Publications by Andrew Princep

High-order Ho multipoles in HoB2C2 observed with soft resonant x-ray diffraction.

Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal 24 (2012) 075602-

AJ Princep, AM Mulders, E Schierle, E Weschke, J Hester, WD Hutchison, Y Tanaka, N Terada, Y Narumi, T Nakamura

Soft resonant x-ray Bragg diffraction (SRXD) at the Ho M4,5 edges has been used to study Ho 4f multipoles in the combined magnetic and orbitally ordered phase of HoB2C2. A full description of the energy dependence for both σ and π incident x-rays at two different azimuthal angles, as well as the ratio I(σ)/I(π) as a function of azimuthal angle for a selection of energies, allows a determination of the higher order multipole moments of rank 1 (dipole) to 6 (hexacontatetrapole). The Ho 4f multipole moments have been estimated, indicating a dominant hexadecapole (rank 4) order with an almost negligible influence from either the dipole or the octupole magnetic terms. The analysis incorporates both the intra-atomic magnetic and quadrupolar interactions between the 3d core and 4f valence shells as well as the interference of contributions to the scattering that behave differently under time reversal. Comparison of SRXD, neutron diffraction and non-resonant x-ray diffraction shows that the magnetic and quadrupolar order parameters are distinct. The (00½) component of the magnetic order exhibits a Brillouin type increase below the orbital ordering temperature T(Q), while the quadrupolar order increases more sharply. We conclude that the quadrupolar interaction is strong, but quadrupolar order only occurs when the magnetic order gives rise to a quasi-doublet ground state, which results in a lock-in of the orbitals at T(Q).

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