# Publications

## Review of Particle Physics

Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics Oxford University Press (OUP) **2020** (2020)

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,324 new measurements from 878 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as supersymmetric particles, heavy bosons, axions, dark photons, etc. Particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Higgs Boson Physics, Supersymmetry, Grand Unified Theories, Neutrino Mixing, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Cosmology, Particle Detectors, Colliders, Probability and Statistics. Among the 120 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised, including a new review on High Energy Soft QCD and Diffraction and one on the Determination of CKM Angles from B Hadrons.</jats:p> <jats:p>The Review is divided into two volumes. Volume 1 includes the Summary Tables and 98 review articles. Volume 2 consists of the Particle Listings and contains also 22 reviews that address specific aspects of the data presented in the Listings.</jats:p> <jats:p>The complete Review (both volumes) is published online on the website of the Particle Data Group (pdg.lbl.gov) and in a journal. Volume 1 is available in print as the PDG Book. A Particle Physics Booklet with the Summary Tables and essential tables, figures, and equations from selected review articles is available in print and as a web version optimized for use on phones as well as an Android app.</jats:p>

## Index formulae for line bundle cohomology on complex surfaces

Fortschritte der Physik / Progress of Physics Wiley **68** (2020) 1900086

We conjecture and prove closed-form index expressions for the cohomology dimensions of line bundles on del Pezzo and Hirzebruch surfaces. Further, for all compact toric surfaces we provide a simple algorithm which allows expression of any line bundle cohomology in terms of an index. These formulae follow from general theorems we prove for a wider class of surfaces. In particular, we construct a map that takes any effective line bundle to a nef line bundle while preserving the zeroth cohomology dimension. For complex surfaces, these results explain the appearance of piecewise polynomial equations for cohomology and they are a first step towards understanding similar formulae recently obtained for Calabi-Yau three-folds.

## In-situ calibration of the single-photoelectron charge response of the IceCube photomultiplier tubes

Journal of Instrumentation IOP Publishing (2020)

We describe an improved in-situ calibration of the single-photoelectron charge distributions for each of the in-ice Hamamatsu Photonics R7081-02[MOD] photomultiplier tubes in the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The characterization of the individual PMT charge distributions is important for PMT calibration, data and Monte Carlo simulation agreement, and understanding the effect of hardware differences within the detector. We discuss the single photoelectron identification procedure and how we extract the single-photoelectron charge distribution using a deconvolution of the multiple-photoelectron charge distribution.

## ANTARES and IceCube Combined Search for Neutrino Point-like and Extended Sources in the Southern Sky

The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics American Astronomical Society (2020)

A search for point-like and extended sources of cosmic neutrinos using data collected by the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes is presented. The data set consists of all the track-like and shower-like events pointing in the direction of the Southern Sky included in the nine-year ANTARES point-source analysis, combined with the through-going track-like events used in the seven-year IceCube point-source search. The advantageous field of view of ANTARES and the large size of IceCube are exploited to improve the sensitivity in the Southern Sky by a factor $\sim$2 compared to both individual analyses. In this work, the Southern Sky is scanned for possible excesses of spatial clustering, and the positions of preselected candidate sources are investigated. In addition, special focus is given to the region around the Galactic Centre, whereby a dedicated search at the location of SgrA* is performed, and to the location of the supernova remnant RXJ 1713.7-3946. No significant evidence for cosmic neutrino sources is found and upper limits on the flux from the various searches are presented.

## Transport of high-energy charged particles through spatially-intermittent turbulent magnetic fields

Astrophysical Journal American Astronomical Society **892** (2020) 114

Identifying the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays requires understanding how they are deflected by the stochastic, spatially intermittent intergalactic magnetic field. Here we report measurements of energetic charged-particle propagation through a laser-produced magnetized plasma with these properties. We characterize the diffusive transport of the particles experimentally. The results show that the transport is diffusive and that, for the regime of interest for the highest-energy cosmic rays, the diffusion coefficient is unaffected by the spatial intermittency of the magnetic field.

## Towards a Swampland Global Symmetry Conjecture using Weak Gravity

arXiv (2020)

It is widely believed and in part established that exact global symmetries are inconsistent with quantum gravity. One then expects that approximate global symmetries can be quantitatively constrained by quantum gravity or swampland arguments. We provide such a bound for an important class of global symmetries: Those arising from a gauged $U(1)$ with the vector made massive via a Nambu-Goldstone mode. The latter is an axion which necessarily couples to instantons, and their action can be constrained, using both the electric and magnetic version of the axionic weak gravity conjecture, in terms of the cutoff of the theory. As a result, instanton-induced symmetry breaking operators with a suppression factor not smaller than $\exp(-M_{\rm P}^2/\Lambda^2)$ are present, where $\Lambda$ is a cutoff of the 4d effective theory. We provide a general argument and clarify the meaning of $\Lambda$. Simple 4d and 5d models are presented to illustrate this, and we recall that this is the standard way in which things work out in string compactifications with brane instantons. We discuss the relation of our constraint to bounds that can be derived from wormholes or gravitational instantons and to those motivated by black-hole effects at finite temperature. Finally, we discuss potential loopholes to our arguments.

## A Search for MeV to TeV Neutrinos from Fast Radio Bursts with IceCube

The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics American Astronomical Society (2020)

We present two searches for IceCube neutrino events coincident with 28 fast radio bursts (FRBs) and one repeating FRB. The first improves upon a previous IceCube analysis -- searching for spatial and temporal correlation of events with FRBs at energies greater than roughly 50 GeV -- by increasing the effective area by an order of magnitude. The second is a search for temporal correlation of MeV neutrino events with FRBs. No significant correlation is found in either search, therefore, we set upper limits on the time-integrated neutrino flux emitted by FRBs for a range of emission timescales less than one day. These are the first limits on FRB neutrino emission at the MeV scale, and the limits set at higher energies are an order-of-magnitude improvement over those set by any neutrino telescope.

## A CMB Millikan experiment with cosmic axiverse strings

JOURNAL OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS (2020) ARTN 138

## A Search for Neutrino Point-Source Populations in 7 Years of IceCube Data with Neutrino-count Statistics

The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics American Astronomical Society (2020)

The presence of a population of point sources in a dataset modifies the underlying neutrino-count statistics from the Poisson distribution. This deviation can be exactly quantified using the non-Poissonian template fitting technique, and in this work we present the first application this approach to the IceCube high-energy neutrino dataset. Using this method, we search in 7 years of IceCube data for point-source populations correlated with the disk of the Milky Way, the Fermi bubbles, the Schlegel, Finkbeiner, and Davis dust map, or with the isotropic extragalactic sky. No evidence for such a population is found in the data using this technique, and in the absence of a signal we establish constraints on population models with source count distribution functions that can be described by a power-law with a single break. The derived limits can be interpreted in the context of many possible source classes. In order to enhance the flexibility of the results, we publish the full posterior from our analysis, which can be used to establish limits on specific population models that would contribute to the observed IceCube neutrino flux.

## Analytic results for deep-inelastic scattering at NNLO QCD with the nested soft-collinear subtraction scheme

EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL C **80** (2020)

## Hawking radiation of extended objects

JOURNAL OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS (2020)

## Time-integrated Neutrino Source Searches with 10 years of IceCube Data

Physical Review Letters American Physical Society (2020)

This paper presents the results from point-like neutrino source searches using ten years of IceCube data collected between Apr.~6, 2008 and Jul.~10, 2018. We evaluate the significance of an astrophysical signal from a point-like source looking for an excess of clustered neutrino events with energies typically above $\sim1\,$TeV among the background of atmospheric muons and neutrinos. We perform a full-sky scan, a search within a selected source catalog, a catalog population study, and three stacked Galactic catalog searches. The most significant point in the Northern hemisphere from scanning the sky is coincident with the Seyfert II galaxy NGC 1068, which was included in the source catalog search. The excess at the coordinates of NGC 1068 is inconsistent with background expectations at the level of $2.9\,\sigma$ after accounting for statistical trials. The combination of this result along with excesses observed at the coordinates of three other sources, including TXS 0506+056, suggests that, collectively, correlations with sources in the Northern catalog are inconsistent with background at 3.3$\,\sigma$ significance. These results, all based on searches for a cumulative neutrino signal integrated over the ten years of available data, motivate further study of these and similar sources, including time-dependent analyses, multimessenger correlations, and the possibility of stronger evidence with coming upgrades to the detector.

## Heterotic instantons for monad and extension bundles

Journal of High Energy Physics Springer **2020** (2020) 81

We consider non-perturbative superpotentials from world-sheet instantons wrapped on holomorphic genus zero curves in heterotic string theory. These superpotential contributions feature prominently in moduli stabilization and large field axion inflation, which makes their presence or absence, as well as their functional dependence on moduli, an important issue. We develop geometric methods to compute the instanton sWe consider non-perturbative superpotentials from world-sheet instantons wrapped on holomorphic genus zero curves in heterotic string theory. These superpotential contributions feature prominently in moduli stabilization and large field axion inflation, which makes their presence or absence, as well as their functional dependence on moduli, an important issue. We develop geometric methods to compute the instanton superpotentials for heterotic string theory with monad and extension bundles. Using our methods, we find a variety of examples with a non-vanishing superpotential. In view of standard vanishing theorems, we speculate that these results are likely to be attributed to the non-compactness of the instanton moduli space. We test this proposal, for the case of monad bundles, by considering gauged linear sigma models where compactness of the instanton moduli space can be explicitly checked. In all such cases, we find that the geometric results are consistent with the vanishing theorems. Surprisingly, linearly dependent Pfaffians even arise for cases with a non-compact instanton moduli space. This suggests some gauged linear sigma models with a non-compact instanton moduli space may still have a vanishing instanton superpotential.uperpotentials for heterotic string theory with monad and extension bundles. Using our methods, we find a variety of examples with a non-vanishing superpotential. In view of standard vanishing theorems, we speculate that these results are likely to be attributed to the non-compactness of the instanton moduli space. We test this proposal, for the case of monad bundles, by considering gauged linear sigma models where compactness of the instanton moduli space can be explicitly checked. In all such cases, we find that the geometric results are consistent with the vanishing theorems. Surprisingly, linearly dependent Pfaffians even arise for cases with a non-compact instanton moduli space. This suggests some gauged linear sigma models with a non-compact instanton moduli space may still have a vanishing instanton superpotential.

## Algorithms and tools for iterated Eisenstein integrals

Journal of High Energy Physics Springer Verlag **2020** (2020) 105

We present algorithms to work with iterated Eisenstein integrals that have recently appeared in the computation of multi-loop Feynman integrals. These algorithms allow one to analytically continue these integrals to all regions of the parameter space, and to obtain fast converging series representations in each region. We illustrate our approach on the examples of hypergeometric functions that evaluate to iterated Eisenstein integrals as well as the well-known sunrise graph.

## Design and Performance of the first IceAct Demonstrator at the South Pole

Journal of Instrumentation IOP Publishing (2020)

In this paper we describe the first results of a compact imaging air-Cherenkov telescope, IceAct, operating in coincidence with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory (IceCube) at the geographic South Pole. An array of IceAct telescopes (referred to as the IceAct project) is under consideration as part of the IceCube-Gen2 extension to IceCube. Surface detectors in general will be a powerful tool in IceCube-Gen2 for distinguishing astrophysical neutrinos from the dominant backgrounds of cosmic-ray induced atmospheric muons and neutrinos: the IceTop array is already in place as part of IceCube, but has a high energy threshold. Although the duty cycle will be lower for the IceAct telescopes than the present IceTop tanks, the IceAct telescopes may prove to be more effective at lowering the detection threshold for air showers. Additionally, small imaging air-Cherenkov telescopes in combination with IceTop, the deep IceCube detector or other future detector systems might improve measurements of the composition of the cosmic ray energy spectrum. In this paper we present measurements of a first 7-pixel imaging air Cherenkov telescope demonstrator, proving the capability of this technology to measure air showers at the South Pole in coincidence with IceTop and the deep IceCube detector.

## Novel tools and observables for jet physics in heavy-ion collisions

JOURNAL OF PHYSICS G-NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS **47** (2020) ARTN 065102

## Computational Techniques for the Analysis of Small Signals in High-Statistics Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment Elsevier (2020)

The current and upcoming generation of Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescopes - collecting unprecedented quantities of neutrino events - can be used to explore subtle effects in oscillation physics, such as (but not restricted to) the neutrino mass ordering. The sensitivity of an experiment to these effects can be estimated from Monte Carlo simulations. With the very high number of events that will be collected, there is a trade-off between the computational expense of running such simulations and the inherent statistical uncertainty in the determined values. In such a scenario, it becomes impractical to produce and use adequately-sized sets of simulated events to use with traditional methods, such as Monte Carlo weighting. In this work we present a staged approach to the generation of binned event distributions in order to overcome these challenges. By combining multiple integration and smoothing techniques which address limited statistics from simulation it arrives at reliable analysis results using modest computational resources.

## Search for PeV Gamma-Ray Emission from the Southern Hemisphere with 5 Years of Data from the IceCube Observatory

The measurement of diffuse PeV gamma-ray emission from the Galactic plane would provide information about the energy spectrum and propagation of Galactic cosmic rays, and the detection of a point-like source of PeV gamma rays would be strong evidence for a Galactic source capable of accelerating cosmic rays up to at least a few PeV. This paper presents several un-binned maximum likelihood searches for PeV gamma rays in the Southern Hemisphere using 5 years of data from the IceTop air shower surface detector and the in-ice array of the IceCube Observatory. The combination of both detectors takes advantage of the low muon content and deep shower maximum of gamma-ray air showers, and provides excellent sensitivity to gamma rays between $\sim$0.6 PeV and 100 PeV. Our measurements of point-like and diffuse Galactic emission of PeV gamma rays are consistent with background, so we constrain the angle-integrated diffuse gamma-ray flux from the Galactic Plane at 2 PeV to $2.61 \times 10^{-19}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ TeV$^{-1}$ at 90% confidence, assuming an E$^{-3}$ spectrum, and we estimate 90% upper limits on point-like emission at 2 PeV between 10$^{-21}$ - 10$^{-20}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ TeV$^{-1}$ for an E$^{-2}$ spectrum, depending on declination. Furthermore, we exclude unbroken power-law emission up to 2 PeV for several TeV gamma-ray sources observed by H.E.S.S., and calculate upper limits on the energy cutoffs of these sources at 90% confidence. We also find no PeV gamma rays correlated with neutrinos from IceCube's high-energy starting event sample. These are currently the strongest constraints on PeV gamma-ray emission.

## Relic abundance of dark photon dark matter

PHYSICS LETTERS B **801** (2020) ARTN 135136

## IceCube Search for Neutrinos Coincident with Compact Binary Mergers from LIGO-Virgo's First Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog

Using the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, we search for high-energy neutrino emission coincident with compact binary mergers observed by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave (GW) detectors during their first and second observing runs. We present results from two searches targeting emission coincident with the sky localization of each gravitational wave event within a 1000 second time window centered around the reported merger time. One search uses a model-independent unbinned maximum likelihood analysis, which uses neutrino data from IceCube to search for point-like neutrino sources consistent with the sky localization of GW events. The other uses the Low-Latency Algorithm for Multi-messenger Astrophysics, which incorporates astrophysical priors through a Bayesian framework and includes LIGO-Virgo detector characteristics to determine the association between the GW source and the neutrinos. No significant neutrino coincidence is seen by either search during the first two observing runs of the LIGO-Virgo detectors. We set upper limits on the time-integrated neutrino emission within the 1000 second window for each of the 11 GW events. These limits range from 0.02-0.7 $\mathrm{GeV~cm^{-2}}$. We also set limits on the total isotropic equivalent energy, $E_{\mathrm{iso}}$, emitted in high-energy neutrinos by each GW event. These limits range from 1.7 $\times$ 10$^{51}$ - 1.8 $\times$ 10$^{55}$ erg. We conclude with an outlook for LIGO-Virgo observing run O3, during which both analyses are running in real time.