Publications associated with Climate Processes

The global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.3-HAM2.3 – Part 2: Cloud evaluation, aerosol radiative forcing and climate sensitivity

Geoscientific Model Development Discussions Copernicus GmbH (2019) 1-52

D Neubauer, S Ferrachat, C Siegenthaler-Le Drian, P Stier, DG Partridge, I Tegen, I Bey, T Stanelle, H Kokkola, U Lohmann

<jats:p>&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Abstract.&lt;/strong&gt; The global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.3-HAM2.3 (E63H23) and the previous model versions ECHAM5.5-HAM2.0 (E55H20) and ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2 (E61H22) are evaluated using global observational datasets for clouds and precipitation. In E63H23 low cloud amount, liquid and ice water path and cloud radiative effects are more realistic than in previous model versions. E63H23 has a more physically based aerosol activation scheme, improvements in the cloud cover scheme, changes in detrainment of convective clouds, changes in the sticking efficiency for accretion of ice crystals by snow, consistent ice crystal shapes throughout the model, changes in mixed phase freezing and an inconsistency in ice crystal number concentration (ICNC) in cirrus clouds was removed. Biases that were identified in E63H23 (and in previous model versions) are a too low cloud amount in stratocumulus regions, deep convective clouds in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans form too close to the continents and there are indications that ICNCs are overestimated.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Since clouds are important for effective radiative forcing due to aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions (ERF&lt;sub&gt;ari+aci&lt;/sub&gt;) and equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS), also differences in ERF&lt;sub&gt;ari+aci&lt;/sub&gt; and ECS between the model versions were analyzed. ERF&lt;sub&gt;ari+aci&lt;/sub&gt; is weaker in E63H23 (&amp;amp;minus;1.0&amp;amp;thinsp;W&amp;amp;thinsp;m&lt;sup&gt;&amp;amp;minus;2&lt;/sup&gt;) than in E61H22 (&amp;amp;minus;1.2&amp;amp;thinsp;W&amp;amp;thinsp;m&lt;sup&gt;&amp;amp;minus;2&lt;/sup&gt;) (or E55H20; &amp;amp;minus;1.1&amp;amp;thinsp;W&amp;amp;thinsp;m&lt;sup&gt;&amp;amp;minus;2&lt;/sup&gt;). This is caused by the weaker shortwave ERF&lt;sub&gt;ari+aci&lt;/sub&gt; (new aerosol activation scheme and sea salt emission parameterization in E63H23, more realistic simulation of cloud water) overcompensating the weaker longwave ERF&lt;sub&gt;ari+aci&lt;/sub&gt; (removal of an inconsistency in ICNC in cirrus clouds in E61H22).&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;The decrease in ECS in E63H23 (2.5&amp;amp;thinsp;K) compared to E61H22 (2.8&amp;amp;thinsp;K) is due to changes in the entrainment rate for shallow convection (affecting the cloud amount feedback) and a stronger cloud phase feedback.&lt;/p&gt; </jats:p>

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