystals for applications in the technologically important optical regime. We illustrate the flexibility of this approach by considering the design and fabrication of photonic crystals with symmetries that favour the formation of a complete photonic band gap. One of them, a structure with diamond symmetry, is calculated to have a complete gap at a refractive index contrast equal to the lowest yet reported.


Registration of single quantum dots for solid state cavity quantum electrodynamics

(2005) 113-114

KH Lee, AM Green, FSF Brossard, RA Taylor, AJ Turberfield, DA Williams, GAD Briggs


Engineering a 2D protein-DNA crystal

Angewandte Chemie - International Edition 44 (2005) 3057-3061

AJ Turberfield, C. Venien-Bryan, D. J. Sherratt, J. Malo


Design of an autonomous DNA nanomechanical device capable of universal computation and universal translational motion

LECT NOTES COMPUT SC 3384 (2005) 426-444

P Yin, AJ Turberfield, S Sahu, JH Reif

Intelligent nanomechanical devices that operate in an autonomous fashion are of great theoretical and practical interest. Recent successes in building large scale DNA nano-structures, in constructing DNA mechanical devices, and in DNA computing provide a solid foundation for the next step forward: designing autonomous DNA mechanical devices capable of arbitrarily complex behavior. One prototype system towards this goal can be an autonomous DNA mechanical device capable of universal computation, by mimicking the operation of a universal Turing machine. Building on our prior theoretical design and prototype experimental construction of an autonomous unidirectional DNA walking device moving along a linear track, we present here the design of a nanomechanical DNA device that autonomously mimics the operation of a 2-state 5-color universal Turing machine. Our autonomous nanomechanical device, called an Autonomous DNA Turing Machine (ADTM), is thus capable of universal computation and hence complex translational motion, which we define as universal translational motion.


A free-running DNA motor powered by a nicking enzyme.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 44 (2005) 4358-4361

J Bath, SJ Green, AJ Turberfield


DNA scaffolds and electron crystallography: a method for protein structure determination

BIOPHYS J 86 (2004) 80A-80A

J Malo, JC Mitchell, C Venien-Bryan, JR Harris, LN Johnson, DJ Sherratt, AJ Turberfield


The single-step synthesis of a DNA tetrahedron.

Chem Commun (Camb) (2004) 1372-1373

RP Goodman, RM Berry, AJ Turberfield

A tetrahedral nanostructure whose edges are DNA double helices self-assembles spontaneously when four appropriately designed oligonucleotides are annealed together in solution; the ease of synthesis, rigidity, and adaptability of this construct make it a promising candidate as a cage for other large molecules and as a building block for more complicated nanostructures.


Self-assembly of chiral DNA nanotubes.

J Am Chem Soc 126 (2004) 16342-16343

JC Mitchell, JR Harris, J Malo, J Bath, AJ Turberfield

A system of DNA "tiles" that is designed to assemble to form two-dimensional arrays is observed to form narrow ribbons several micrometers in length. The uniform width of the ribbons and lack of frayed edges lead us to propose that they are arrays that have curled and closed on themselves to form tubes. This proposal is confirmed by the observation of tubes with helical order.


Self assembled DNA monolayers as a mechanism for redox probe control

BIOPHYS J 86 (2004) 596A-596A

RP Goodman, JJ Davis, AJ Turberfield


A unidirectional DNA walker that moves autonomously along a track.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 43 (2004) 4906-4911

P Yin, H Yan, XG Daniell, AJ Turberfield, JH Reif


DNA fuel for free-running nanomachines

Physical Review Letters 90 (2003) article 118102 4pp-

AJ Turberfield, J. C. Mitchell, B. Yurke, A. P. Mills


Sol-gel organic-inorganic composites for 3-D holographic lithography of photonic crystals with submicron periodicity

Chemistry of Materials 15 (2003) 2301-2304

K Saravanamuttu, CF Blanford, DN Sharp, ER Dedman, AJ Turberfield, RG Denning

We demonstrate that silica-acrylate materials doped with transition metal (Zr, Ti) oxide nanoparticles are suitable for the three-dimensional holographic lithography of photonic crystals with submicron periodicity and large inorganic contents. By careful choice of inorganic components, such composites could provide a route to the template-free, direct lithography of three-dimensionally ordered structures with high refractive-index contrast, submicron periodicity, and band gaps in the visible and infrared regions.


Holographic photonic crystals with diamond symmetry

Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 68 (2003)

DN Sharp, AJ Turberfield, RG Denning

We explore the analytical design of high-symmetry photonic crystals made by holographic lithography. We show how holographic lithography may be used to produce diamond-like photonic crystals that have a full, three-dimensional photonic band gap at a refractive index contrast equal to the lowest yet published. © 2003 The American Physical Society.


DNA as an engineering material

PHYSICS WORLD 16 (2003) 43-46

A Turberfield


Photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography

OPTICAL AND QUANTUM ELECTRONICS 34 (2002) 3-12

DN Sharp, M Campbell, ER Dedman, MT Harrison, RG Denning, AJ Turberfield


Diamond-like photonic crystals by holographic lithography

Technical Digest - Summaries of Papers Presented at the Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, QELS 2001 (2001) 13-

AJ Turberfield

© 2001 Optical Soc. Of America. Summary form only given. Holographic lithography is a general and flexible technique for the fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals. Three-dimensional microstructure is generated when a four-beam laser interference pattern is used to expose a thick layer of photoresist. Highly exposed regions in the resulting three-dimensional intensity grating are rendered insoluble; unexposed areas are then dissolved away to produce a three-dimensional photonic crystal formed of cross-linked polymer with air-filled voids. The polymeric structure may be used as a template for the production of photonic crystals with higher refractive index contrast. This technique is particularly well adapted to the production of structures with the sub-micron periodicity required for applications in the visible optical spectrum.


Holographic definition of photonic crystal structures.

ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY 221 (2001) U245-U245

RG Denning, CF Blanford, DN Sharp, AJ Turberfield


Photonic crystals made by holographic lithography

MRS BULLETIN 26 (2001) 632-636

AJ Turberfield


Photonic crystals made by holographic lithography

MRS Bulletin 26 (2001) 632-636

AJ Turberfield

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