# Publications by Berislav Buca

## Stationary state degeneracy of open quantum systems with non-abelian symmetries

JOURNAL OF PHYSICS A-MATHEMATICAL AND THEORETICAL **53** (2020) ARTN 215304

© 2020 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd. We study the null space degeneracy of open quantum systems with multiple non-Abelian, strong symmetries. By decomposing the Hilbert space representation of these symmetries into an irreducible representation involving the direct sum of multiple, commuting, invariant subspaces we derive a tight lower bound for the stationary state degeneracy. We apply these results within the context of open quantum many-body systems, presenting three illustrative examples: A fully-connected quantum network, the XXX Heisenberg model and the Hubbard model. We find that the derived bound, which scales at least cubically in the system size the SU(2) symmetric cases, is often saturated. Moreover, our work provides a theory for the systematic block-decomposition of a Liouvillian with non-Abelian symmetries, reducing the computational difficulty involved in diagonalising these objects and exposing a natural, physical structure to the steady states-which we observe in our examples.

## Isolated Heisenberg magnet as a quantum time crystal

Physical Review B American Physical Society **102** (2020) 041117(R)

We demonstrate analytically and numerically that the paradigmatic model of quantum magnetism, the Heisenberg XXZ spin chain, does not equilibrate. It constitutes an example of persistent nonstationarity in a quantum many-body system that does not rely on external driving or coupling to an environment. We trace this phenomenon to the existence of extensive dynamical symmetries. We discuss how the ensuing persistent oscillations that seemingly violate one of the most fundamental laws of physics could be observed experimentally.

## Non-stationarity and dissipative time crystals: Spectral properties and finite-size effects

New Journal of Physics IOP Publishing (2020)

We discuss the emergence of non-stationarity in open quantum many-body systems. This leads us to the definition of dissipative time crystals which display experimentally observable, persistent, time-periodic oscillations induced by noisy contact with an environment. We use the Loschmidt echo and local observables to indicate the presence of a finite sized dissipative time crystal. Starting from the closed Hubbard model we then provide examples of dissipation mechanisms that yield experimentally observable quantum periodic dynamics and allow analysis of the emergence of finite sized dissipative time crystals. For a disordered Hubbard model including two-particle loss and gain we find a dark Hamiltonian driving oscillations between GHZ states in the long-time limit. Finally, we discuss how the presented examples could be experimentally realized.

## Quantum synchronisation enabled by dynamical symmetries and dissipation

New Journal of Physics IOP Publishing **22** (2019) 013026-

In nature, instances of synchronisation abound across a diverse range of environments. In the quantum regime, however, synchronisation is typically observed by identifying an appropriate parameter regime in a specific system. In this work we show that this need not be the case, identifying symmetry-based conditions which, when satisfied, guarantee completely synchronous, entangled limit cycles between the individual constituents of a generic open quantum system - no restrictions are placed on its microscopic details. We describe these systems as posssessing a strong dynamical symmetry and we prove that, to first order, they are completely robust to symmetry-breaking perturbations. Using these ideas we identify two central examples where synchronisation arises via this qualitatively new mechanism: a chain of quadratically dephased spin-1s and the many-body charge-dephased Hubbard model. In both cases, due to their dynamical symmetries, perfect phase-locking occurs throughout the system, regardless of the specific microscopic parameters or initial states. Furthermore, when these systems are perturbed, their non-linear responses elicit long-lived signatures of both phase and frequency-locking.

## Heating-Induced Long-Range η Pairing in the Hubbard Model

Physical Review Letters American Physical Society **123** (2019) 030603

We show how, upon heating the spin degrees of freedom of the Hubbard model to infinite temperature, the symmetries of the system allow the creation of steady states with long-range correlations between η pairs. We induce this heating with either dissipation or periodic driving and evolve the system towards a nonequilibrium steady state, a process which melts all spin order in the system. The steady state is identical in both cases and displays distance-invariant off-diagonal η correlations. These correlations were first recognized in the superconducting eigenstates described in Yang’s seminal Letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2144 (1989)], which are a subset of our steady states. We show that our results are a consequence of symmetry properties and entirely independent of the microscopic details of the model and the heating mechanism.

## Complex coherent quantum many-body dynamics through dissipation

Nature Communications Springer Nature **10** (2019) 1730

The assumption that physical systems relax to a stationary state in the long-time limit underpins statistical physics and much of our intuitive understanding of scientific phenomena. For isolated systems this follows from the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis. When an environment is present the expectation is that all of phase space is explored, eventually leading to stationarity. Notable exceptions are decoherence-free subspaces that have important implications for quantum technologies. These have been studied for systems with a few degrees of freedom only. Here we identify simple and generic conditions for dissipation to prevent a quantum many-body system from ever reaching a stationary state. We go beyond dissipative quantum state engineering approaches towards controllable long-time non-stationary dynamics typically associated with macroscopic complex systems. This coherent and oscillatory evolution constitutes a dissipative version of a quantum time-crystal. We discuss the possibility of engineering such complex dynamics with fermionic ultracold atoms in optical lattices.

## Exact large deviation statistics and trajectory phase transition of a deterministic boundary driven cellular automaton.

Physical review. E **100** (2019) 020103-

We study the statistical properties of the long-time dynamics of the rule 54 reversible cellular automaton (CA), driven stochastically at its boundaries. This CA can be considered as a discrete-time and deterministic version of the Fredrickson-Andersen kinetically constrained model (KCM). By means of a matrix product ansatz, we compute the exact large deviation cumulant generating functions for a wide range of time-extensive observables of the dynamics, together with their associated rate functions and conditioned long-time distributions over configurations. We show that for all instances of boundary driving the CA dynamics occurs at the point of phase coexistence between competing active and inactive dynamical phases, similar to what happens in more standard KCMs. We also find the exact finite size scaling behavior of these trajectory transitions, and provide the explicit "Doob-transformed" dynamics that optimally realizes rare dynamical events.

## Dissipation induced nonstationarity in a quantum gas

Physical Review Letters American Physical Society **123** (2019) 260401

Nonstationary longtime dynamics was recently observed in a driven two-component Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to an optical cavity [N. Dogra, M. Landini, K. Kroeger, L. Hruby, T. Donner, and T. Esslinger, arXiv:1901.05974] and analyzed in mean-field theory. We solve the underlying model in the thermodynamic limit and show that this system is always dynamically unstable—even when mean-field theory predicts stability. Instabilities always occur in higher-order correlation functions leading to squeezing and entanglement induced by cavity dissipation. The dynamics may be understood as the formation of a dissipative time crystal. We use perturbation theory for finite system sizes to confirm the nonstationary behavior.

## Symmetries and conservation laws in quantum trajectories: Dissipative freezing

Physical Review A American Physical Society **100** (2019) 042113

In driven-dissipative systems, the presence of a strong symmetry guarantees the existence of several steady states belonging to different symmetry sectors. Here we show that, when a system with a strong symmetry is initialized in a quantum superposition involving several of these sectors, each individual stochastic trajectory will randomly select a single one of them and remain there for the rest of the evolution. Since a strong symmetry implies a conservation law for the corresponding symmetry operator on the ensemble level, this selection of a single sector from an initial superposition entails a breakdown of this conservation law at the level of individual realizations. Given that such a superposition is impossible in a classical, stochastic trajectory, this is a a purely quantum effect with no classical analogue. Our results show that a system with a closed Liouvillian gap may exhibit, when monitored over a single run of an experiment, a behaviour completely opposite to the usual notion of dynamical phase coexistence and intermittency, which are typically considered hallmarks of a dissipative phase transition. We discuss our results with a simple, realistic model of squeezed superradiance.

## Quantum probe spectroscopy for cold atomic systems

New Journal of Physics IOP Publishing **20** (2018) 103006-

We study a two-level impurity coupled locally to a quantum gas on an optical lattice. For state-dependent interactions between the impurity and the gas, we show that its evolution encodes information on the local excitation spectrum of gas at the coupling site. Based on this, we design a nondestructive method to probe the system's excitations in a broad range of energies by measuring the state of the probe using standard atom optics methods. We illustrate our findings with numerical simulations for quantum lattice systems, including realistic dephasing noise on the quantum probe, and discuss practical limits on the probe dephasing rate to fully resolve both regular and chaotic spectra.

## Strongly correlated non-equilibrium steady states with currents – quantum and classical picture

European Physical Journal Special Topics EDP Sciences **227** (2018) 421-444

In this minireview we will discuss recent progress in the analytical study of current-carrying non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) that can be constructed in terms of a matrix product ansatz. We will focus on one-dimensional exactly solvable strongly correlated cases, and will study both quantum models, and classical models which are deterministic in the bulk. The only source of classical stochasticity in the time-evolution will come from the boundaries of the system. Physically, these boundaries may be understood as Markovian baths, which drive the current through the system. The examples studied include the open XXZ Heisenberg spin chain, the open Hubbard model, and a classical integrable reversible cellular automaton, namely the Rule 54 of A. Bobenko et al. [A. Bobenko et al., Commun. Math. Phys. 158, 127 (1993)] with stochastic boundaries. The quantum NESS can be at least partially understood through the Yang–Baxter integrability structure of the underlying integrable bulk Hamiltonian, whereas for the Rule 54 model NESS seems to come from a seemingly unrelated integrability theory. In both the quantum and the classical case, the underlying matrix product ansatz defining the NESS also allows for construction of novel conservation laws of the bulk models themselves. In the classical case, a modification of the matrix product ansatz also allows for construction of states beyond the steady state (i.e., some of the decay modes – Liouvillian eigenvectors of the model). We hope that this article will help further the quest to unite different perspectives of integrability of NESS (of both quantum and classical models) into a single unified framework.

## Exact matrix product decay modes of a boundary driven cellular automaton

Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical **50** (2017)

© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd. We study integrability properties of a reversible deterministic cellular automaton (Rule 54 of (Bobenko et al 1993 Commun. Math. Phys. 158 127)) and present a bulk algebraic relation and its inhomogeneous extension which allow for an explicit construction of Liouvillian decay modes for two distinct families of stochastic boundary driving. The spectrum of the many-body stochastic matrix defining the time propagation is found to separate into sets, which we call orbitals, and the eigenvalues in each orbital are found to obey a distinct set of Bethe-like equations. We construct the decay modes in the first orbital (containing the leading decay mode) in terms of an exact inhomogeneous matrix product ansatz, study the thermodynamic properties of the spectrum and the scaling of its gap, and provide a conjecture for the Bethe-like equations for all the orbitals and their degeneracy.

## Charge and spin current statistics of the open Hubbard model with weak coupling to the environment.

Physical review. E **95** (2017) 052141-052141

Based on generalization and extension of our previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 067201 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.112.067201] to multiple independent Markovian baths we will compute the charge and spin current statistics of the open Hubbard model with weak system-bath coupling up to next-to-leading order in the coupling parameter. Only the next-to-leading and higher orders depend on the Hubbard interaction parameter. The physical results are related to those for the XXZ model in the analogous setup implying a certain universality, which potentially holds in this class of nonequilibrium models.

## Connected correlations, fluctuations and current of magnetization in the steady state of boundary driven XXZ spin chains

JOURNAL OF STATISTICAL MECHANICS-THEORY AND EXPERIMENT (2016) ARTN 023102

## Spectral analysis of finite-time correlation matrices near equilibrium phase transitions

EPL **108** (2014) ARTN 20006

## Exactly solvable counting statistics in open weakly coupled interacting spin systems.

Physical review letters **112** (2014) 067201-

We study the full counting statistics for interacting quantum many-body spin systems weakly coupled to the environment. In the leading order in the system-bath coupling, we derive exact spin current statistics for a large class of parity symmetric spin-1/2 systems driven by a pair of Markovian baths with local coupling operators. Interestingly, in this class of systems the leading-order current statistics are universal and do not depend on details of the Hamiltonian. Furthermore, in the specific case of a symmetrically boundary driven anisotropic Heisenberg (XXZ) spin-1/2 chain, we explicitly derive the third-order nonlinear corrections to the current statistics.

## A note on symmetry reductions of the Lindblad equation: transport in constrained open spin chains

NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS **14** (2012) ARTN 073007

## Integrable non-equilibrium steady state density operators for boundary driven XXZ spin chains: observables and full counting statistics

ArXiv (0)

We will review some known exact solutions for the steady state of the open quantum Heisenberg $XXZ$ spin chain coupled to a pair of baths [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 137201 (2011).]. The dynamics is modelled by the Lindblad master equation. We also review how to calculate some relevant physical observables and provide the statistics of spin current assuming the spin chain is weakly coupled to the baths [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 067201 (2014).].

## Non-stationary dynamics and dissipative freezing in squeezed superradiance

ArXiv (0)

In this work, we study the driven-dissipative dynamics of a coherently-driven spin ensemble with a squeezed, superradiant decay. This decay consists of a sum of both raising and lowering collective spin operators with a tunable weight. The model presents different critical non-equilibrium phases with a gapless Liouvillian that are associated to particular symmetries and that give rise to distinct kinds of non-ergodic dynamics. In Ref. [1] we focus on the case of a strong-symmetry and use this model to introduce and discuss the effect of dissipative freezing, where, regardless of the system size, stochastic quantum trajectories initialized in a superposition of different symmetry sectors always select a single one of them and remain there for the rest of the evolution. Here, we deepen this analysis and study in more detail the other type of non-ergodic physics present in the model, namely, the emergence of non-stationary dynamics in the thermodynamic limit. We complete our description of squeezed superradiance by analysing its metrological properties in terms of spin squeezing and by analysing the features that each of these critical phases imprint on the light emitted by the system.

## Quantum many-body attractors

ArXiv (0)

Dynamical symmetries are algebraic constraints on quantum dynamical systems, which are often responsible for persistent temporal periodicity of observables. In this work, we discuss how an extensive set of strictly local dynamical symmetries can exist in an interacting many-body quantum system. These strictly local dynamical symmetries lead to spontaneous breaking of continuous time-translation symmetry, i.e. the formation of extremely robust and persistent oscillations when an infinitesimal time-dependent perturbation is applied to an arbitrary initial (stationary) state. Observables which do not overlap with the local (dynamical) symmetry operators can relax, losing memory of their initial conditions. The remaining observables enter highly robust non-equilibrium limit cycles, signaling the emergence of a non-trivial \emph{quantum many-body attractor}. We provide an explicit recipe for constructing Hamiltonians featuring local dynamical symmetries. As an example, we introduce the XYZ spin-lace model, which is a model of a quasi-1D quantum magnet.