Publications by Laura Herz

The Effects of Doping Density and Temperature on the Optoelectronic Properties of Formamidinium Tin Triiodide Thin Films.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) 30 (2018) e1804506-

RL Milot, MT Klug, CL Davies, Z Wang, H Kraus, HJ Snaith, MB Johnston, LM Herz

Optoelectronic properties are unraveled for formamidinium tin triiodide (FASnI3 ) thin films, whose background hole doping density is varied through SnF2 addition during film fabrication. Monomolecular charge-carrier recombination exhibits both a dopant-mediated part that grows linearly with hole doping density and remnant contributions that remain under tin-enriched processing conditions. At hole densities near 1020 cm-3 , a strong Burstein-Moss effect increases absorption onset energies by ≈300 meV beyond the bandgap energy of undoped FASnI3 (shown to be 1.2 eV at 5 K and 1.35 eV at room temperature). At very high doping densities (1020 cm-3 ), temperature-dependent measurements indicate that the effective charge-carrier mobility is suppressed through scattering with ionized dopants. Once the background hole concentration is nearer 1019 cm-3 and below, the charge-carrier mobility increases with decreasing temperature according to ≈T-1.2 , suggesting that it is limited mostly by intrinsic interactions with lattice vibrations. For the lowest doping concentration of 7.2 × 1018 cm-3 , charge-carrier mobilities reach a value of 67 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature and 470 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 50 K. Intraexcitonic transitions observed in the THz-frequency photoconductivity spectra at 5 K reveal an exciton binding energy of only 3.1 meV for FASnI3 , in agreement with the low bandgap energy exhibited by this perovskite.

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