The evolution of gas-phase metallicity and resolved abundances in star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 0.6 – 1.8

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press (2020)

S Gillman, A Tiley, A Swinbank, U Dudzevičiūtė, R Sharples, I Smail, C Harrison, AJ Bunker, M Bureau, M Cirasuolo, GE Magdis, T Mendel, JP Stott

We present an analysis of the chemical abundance properties of ≈650 star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 0.6 – 1.8. Using integral-field observations from the K - band Multi-Object Spectrograph (KMOS), we quantify the [N II]/Hα emission-line ratio, a proxy for the gas-phase Oxygen abundance within the interstellar medium. We define the stellar mass – metallicity relation at z ≈ 0.6 – 1.0 and z ≈ 1.2 – 1.8 and analyse the correlation between the scatter in the relation and fundamental galaxy properties (e.g. Hα star-formation rate, Hα specific star-formation rate, rotation dominance, stellar continuum half-light radius and Hubble-type morphology). We find that for a given stellar mass, more highly star-forming, larger and irregular galaxies have lower gas-phase metallicities, which may be attributable to their lower surface mass densities and the higher gas fractions of irregular systems. We measure the radial dependence of gas-phase metallicity in the galaxies, establishing a median, beam smearing-corrected, metallicity gradient of ΔZ/ΔR= 0.002 ± 0.004 dex kpc−1, indicating on average there is no significant dependence on radius. The metallicity gradient of a galaxy is independent of its rest-frame optical morphology, whilst correlating with its stellar mass and specific star-formation rate, in agreement with an inside-out model of galaxy evolution, as well as its rotation dominance. We quantify the evolution of metallicity gradients, comparing the distribution of ΔZ/ΔR in our sample with numerical simulations and observations at z ≈ 0 – 3. Galaxies in our sample exhibit flatter metallicity gradients than local star-forming galaxies, in agreement with numerical models in which stellar feedback plays a crucial role redistributing metals.

MOSAIC: the high multiplex and multi-IFU spectrograph for the ELT

Proceedings of SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers 11447 (2020)

G Dalton, R Sánchez-Janssen, F Hammer, S Morris, J-G Cuby, L Kaper, M Steinmetz, J Afonso, B Barbuy, M Rodrigues, I Lewis, E Bergin, C Evans

MOSAIC is the planned multi-object spectrograph for the 39m Extremely Large Telescope (ELT). Conceived as a multi-purpose instrument, it offers both high multiplex and multi-IFU capabilities at a range of intermediate to high spectral resolving powers in the visible and the near-infrared. MOSAIC will enable unique spectroscopic surveys of the faintest sources, from the oldest stars in the Galaxy and beyond to the first populations of galaxies that completed the reionisation of the Universe–while simultaneously opening up a wide discovery space. In this contribution we present the status of the instrument ahead of Phase B, showcasing the key science cases as well as introducing the updated set of top level requirements and the adopted architecture. The high readiness level will allow MOSAIC to soon enter the construction phase, with the goal to provide the ELT community with a world-class MOS capability as soon as possible after the telescope first light.

New prime focus rotator system for the WHT

Proceedings of SPIE Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers 11445 (2020) 114454S

G Dalton

Integration and early testing of WEAVE: the next-generation spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope

Proceedings of SPIE Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers 11447 (2020) 1144714

G Dalton, S Trager, DC Abrams, I Lewis, S Jin, A Molaeinezhad, E Schallig, S Hughes, M Brock, D Terrett

We present an update on the overall integration progress of the WEAVE next-generation spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), now scheduled for first light in early-2021, with almost all components now arrived at the observatory. We also present a summary of the current planning behind the 5-year initial phase of survey operations, and some detailed end-to-end science simulations that have been implemented to evaluate the final on-sky performance after data processing. WEAVE will provide optical ground-based follow up of ground-based (LOFAR) and space-based (Gaia) surveys. WEAVE is a multi-object and multi-IFU facility utilizing a new 2-degree prime focus field of view at the WHT, with a buffered pick-and-place positioner system hosting 1000 multi-object (MOS) fibres, 20 mini integral field units, or a single large IFU for each observation. The fibres are fed to a single (dual-beam) spectrograph, with total of 16k spectral pixels, located within the WHT GHRIL enclosure on the telescope Nasmyth platform, supporting observations at R~5000 over the full 370-1000nm wavelength range in a single exposure, or a high resolution mode with limited coverage in each arm at R~20000.

Fibre links for the WEAVE instrument: the making of

Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (2020) 114502F
Part of a series from Proceedings of SPIE

S Mignot, P Bonifacio, G Fasola, G Dalton, I Lewis

The WEAVE instrument nearing completion for the William Herschel Telescope is a fiber-fed spectrograph operating in three different modes. Two comprise deployable fibers at the prime focus for point-like objects and small integral field units (IFU), the third is a large IFU placed at the center of the field. Three distinct fiber systems support these modes and route the photons to the spectrograph located on the Nasmyth platform 33m away: the first features 960+940 fibers and is duplicated to allow configuring the fibers on one plate while observation is carried out on the other, the second has 20 hexagonal IFUs featuring 37 fibers each, the third is a large array of 609 fibers with twice the former’s diameter. The large number of fibers and the diversity of their instantiation have made procurement of the parts and assembly of the custom cables a challenge. They involve project partners in France, the UK and the Netherlands and industrial partners in France, Canada, the USA and China to combine know-how and compress the schedule by parallelizing assembly of the cables. Besides the complex management that this induces, it has called for revising the fibers’ handling to relax tolerances and for a rigorous assessment of the conformity of the products. This paper tells the story of the making of the fiber links, presents the overall organization of the procurement and assembly chains together with the inspection and testing allowing for assessing the conformance of the hardware delivered.

Final assembly, metrology, and testing of the WEAVE fibre positioner

Proceedings of SPIE Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers 11447 (2020)

S Hughes, E Schallig, I Lewis, G Dalton, D Terrett, DC Abrams, S Trager, M Brock, G Bishop, K Middleton, P Bonifacio, A Vallenari, E Carrasco, A Aguerri

WEAVE is the new wide-field spectroscopy facility for the prime focus of the William Herschel Telescope at La Palma, Spain. Its fibre positioner is essential for the accurate placement of the spectrograph’s 960 fibre multiplex. We provide an overview of the final assembly and metrology of the fibre positioner, and results of lab commissioning of its robot gantries. A completely new z-gantry for each positioner robot was acquired, with measurements showing a marked improvement in positioning repeatability. We also present the first results of the configuration soft ng, and discuss the metrology procedures that must be repeated after the positioner’s arrival at the observatory.

Requirements for future CMB satellite missions: photometric and band-pass response calibration

Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics IOP Publishing (2020)

T Ghigna, T Matsumura, G Patanchon, H Ishino, M Hazumi

Current and future Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Radiation experiments are targeting the polarized $B$-mode signal. The small amplitude of this signal makes a successful measurement challenging for current technologies. Therefore, very accurate studies to mitigate and control possible systematic effects are vital to achieve a successful observation. An additional challenge is coming from the presence of polarized Galactic foreground signals that contaminate the CMB signal. When they are combined, the foreground signals dominate the polarized CMB signal at almost every relevant frequency. Future experiments, like the LiteBIRD space-borne mission, aim at measuring the CMB $B$-mode signal with high accuracy to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ at the $10^{-3}$ level. We present a method to study the photometric calibration requirement needed to minimize the leakage of polarized Galactic foreground signals into CMB polarization maps for a multi-frequency CMB experiment. We applied this method to the LiteBIRD case, and we found precision requirements for the photometric calibration in the range $\sim10^{-4}-2.5\times10^{-3}$ depending on the frequency band. Under the assumption that the detectors are uncorrelated, we found requirements per detector in the range $\sim0.18\times10^{-2}-2.0\times10^{-2}$. Finally, we relate the calibration requirements to the band-pass resolution to define constraints for a few representative band-pass responses: $\Delta\nu\sim0.2-2$ GHz.

Augmenting machine learning photometric redshifts with Gaussian mixture models

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 498 (2020) 5498-5510

PW Hatfield, IA Almosallam, MJ Jarvis, N Adams, RAA Bowler, Z Gomes, SJ Roberts, C Schreiber

Wide-area imaging surveys are one of the key ways of advancing our understanding of cosmology, galaxy formation physics, and the large-scale structure of the Universe in the coming years. These surveys typically require calculating redshifts for huge numbers (hundreds of millions to billions) of galaxies – almost all of which must be derived from photometry rather than spectroscopy. In this paper, we investigate how using statistical models to understand the populations that make up the colour–magnitude distribution of galaxies can be combined with machine learning photometric redshift codes to improve redshift estimates. In particular, we combine the use of Gaussian mixture models with the high-performing machine-learning photo-z algorithm GPz and show that modelling and accounting for the different colour–magnitude distributions of training and test data separately can give improved redshift estimates, reduce the bias on estimates by up to a half, and speed up the run-time of the algorithm. These methods are illustrated using data from deep optical and near-infrared data in two separate deep fields, where training and test data of different colour–magnitude distributions are constructed from the galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts, derived from several heterogeneous surveys.

Erratum: Tomographic measurement of the intergalactic gas pressure through galaxy-tSZ cross-correlations

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press (OUP) 499 (2020) 520-522

N Koukoufilippas, D Alonso, M Bilicki, JA Peacock

The relation between the diffuse X-ray luminosity and the radio power of the central AGN in galaxy groups


T Pasini, M Brueggen, F de Gasperin, L Birzan, E O'Sullivan, A Finoguenov, M Jarvis, M Gitti, F Brighenti, IH Whittam, JD Collier, I Heywood, G Gozaliasl

The origin of radio emission in broad absorption line quasars: Results from the LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey (Corrigendum)


LK Morabito, JH Matthews, PN Best, G Gurkan, MJ Jarvis, I Prandoni, KJ Duncan, MJ Hardcastle, M Kunert-Bajraszewska, AP Mechev, S Mooney, J Sabater, HJA Rottgering, TW Shimwell, DJB Smith, C Tasse, WL Williams

K-CLASH: Strangulation and ram pressure stripping in galaxy cluster members at 0.3 < z < 0.6

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 496 (2020) 3841-3861

SP Vaughan, AL Tiley, RL Davies, LJ Prichard, SM Croom, M Bureau, JP Stott, A Bunker, M Cappellari, B Ansarinejad, MJ Jarvis

Galaxy clusters have long been theorized to quench the star formation of their members. This study uses integral-field unit observations from the K-band MultiObject Spectrograph (KMOS) &#x2013; Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) survey (K-CLASH) to search for evidence of quenching in massive galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.3 < z < 0.6. We first construct mass-matched samples of exclusively star-forming cluster and field galaxies, then investigate the spatial extent of their H&#x2009;&#x3B1; emission and study their interstellar medium conditions using emission line ratios. The average ratio of H&#x2009;&#x3B1; half-light radius to optical half-light radius ($r_{\mathrm{e}, {\rm {H}\,\alpha }}/r_{\mathrm{e}, R_{\mathrm{c} } }$) for all galaxies is 1.14&#xA0;&#xB1;&#xA0;0.06, showing that star formation is taking place throughout stellar discs at these redshifts. However, on average, cluster galaxies have a smaller $r_{\mathrm{e}, {\rm {H}\alpha }}/r_{\mathrm{e}, R_{\mathrm{c} } }$ ratio than field galaxies: &#x2329;$r_{\mathrm{e}, {\rm {H}\alpha }}/r_{\mathrm{e}, R_{\mathrm{c} } }$&#x232A;&#xA0;= 0.96&#xA0;&#xB1;&#xA0;0.09 compared to 1.22&#xA0;&#xB1;&#xA0;0.08 (smaller at a 98&#x2009;per&#x2009;cent credibility level). These values are uncorrected for the wavelength difference between H&#x2009;&#x3B1; emission and Rc-band stellar light but implementing such a correction only reinforces our results. We also show that whilst the cluster and field samples follow indistinguishable mass&#x2013;metallicity (MZ) relations, the residuals around the MZ relation of cluster members correlate with cluster-centric distance; galaxies residing closer to the cluster centre tend to have enhanced metallicities (significant at the 2.6&#x3C3; level). Finally, in contrast to previous studies, we find no significant differences in electron number density between the cluster and field galaxies. We use simple chemical evolution models to conclude that the effects of disc strangulation and ram-pressure stripping can quantitatively explain our observations.

The C-Band All-Sky Survey (C-BASS): total intensity point source detection over the northern sky

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press (2020) staa1572

R Grumitt, A Taylor, L Jew, ME Jones, C Dickinson, A Barr, R Cepeda-Arroita, H Chiang, S Harper, H Heilgendorff, JL Jonas, JP Leahy, J Leech, TJ Pearson, MW Peel, ACS Readhead, J Sievers

We present a point source detection algorithm that employs the second order Spherical Mexican Hat Wavelet filter (SMHW2), and use it on C-BASS northern intensity data to produce a catalogue of point sources. The SMHW2 allows us to filter the entire sky at once, avoiding complications from edge effects arising when filtering small sky patches. The algorithm is validated against a set of Monte Carlo simulations, consisting of diffuse emission, instrumental noise, and various point source populations. The simulated source populations are successfully recovered. The SMHW2 detection algorithm is used to produce a $4.76\,\mathrm{GHz}$ northern sky source catalogue in total intensity, containing 1729 sources and covering declinations $\delta\geq-10^{\circ}$. The C-BASS catalogue is matched with the GB6 and PMN catalogues over their common declinations. From this we estimate the $90\%$ completeness level to be approximately $630\,\mathrm{mJy}$, with a corresponding reliability of $95\%$, when applying a Galactic mask covering $20\%$ of the sky. We find the C-BASS and GB6/PMN flux density scales to be consistent with one another to within $3\%$. The absolute positional offsets of C-BASS sources from matched GB6/PMN sources peak at approximately $3.5\,\mathrm{arcmin}$.

K-CLASH: spatially-resolving star-forming galaxies in field and cluster environments at z ≈ 0.2-0.6

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press (2020)

AL Tiley, JP Stott, R Davies, LJ Prichard, A Bunker, M Bureau, M Cappellari, M Jarvis, A Robotham, L Cortese, S Bellstedt, B Ansarinejad

We present the KMOS-CLASH (K-CLASH) survey, a K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph (KMOS) survey of the spatially-resolved gas properties and kinematics of 191 (predominantly blue) Hα-detected galaxies at 0.2 ≲ z ≲ 0.6 in field and cluster environments. K-CLASH targets galaxies in four Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) fields in the KMOS IZ-band, over 7′ radius (≈2–3 Mpc) fields-of-view. K-CLASH aims to study the transition of star-forming galaxies from turbulent, highly star-forming disc-like and peculiar systems at z ≈ 1–3, to the comparatively quiescent, ordered late-type galaxies at z ≈ 0, and to examine the role of clusters in the build-up of the red sequence since z ≈ 1. In this paper, we describe the K-CLASH survey, present the sample, and provide an overview of the K-CLASH galaxy properties. We demonstrate that our sample comprises star-forming galaxies typical of their stellar masses and epochs, residing both in field and cluster environments. We conclude K-CLASH provides an ideal sample to bridge the gap between existing large integral-field spectroscopy surveys at higher and lower redshifts. We find that star-forming K-CLASH cluster galaxies at intermediate redshifts have systematically lower stellar masses than their star-forming counterparts in the field, hinting at possible “downsizing” scenarios of galaxy growth in clusters at these epochs. We measure no difference between the star-formation rates of Hα-detected, star-forming galaxies in either environment after accounting for stellar mass, suggesting that cluster quenching occurs very rapidly during the epochs probed by K-CLASH, or that star-forming K-CLASH galaxies in clusters have only recently arrived there, with insufficient time elapsed for quenching to have occured.

Detecting the anisotropic astrophysical gravitational wave background in the presence of shot noise through cross-correlations

Physical Review D American Physical Society 102 (2020) 23002

D Alonso, G Cusin, P Ferreira, C Pitrou

The spatial and temporal discreteness of gravitational wave sources leads to shot noise that may, in some regimes, swamp any attempts at measuring the anisotropy of the gravitational wave background. Cross-correlating a gravitational wave background map with a sufficiently dense galaxy survey can alleviate this issue, and potentially recover some of the underlying properties of the gravitational wave background. We quantify the shot noise level and we explicitly show that cross-correlating the gravitational wave background and a galaxy catalog improves the chances of a first detection of the background anisotropy with a gravitational wave observatory operating in the frequency range (10 Hz, 100 Hz), given sufficient sensitivity.

Resolved observations at 31 GHz of spinning dust emissivity variations in rho Oph


C Arce-Tord, M Vidal, S Casassus, M Carcamo, C Dickinson, BS Hensley, R Genova-Santos, JR Bond, ME Jones, ACS Readhead, AC Taylor, JA Zensus

&#xA9; 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. The &#x3C1; Oph molecular cloud is one of the best examples of spinning dust emission, first detected by the cosmic background imager (CBI). Here, we present 4.5 arcmin observations with CBI 2 that confirm 31 GHz emission from &#x3C1; Oph W, the PDR exposed to B-Type star HD 147889, and highlight the absence of signal from S1, the brightest IR nebula in the complex. In order to quantify an association with dust-related emission mechanisms, we calculated correlations at different angular resolutions between the 31 GHz map and proxies for the column density of IR emitters, dust radiance, and optical depth templates. We found that the 31 GHz emission correlates best with the PAH column density tracers, while the correlation with the dust radiance improves when considering emission that is more extended (from the shorter baselines), suggesting that the angular resolution of the observations affects the correlation results. A proxy for the spinning dust emissivity reveals large variations within the complex, with a dynamic range of 25 at 3&#x3C3; and a variation by a factor of at least 23, at 3&#x3C3;, between the peak in &#x3C1; Oph W and the location of S1, which means that environmental factors are responsible for boosting spinning dust emissivities locally.

The 16th data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys: first release from the APOGEE-2 Southern Survey and full release of eBOSS spectra

Astrophysical Journal Supplement American Astronomical Society 249 (2020) 3

R Ahumada, C Allende Prieto, A Almeida, M Bureau, M Cappellari, R Davies, E-M Mueller, R Smethurst, SDSS-IVC SDSS-IV Collaboration

This paper documents the 16th data release (DR16) from the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys (SDSS), the fourth and penultimate from the fourth phase (SDSS-IV). This is the first release of data from the Southern Hemisphere survey of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment 2 (APOGEE-2); new data from APOGEE-2 North are also included. DR16 is also notable as the final data release for the main cosmological program of the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS), and all raw and reduced spectra from that project are released here. DR16 also includes all the data from the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey and new data from the SPectroscopic IDentification of ERosita Survey programs, both of which were co-observed on eBOSS plates. DR16 has no new data from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey (or the MaNGA Stellar Library "MaStar"). We also preview future SDSS-V operations (due to start in 2020), and summarize plans for the final SDSS-IV data release (DR17).

Noise angular power spectrum of gravitational wave background experiments

Physical Review D American Physical Society 101 (2020) 124048

D Alonso, CR Contaldi, G Cusin, P Ferreira, AI Renzini

We construct a model for the angular power spectrum of the instrumental noise in interferometer networks mapping gravitational wave backgrounds (GWBs) as a function of detector noise properties, network configuration, and scan strategy. We use the model to calculate the noise power spectrum for current and future ground-based experiments, as well as for planned space missions. We present our results in a language similar to that used in cosmic microwave background and intensity mapping experiments, and connect the formalism with the sensitivity curves that are common lore in GWB analyses.

Quasi-normal modes of hairy scalar tensor black holes: odd parity

Classical and Quantum Gravity IOP Publishing 37 (2020) 115007

OJ Tattersall

The odd parity gravitational quasi-normal mode spectrum of black holes with non-trivial scalar hair in Horndeski gravity is investigated. We study 'almost' Schwarzschild black holes such that any modifications to the spacetime geometry (including the scalar field profile) are treated as small quantities. A modified Regge–Wheeler style equation for the odd parity gravitational degree of freedom is presented to quadratic order in the scalar hair and spacetime modifications, and a parameterisation of the modified quasi-normal mode spectrum is calculated. In addition, statistical error estimates for the new hairy parameters of the black hole and scalar field are given.

X-ray variability analysis of a large series of XMM-Newton +NuSTAR observations of NGC 3227

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 494 (2020) 5056-5074

AP Lobban, TJ Turner, JN Reeves, V Braito, L Miller

© 2020 The Author(s). We present a series of X-ray variability results from a long XMM-Newton + NuSTAR campaign on the bright, variable AGN NGC 3227. We present an analysis of the light curves, showing that the source displays typically softer-when-brighter behaviour, although also undergoes significant spectral hardening during one observation which we interpret as due to an occultation event by a cloud of absorbing gas. We spectrally decompose the data and show that the bulk of the variability is continuum-driven and, through rms variability analysis, strongly enhanced in the soft band. We show that the source largely conforms to linear rms-flux behaviour and we compute X-ray power spectra, detecting moderate evidence for a bend in the power spectrum, consistent with existing scaling relations. Additionally, we compute X-ray Fourier time lags using both the XMM-Newton and - through maximum-likelihood methods - NuSTAR data, revealing a strong low-frequency hard lag and evidence for a soft lag at higher frequencies, which we discuss in terms of reverberation models.