# Publications by Vlatko Vedral

## Experimental Self-Characterization of Quantum Measurements.

Physical review letters **124** (2020) 040402-

The accurate and reliable description of measurement devices is a central problem in both observing uniquely nonclassical behaviors and realizing quantum technologies from powerful computing to precision metrology. To date quantum tomography is the prevalent tool to characterize quantum detectors. However, such a characterization relies on accurately characterized probe states, rendering reliability of the characterization lost in circular argument. Here we report a self-characterization method of quantum measurements based on reconstructing the response range-the entirety of attainable measurement outcomes, eliminating the reliance on known states. We characterize two representative measurements implemented with photonic setups and obtain fidelities above 99.99% with the conventional tomographic reconstructions. This initiates range-based techniques in characterizing quantum systems and foreshadows novel device-independent protocols of quantum information applications.

## Witnesses of non-classicality for simulated hybrid quantum systems

Journal of Physics Communications IOP Publishing **4** (2020) 025013

The task of testing whether quantum theory applies to all physical systems and all scales requires considering situations where a quantum probe interacts with another system that need not obey quantum theory in full. Important examples include the cases where a quantum mass probes the gravitational field, for which a unique quantum theory of gravity does not yet exist, or a quantum field, such as light, interacts with a macroscopic system, such as a biological molecule, which may or may not obey unitary quantum theory. In this context a class of experiments has recently been proposed, where the non-classicality of a physical system that need not obey quantum theory (the gravitational field) can be tested indirectly by detecting whether or not the system is capable of entangling two quantum probes. Here we illustrate some of the subtleties of the argument, to do with the role of locality of interactions and of non-classicality, and perform proof-of-principle experiments illustrating the logic of the proposals, using a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance quantum computational platform with four qubits.

## Modular quantum computation in a trapped ion system.

Nature communications **10** (2019) ARTN 4692

Modern computation relies crucially on modular architectures, breaking a complex algorithm into self-contained subroutines. A client can then call upon a remote server to implement parts of the computation independently via an application programming interface (API). Present APIs relay only classical information. Here we implement a quantum API that enables a client to estimate the absolute value of the trace of a server-provided unitary operation [Formula: see text]. We demonstrate that the algorithm functions correctly irrespective of what unitary [Formula: see text] the server implements or how the server specifically realizes [Formula: see text]. Our experiment involves pioneering techniques to coherently swap qubits encoded within the motional states of a trapped [Formula: see text] ion, controlled on its hyperfine state. This constitutes the first demonstration of modular computation in the quantum regime, providing a step towards scalable, parallelization of quantum computation.

## Operational advantage of basis-independent quantum coherence

EPL **125** (2019) ARTN 50005

## Emergence of correlated proton tunnelling in water ice.

Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences **475** (2019) 20180867-20180867

Several experimental and theoretical studies report instances of concerted or correlated multiple proton tunnelling in solid phases of water. Here, we construct a pseudo-spin model for the quantum motion of protons in a hexameric H2O ring and extend it to open system dynamics that takes environmental effects into account in the form of O-H stretch vibrations. We approach the problem of correlations in tunnelling using quantum information theory in a departure from previous studies. Our formalism enables us to quantify the coherent proton mobility around the hexagonal ring by one of the principal measures of coherence, the l 1 norm of coherence. The nature of the pairwise pseudo-spin correlations underlying the overall mobility is further investigated within this formalism. We show that the classical correlations of the individual quantum tunnelling events in long-time limit is sufficient to capture the behaviour of coherent proton mobility observed in low-temperature experiments. We conclude that long-range intra-ring interactions do not appear to be a necessary condition for correlated proton tunnelling in water ice.

## Phase diffusion and the small-noise approximation in linear amplifiers: Limitations and beyond

QUANTUM **3** (2019)

## Theoretical description and experimental simulation of quantum entanglement near open time-like curves via pseudo-density operators.

Nature communications **10** (2019) 182-182

Closed timelike curves are striking predictions of general relativity allowing for time-travel. They are afflicted by notorious causality issues (e.g. grandfather's paradox). Quantum models where a qubit travels back in time solve these problems, at the cost of violating quantum theory's linearity-leading e.g. to universal quantum cloning. Interestingly, linearity is violated even by open timelike curves (OTCs), where the qubit does not interact with its past copy, but is initially entangled with another qubit. Non-linear dynamics is needed to avoid violating entanglement monogamy. Here we propose an alternative approach to OTCs, allowing for monogamy violations. Specifically, we describe the qubit in the OTC via a pseudo-density operator-a unified descriptor of both temporal and spatial correlations. We also simulate the monogamy violation with polarization-entangled photons, providing a pseudo-density operator quantum tomography. Remarkably, our proposal applies to any space-time correlations violating entanglement monogamy, such as those arising in black holes.

## Engineering statistical transmutation of identical quantum particles

PHYSICAL REVIEW B **99** (2019) ARTN 045430

## Uncertainty equality with quantum memory and its experimental verification

NPJ QUANTUM INFORMATION **5** (2019) ARTN 39

## Causal Limit on Quantum Communication.

Physical review letters **123** (2019) 150502-

The capacity of a channel is known to be equivalent to the highest rate at which it can generate entanglement. Analogous to entanglement, the notion of a causality measure characterizes the temporal aspect of quantum correlations. Despite holding an equally fundamental role in physics, temporal quantum correlations have yet to find their operational significance in quantum communication. Here we uncover a connection between quantum causality and channel capacity. We show the amount of temporal correlations between two ends of the noisy quantum channel, as quantified by a causality measure, implies a general upper bound on its channel capacity. The expression of this new bound is simpler to evaluate than most previously known bounds. We demonstrate the utility of this bound by applying it to a class of shifted depolarizing channels, which results in improvement over previously known bounds for this class of channels.

## Is the fermionic exchange phase also acquired locally?

Journal of Physics Communications **3** (2019)

© 2019 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd. We argue that the fermionic exchange phase could be detected by local means. We propose a simple experiment to test our idea. This leads us to speculate that there might be a deeper mechanism behind the notion of particle statistics in quantum physics that goes beyond the conventional argument based on the spin-statistics connections.

## Out of equilibrium thermodynamics of quantum harmonic chains

JOURNAL OF STATISTICAL MECHANICS-THEORY AND EXPERIMENT **2019** (2019) ARTN 104014

## Geometry of quantum correlations in space-time

PHYSICAL REVIEW A **98** (2018) ARTN 052312

## Proton tunnelling in hydrogen bonds and its implications in an induced-fit model of enzyme catalysis

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY A-MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES **474** (2018) ARTN 20180037

## Experimental test of the relation between coherence and path information

Communications Physics **1** (2018)

© 2018, The Author(s). Quantum coherence stemming from the superposition behaviour of a particle beyond the classical realm, serves as one of the most fundamental features in quantum mechanics. The wave-particle duality phenomenon, which shares the same origin, has a strong relationship with quantum coherence. Recently, an elegant relation between quantum coherence and path information has been theoretically derived. Here, we experimentally test such new duality by l1-norm measure and the minimum-error state discrimination. We prepare three classes of two-photon states encoded in polarisation degree of freedom, with one photon serving as the target and the other photon as the detector. We observe that wave-particle-like complementarity and Bagan’s equality, defined by the duality relation between coherence and path information, is well satisfied. Our results may shed new light on the original nature of wave-particle duality and on the applications of quantum coherence as a fundamental resource in quantum technologies.

## Probing quantum features of photosynthetic organisms

NPJ QUANTUM INFORMATION **4** (2018) ARTN 60

## Measuring quantumness: from theory to observability in interferometric setups

EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL D **72** (2018) ARTN 219

## When can gravity path-entangle two spatially superposed masses?

PHYSICAL REVIEW D **98** (2018) ARTN 046001

## Entanglement between living bacteria and quantized light witnessed by rabi splitting

Journal of Physics Communications **2** (2018)

© 2018 The Author(s). We model recent experiments on living sulphur bacteria interacting with quantised light, using the Dicke model. Our analysis shows that the strong coupling between the bacteria and the light, when both are treated quantum-mechanically, indicates that in those experiments there is entanglement between the bacteria (modelled as dipoles) and the quantised light (modelled as a single quantum harmonic oscillator). The existence of lower polariton branch due to the vacuum Rabi splitting, measured in those experiments for a range of different parameters, ensures the negativity of energy (with respect to the lowest energy of separable states), thus acting as an entanglement witness.

## Quantum-gravity effects could in principle be witnessed in neutrino-like oscillations

NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS **20** (2018) ARTN 083011