Publications by Colin Wilson


Future of Venus Research and Exploration

SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS 214 (2018) UNSP 89

LS Glaze, CF Wilson, LV Zasova, M Nakamura, S Limaye


The DREAMS Experiment Onboard the Schiaparelli Module of the ExoMars 2016 Mission: Design, Performances and Expected Results

SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS 214 (2018) UNSP 103

F Esposito, S Debei, C Bettanini, C Molfese, I Arruego Rodriguez, G Colombatti, A-M Harri, F Montmessin, C Wilson, A Aboudan, P Schipani, L Marty, FJ Alvarez, V Apestigue, G Bellucci, J-J Berthelier, JR Brucato, SB Calcutt, S Chiodini, F Cortecchia, F Cozzolino, F Cucciarre, N Deniskina, G Deprez, G Di Achille, F Ferri, F Forget, G Franzese, E Friso, M Genzer, R Hassen-Kodja, H Haukka, M Hieta, JJ Jimenez, J-L Josset, H Kahanpaa, O Karatekin, G Landis, L Lapauw, R Lorenz, J Martinez-Oter, V Mennella, D Moehlmann, D Moirin, R Molinaro, T Nikkanen, E Palomba, MR Patel, J-P Pommereau, CI Popa, S Rafkin, P Rannou, NO Renno, J Rivas, W Schmidt, E Segato, S Silvestro, A Spiga, D Toledo, R Trautner, F Valero, L Vazquez, F Vivat, O Witasse, M Yela, R Mugnuolo, E Marchetti, S Pirrotta


The Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) of Three Spectrometers for the ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter

SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS 214 (2018) UNSP 7

O Korablev, F Montmessin, A Trokhimovskiy, AA Fedorova, AV Shakun, AV Grigoriev, BE Moshkin, NI Ignatiev, F Forget, F Lefevre, K Anufreychik, I Dzuban, YS Ivanov, YK Kalinnikov, TO Kozlova, A Kungurov, V Makarov, F Martynovich, I Maslov, D Merzlyakov, PP Moiseev, Y Nikolskiy, A Patrakeev, D Patsaev, A Santos-Skripko, O Sazonov, N Semena, A Semenov, V Shashkin, A Sidorov, AV Stepanov, I Stupin, D Timonin, AY Titov, A Viktorov, A Zharkov, F Altieri, G Arnold, DA Belyaev, JL Bertaux, DS Betsis, N Duxbury, T Encrenaz, T Fouchet, J-C Gerard, D Grass, S Guerlet, P Hartogh, Y Kasaba, I Khatuntsev, VA Krasnopolsky, RO Kuzmin, E Lellouch, MA Lopez-Valverde, M Luginin, A Maattanen, E Marcq, J Martin Torres, AS Medvedev, E Millour, KS Olsen, MR Patel, C Quantin-Nataf, AV Rodin, VI Shematovich, I Thomas, N Thomas, L Vazquez, M Vincendon, V Wilquet, CF Wilson, LV Zasova, LM Zelenyi, MP Zorzano


The DREAMS experiment flown on the ExoMars 2016 mission for the study of Martian environment during the dust storm season

MEASUREMENT 122 (2018) 484-493

C Bettanini, F Esposito, S Debei, C Molfese, G Colombatti, A Aboudan, JR Brucato, F Cortecchia, G Di Achille, GP Guizzo, E Friso, F Ferri, L Marty, V Mennella, R Molinaro, P Schipani, S Silvestro, R Mugnuolo, S Pirrotta, E Marchetti, A-M Harri, F Montmessin, C Wilson, I Arruego Rodriguez, S Abbaki, V Apestigue, G Bellucci, J-J Berthelier, SB Calcutt, F Forget, M Genzer, P Gilbert, H Haukka, JJ Jimenez, S Jimenez, J-L Josset, O Karatekin, G Landis, R Lorenz, J Martinez, D Moehlmann, D Moirin, E Palomba, M Patel, J-P Pommereau, CI Popa, S Rafkin, P Rannou, NO Renno, W Schmidt, F Simoes, A Spiga, F Valero, L Vazquez, F Vivat, O Witasse, IDREAMS Team


Investigations of the Mars Upper Atmosphere with ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS 214 (2018) UNSP 29

MA Lopez-Valverde, J-C Gerard, F Gonzalez-Galindo, A-C Vandaele, I Thomas, O Korablev, N Ignatiev, A Fedorova, F Montmessin, A Maattanen, S Guilbon, F Lefevre, MR Patel, S Jimenez-Monferrer, M Garcia-Comas, A Cardesin, CF Wilson, RT Clancy, A Kleinboehl, DJ McCleese, DM Kass, NM Schneider, MS Chaffin, JJ Lopez-Moreno, J Rodriguez


Venus long-life surface package (VL2SP)

Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC 5 (2017) 3035-3043

C Fuglesang, CM Zetterling, CF Wilson

© Copyright 2017 by the International Astronautical Federation (IAF). All rights reserved. Measurements in the atmosphere and at the surface of Venus are required to understand fundamental processes of how terrestrial planets evolve and how they work today. While the European Venus community is unified in its support of the EnVision orbiter proposal as the next step in European Venus exploration, many scientific questions also require in situ Venus exploration. We suggest a long-duration lander at Venus, which would be capable of undertaking a seismometry mission, operating in the 460°C surface conditions of Venus. Radar maps have shown Venus to be covered with volcanic and tectonic features, and mounting evidence, including observations from Venus Express, suggests that some of these volcanoes are active today. Assessing Venus' current seismicity, and measuring its interior structure, is essential if we are to establish the geological history of our twin planet, for example to establish whether it ever had a habitable phase with liquid water oceans. Although some constraints on seismic activity can be obtained from orbit, using radar or ionospheric observation, the most productive way to study planetary interiors is through seismometry. Seismometry requires a mission duration of months or (preferably) years. Previous landers have used passive cooling, relying on thermal insulation and the lander's thermal inertia to provide a brief window of time in which to conduct science operations - but this allows mission durations of hours, not months. Proposals relying on silicon electronics require an electronics enclosure cooled to < 200 °C; the insulation, cooling and power system requirements escalate rapidly to require a > 1 ton, > €1bn class mission, such as those studied in the context of NASA flagship missions. However, there are alternatives to silicon electronics: in particular, there have been promising advances in silicon carbide (SiC) electronics capable of operating at temperatures of 500°C. Within the coming decade it will be possible to assemble at least simple circuits using SiC components, sufficient to run a seismometry lander. We are proposing a Venus Long-Lived Surface Package (VL2SP) consisting of power source (RTG), science payload (seismometer and meteorology sensors), and ambient temperature electronics including a telecommunications system weighing < 100 kg. We do not specify how this VL2SP gets to the surface of Venus, but we estimate that an orbiter providing data relay would be essential. This presentation is based on a response sumitted to ESA's Call for New Scientific Ideas in September 2016.


The thermal structure of the Venus atmosphere: Intercomparison of Venus Express and ground based observations of vertical temperature and density profiles

ICARUS 294 (2017) 124-155

SS Limaye, S Lebonnois, A Mahieux, M Paetzold, S Bougher, S Bruinsma, S Chamberlain, RT Clancy, J-C Gerard, G Gilli, D Grassi, R Haus, M Herrmann, T Imamura, E Kohler, P Krause, A Migliorini, F Montmessin, C Pere, M Persson, A Piccialli, M Rengel, A Rodin, B Sandor, M Sornig, H Svedhem, S Tellmann, P Tanga, AC Vandaele, T Widemann, CF Wilson, I Mueller-Wodarg, L Zasova


The DREAMS experiment flown on the ExoMars 2016 mission for the study of Martian environment during the dust storm season

2017 IEEE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON METROLOGY FOR AEROSPACE (METROAEROSPACE) (2017) 249-255

C Bettanini, F Esposito, S Debei, C Molfese, G Colombatti, A Aboudan, JR Brucato, F Cortecchia, G Di Achille, GP Guizzo, E Friso, F Ferri, L Marty, V Mennella, R Molinaro, P Schipani, S Silvestro, R Mugnuolo, S Pirrotta, E Marchetti, A-M Harri, F Montmessin, C Wilson, I Arruego Rodriguez, S Abbaki, V Apestigue, G Bellucci, J-J Berthelier, SB Calcutt, F Forget, M Genzer, P Gilbert, H Haukka, JJ Jimenez, S Jimenez, J-L Josset, O Karatekin, G Landis, R Lorenz, J Martinez, D Moehlmann, D Moirin, E Palomba, M Patel, J-P Pommereau, CI Popa, S Rafkin, P Rannou, NO Renno, W Schmidt, F Simoes, A Spiga, F Valero, L Vazquez, F Vivat, O Witasse, IEEE, IDREAMS Team


Sulfur dioxide in the Venus atmosphere: I. Vertical distribution and variability

ICARUS 295 (2017) 16-33

AC Vandaele, O Korablev, D Belyaev, S Chamberlain, D Evdokimova, T Encrenaz, L Esposito, KL Jessup, F Lefevre, S Limaye, A Mahieux, E Marcq, FP Mills, F Montmessin, CD Parkinson, S Robert, T Roman, B Sandor, A Stolzenbach, C Wilson, V Wilquet


Sulfur dioxide in the Venus Atmosphere: II. Spatial and temporal variability

ICARUS 295 (2017) 1-15

AC Vandaele, O Korablev, D Belyaev, S Chamberlain, D Evdokimova, T Encrenaz, L Esposito, KL Jessup, F Lefevre, S Limaye, A Mahieux, E Marcq, FP Mills, F Montmessin, CD Parkinson, S Robert, T Roman, B Sandor, A Stolzenbach, C Wilson, V Wilquet


The ExoMars DREAMS scientific data archive

SOFTWARE AND CYBERINFRASTRUCTURE FOR ASTRONOMY IV 9913 (2016)

P Schipani, L Marty, M Mannetta, F Esposito, C Molfese, A Aboudan, V Apestigue-Palacio, I Arruego-Rodriguez, C Bettanini, G Colombatti, S Debei, M Genzer, A-M Harri, E Marchetti, F Montmessin, R Mugnuolo, S Pirrotta, C Wilson


Weather on other planets: measurement and interpretation

Weather 71 (2016) 163-164

R Young, I Strangeways


Explosive volcanic activity on Venus: The roles of volatile contribution, degassing, and external environment

Planetary and Space Science 113-114 (2015) 33-48

MW Airey, TA Mather, DM Pyle, LS Glaze, RC Ghail, CF Wilson

© 2015 The Authors. Abstract We investigate the conditions that will promote explosive volcanic activity on Venus. Conduit processes were simulated using a steady-state, isothermal, homogeneous flow model in tandem with a degassing model. The response of exit pressure, exit velocity, and degree of volatile exsolution was explored over a range of volatile concentrations (H<inf>2</inf>O and CO<inf>2</inf>), magma temperatures, vent altitudes, and conduit geometries relevant to the Venusian environment. We find that the addition of CO<inf>2</inf> to an H<inf>2</inf>O-driven eruption increases the final pressure, velocity, and volume fraction gas. Increasing vent elevation leads to a greater degree of magma fragmentation, due to the decrease in the final pressure at the vent, resulting in a greater likelihood of explosive activity. Increasing the magmatic temperature generates higher final pressures, greater velocities, and lower final volume fraction gas values with a correspondingly lower chance of explosive volcanism. Cross-sectionally smaller, and/or deeper, conduits were more conducive to explosive activity. Model runs show that for an explosive eruption to occur at Scathach Fluctus, at Venus' mean planetary radius (MPR), 4.5% H<inf>2</inf>O or 3% H<inf>2</inf>O with 3% CO<inf>2</inf> (from a 25 m radius conduit) would be required to initiate fragmentation; at Ma'at Mons (~9 km above MPR) only ~2% H<inf>2</inf>O is required. A buoyant plume model was used to investigate plume behaviour. It was found that it was not possible to achieve a buoyant column from a 25 m radius conduit at Scathach Fluctus, but a buoyant column reaching up to ~20 km above the vent could be generated at Ma'at Mons with an H<inf>2</inf>O concentration of 4.7% (at 1300 K) or a mixed volatile concentration of 3% H<inf>2</inf>O with 3% CO<inf>2</inf> (at 1200 K). We also estimate the flux of volcanic gases to the lower atmosphere of Venus, should explosive volcanism occur. Model results suggest explosive activity at Scathach Fluctus would result in an H<inf>2</inf>O flux of ~10<sup>7</sup> kg s<sup>-1</sup>. Were Scathach Fluctus emplaced in a single event, our model suggests that it may have been emplaced in a period of ~15 days, supplying 1-2×10<sup>4</sup> Mt H<inf>2</inf>O to the atmosphere locally. An eruption of this scale might increase local atmospheric H<inf>2</inf>O abundance by several ppm over an area large enough to be detectable by near-infrared nightside sounding using the 1.18 μm spectral window such as that carried out by the Venus Express/VIRTIS spectrometer. Further interrogation of the VIRTIS dataset is recommended to search for ongoing volcanism on Venus.


The CO<inf>2</inf>continuum absorption in the 1.10- and 1.18-μm windows on Venus from Maxwell Montes transits by SPICAV IR onboard Venus express

Planetary and Space Science 113-114 (2015) 66-77

A Fedorova, B Bézard, JL Bertaux, O Korablev, C Wilson

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Abstract One of the difficulties in modeling Venus' nightside atmospheric windows is the need to apply CO2continuum opacity due to collision-induced CO2bands and/or extreme far wings of strong allowed CO2bands. Characterizing the CO2continuum absorption at near-IR wavelengths as well as searching for a possible vertical gradient of minor species near the surface require observations over different surface elevations. The largest change in altitude occurs during a passage above Maxwell Montes at high northern latitudes. In 2011, 2012 and 2013 the SPICAV instrument aboard the Venus Express satellite performed three sets of observations over Maxwell Montes with variation of surface altitude from -2 to 9 km in the 1.10, 1.18 and 1.28-μm windows. The retrieved CO2continuum absorption for the 1.10- and 1.18-μm windows varies from 0.29 to 0.66×10-9cm-1amagat-2and from 0.30 to 0.78×10-9cm-1amagat-2, respectively, depending on the assumed input parameters. The retrieval is sensitive to possible variations of the surface emissivity. Our values fall between the results of Bézard et al., (2009, 2011) based on VIRTIS-M observations and laboratory measurements by Snels et al. (2014). We can also conclude that the continuum absorption at 1.28 μm can be constrained below 2.0×10-9cm-1amagat-2. Based on the 1.18 μm window the constant H2O mixing ratio varying from 25.7+1.4-1.2ppm to 29.4+1.6-1.4ppm has been retrieved assuming the surface emissivity of 0.95 and 0.6, respectively. No firm conclusion from SPICAV data about the vertical gradient of water vapor content at 10-20 km altitude could be drawn because of low signal-to-noise ratio and uncertainties in the surface emissivity.


Coordinated Hubble Space Telescope and Venus Express Observations of Venus' upper cloud deck

ICARUS 258 (2015) 309-336

KL Jessup, E Marcq, F Mills, A Mahieux, S Limaye, C Wilson, M Allen, J-L Bertaux, W Markiewicz, T Roman, A-C Vandaele, V Wilquet, Y Yung


Explosive volcanic activity on Venus: The roles of volatile contribution, degassing, and external environment

PLANETARY AND SPACE SCIENCE 113 (2015) 33-48

MW Airey, TA Mather, DM Pyle, LS Glaze, RC Ghail, CF Wilson


A new, fast and flexible radiative transfer method for Venus general circulation models

PLANETARY AND SPACE SCIENCE 105 (2015) 80-93

JM Mendonca, PL Read, CF Wilson, C Lee


The CO2 continuum absorption in the 1.10-and 1.18-mu m windows on Venus from Maxwell Montes transits by SPICAV IR onboard Venus express

PLANETARY AND SPACE SCIENCE 113 (2015) 66-77

A Fedorova, B Bezard, J-L Bertaux, O Korablev, C Wilson


The CO2 continuum absorption in the 1.10- and 1.18-μm windows on Venus from Maxwell Montes transits by SPICAV IR onboard Venus express

Planetary and Space Science (2014)

A Fedorova, A Fedorova, B Bézard, JL Bertaux, O Korablev, O Korablev, C Wilson

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. One of the difficulties in modeling Venus' nightside atmospheric windows is the need to apply CO2 continuum opacity due to collision-induced CO2 bands and/or extreme far wings of strong allowed CO2 bands. Characterizing the CO2 continuum absorption at near-IR wavelengths as well as searching for a possible vertical gradient of minor species near the surface require observations over different surface elevations. The largest change in altitude occurs during a passage above Maxwell Montes at high northern latitudes. In 2011, 2012 and 2013 the SPICAV instrument aboard the Venus Express satellite performed three sets of observations over Maxwell Montes with variation of surface altitude from -2 to 9km in the 1.10, 1.18 and 1.28-μm windows. The retrieved CO2 continuum absorption for the 1.10- and 1.18-μm windows varies from 0.29 to 0.66×10-9 cm-1 amagat-2 and from 0.30 to 0.78×10-9 cm-1 amagat-2, respectively, depending on the assumed input parameters. The retrieval is sensitive to possible variations of the surface emissivity. Our values fall between the results of Bézard et al., (2009, 2011) based on VIRTIS-M observations and laboratory measurements by Snels et al. (2014). We can also conclude that the continuum absorption at 1.28μm can be constrained below 2.0×10-9 cm-1 amagat-2. Based on the 1.18μm window the constant H2O mixing ratio varying from 25.7+1.4 -1.2 ppm to 29.4+1.6 -1.4 ppm has been retrieved assuming the surface emissivity of 0.95 and 0.6, respectively. No firm conclusion from SPICAV data about the vertical gradient of water vapor content at 10-20km altitude could be drawn because of low signal-to-noise ratio and uncertainties in the surface emissivity.


Venus express: Lessons from 8 years of science operations

13th International Conference on Space Operations, SpaceOps 2014 (2014)

DR Merritt, RMT Hoofs, MP Ayúcar, CF Wilson

The Venus Express spacecraft was launched in November 2005. This first European mission to Venus arrived at the planet in April 2006, and within a month had completed on-orbit commissioning and was returning science data to Earth. After four mission extensions and eight years, the spacecraft continues to operate successfully. The end of the mission is anticipated to be in 2014, when the on-board fuel supplies are finally exhausted and the required orbit around Venus can no longer be maintained. This paper discusses the lessons learned by the Venus Express Science Operations Centre (VSOC) over the course of the eight year mission, and briefly discusses the plans for the end of the mission.

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