Consolidation of the optoelectronic properties of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite single crystals.

Nature Communications 8 (2017) 590-

B Wenger, PK Nayak, X Wen, SV Kesava, NK Noel, HJ Snaith

Ultralow trap densities, exceptional optical and electronic properties have been reported for lead halide perovskites single crystals; however, ambiguities in basic properties, such as the band gap, and the electronic defect densities in the bulk and at the surface prevail. Here, we synthesize single crystals of methylammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3), characterise the optical absorption and photoluminescence and show that the optical properties of single crystals are almost identical to those of polycrystalline thin films. We observe significantly longer lifetimes and show that carrier diffusion plays a substantial role in the photoluminescence decay. Contrary to many reports, we determine that the trap density in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite single crystals is 1015 cm-3, only one order of magnitude lower than in the thin films. Our enhanced understanding of optical properties and recombination processes elucidates ambiguities in earlier reports, and highlights the discrepancies in the estimation of trap densities from electronic and optical methods.Metal halide perovskites for optoelectronic devices have been extensively studied in two forms: single-crystals or polycrystalline thin films. Using spectroscopic approaches, Wenger et al. show that polycrystalline thin films possess similar optoelectronic properties to single crystals.

Controlling Nucleation and Growth of Metal Halide Perovskite Thin Films for High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells.

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) 13 (2017)

N Sakai, Z Wang, VM Burlakov, J Lim, D McMeekin, S Pathak, HJ Snaith

Metal halide perovskite thin films can be crystallized via a broad range of solution-based routes. However, the quality of the final films is strongly dependent upon small changes in solution composition and processing parameters. Here, this study demonstrates that a fractional substitution of PbCl2 with PbI2 in the 3CH3 NH3 I:PbCl2 mixed-halide starting solution has a profound influence upon the ensuing thin-film crystallization. The presence of PbI2 in the precursor induces a uniform distribution of regular quadrilateral-shaped CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite crystals in as-cast films, which subsequently grow to form pinhole-free perovskite films with highly crystalline domains. With this new formulation of 3CH3 NH3 I:0.98PbCl2 :0.02PbI2 , this study achieves a 19.1% current-voltage measured power conversion efficiency and a 17.2% stabilized power output in regular planar heterojunction solar cells.

Investigating the Role of 4-Tert Butylpyridine in Perovskite Solar Cells


SN Habisreutinger, NK Noel, HJ Snaith, RJ Nicholas

Crystallization Kinetics and Morphology Control of Formamidinium-Cesium Mixed-Cation Lead Mixed-Halide Perovskite via Tunability of the Colloidal Precursor Solution.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) 29 (2017)

DP McMeekin, Z Wang, W Rehman, F Pulvirenti, JB Patel, NK Noel, MB Johnston, SR Marder, LM Herz, HJ Snaith

The meteoric rise of the field of perovskite solar cells has been fueled by the ease with which a wide range of high-quality materials can be fabricated via simple solution processing methods. However, to date, little effort has been devoted to understanding the precursor solutions, and the role of additives such as hydrohalic acids upon film crystallization and final optoelectronic quality. Here, a direct link between the colloids concentration present in the [HC(NH2 )2 ]0.83 Cs0.17 Pb(Br0.2 I0.8 )3 precursor solution and the nucleation and growth stages of the thin film formation is established. Using dynamic light scattering analysis, the dissolution of colloids over a time span triggered by the addition of hydrohalic acids is monitored. These colloids appear to provide nucleation sites for the perovskite crystallization, which critically impacts morphology, crystal quality, and optoelectronic properties. Via 2D X-ray diffraction, highly ordered and textured crystals for films prepared from solutions with lower colloidal concentrations are observed. This increase in material quality allows for a reduction in microstrain along with a twofold increase in charge-carrier mobilities leading to values exceeding 20 cm2 V-1 s-1 . Using a solution with an optimized colloidal concentration, devices that reach current-voltage measured power conversion efficiency of 18.8% and stabilized efficiency of 17.9% are fabricated.

Monolithic Wide Band Gap Perovskite/Perovskite Tandem Solar Cells with Organic Recombination Layers

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C 121 (2017) 27256-27262

R Sheng, MT Horantner, Z Wang, Y Jiang, W Zhang, A Agosti, S Huang, X Hao, A Ho-Baillie, M Green, HJ Snaith

Reproducible planar heterojunction solar cells based on one-step solution-processed methylammonium lead halide perovskites

Chemistry of Materials 29 (2017) 462-473

S Bai, N Sakai, W Zhang, Z Wang, JTW Wang, F Gao, HJ Snaith

© 2016 American Chemical Society. Metal halide perovskites have been demonstrated as one of the most promising materials for low-cost and high-performance photovoltaic applications. However, due to the susceptible crystallization process of perovskite films on planar substrates and the high sensitivity of the physical and optoelectronic nature of the internal interfaces within the devices, researchers in different laboratories still experience poor reproducibility in fabricating efficient perovskite solar cells with planar heterojunction device structures. In this methods paper, we present detailed information on the reagents, equipment, and procedures for the fabrication of planar perovskite solar cells in both “regular” n-i-p and “inverted” p-i-n architectures based on one-step solution-processed methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI 3 ) perovskite films. We discuss key parameters affecting the crystallization of perovskite and the device interfaces. This methods paper will provide a guideline for the reproducible fabrication of planar heterojunction solar cells based on MAPbI 3 perovskite films. We believe that the shared experience on MA-based perovskite films and planar solar cells will be also useful for the optimization process of perovskites with varied compositions and other emerging perovskite-based optoelectronic devices.

Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells Using Molybdenum Tris(dithiolene)s as p-Dopants for Spiro-OMeTAD

ACS ENERGY LETTERS 2 (2017) 2044-2050

A Pellaroque, NK Noel, SN Habisreutinger, Y Zhang, S Barlow, SR Marder, HJ Snaith

V-Shaped Hole-Transporting TPD Dimers Containing Troger's Base Core

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C 121 (2017) 10267-10274

T Braukyla, N Sakai, M Daskeviciene, V Jankauskas, E Kamarauskas, R Komskis, T Malinauskas, S Jursenas, HJ Snaith, V Getautis

Efficient ambient-air-stable solar cells with 2D-3D heterostructured butylammonium-caesium-formamidinium lead halide perovskites

Nature Energy 2 (2017)

Z Wang, Q Lin, FP Chmiel, N Sakai, LM Herz, HJ Snaith

© 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved. Perovskite solar cells are remarkably efficient; however, they are prone to degradation in water, oxygen and ultraviolet light. Cation engineering in 3D perovskite absorbers has led to reduced degradation. Alternatively, 2D Ruddlesden-Popper layered perovskites exhibit improved stability, but have not delivered efficient solar cells so far. Here, we introduce n-butylammonium cations into a mixed-cation lead mixed-halide FA 0.83 Cs 0.17 Pb(I y Br 1-y ) 3 3D perovskite. We observe the formation of 2D perovskite platelets, interspersed between highly orientated 3D perovskite grains, which suppress non-radiative charge recombination. We investigate the relationship between thin-film composition, crystal alignment and device performance. Solar cells with an optimal butylammonium content exhibit average stabilized power conversion efficiency of 17.5 ± 1.3% with a 1.61-eV-bandgap perovskite and 15.8 ± 0.8% with a 1.72-eV-bandgap perovskite. The stability under simulated sunlight is also enhanced. Cells sustain 80% of their post burn-in' efficiency after 1,000 h in air, and close to 4,000 h when encapsulated.

Tailoring metal halide perovskites through metal substitution: influence on photovoltaic and material properties


MT Klug, A Osherov, AA Haghighirad, SD Stranks, PR Brown, S Bai, JT-W Wang, X Dang, V Bulovic, HJ Snaith, AM Belcher

Unveiling the Influence of pH on the Crystallization of Hybrid Perovskites, Delivering Low Voltage Loss Photovoltaics

Joule 1 (2017) 328-343

NK Noel, M Congiu, AJ Ramadan, S Fearn, DP McMeekin, JB Patel, MB Johnston, B Wenger, HJ Snaith

© 2017 Elsevier Inc. Impressive power conversion efficiencies coupled with the relative ease of fabrication have made perovskite solar cells a front runner for next-generation photovoltaics. Although perovskite films and optoelectronic devices have been widely studied, relatively little is known about the chemistry of the precursor solutions. Here, we present a study on the hydrolysis of N,N-dimethylformamide, correlating how pH changes related to its degradation affect the crystallization of MAPbI 3−x Cl x perovskite films. By careful manipulation of the pH, and the resulting colloid distribution in precursor solutions, we fabricate perovskite films with greatly improved crystallinity, which when incorporated into photovoltaic devices reproducibly yield efficiencies of over 18%. Extending this method to the mixed cation, mixed halide perovskite FA 0.83 MA 0.17 Pb(I 0.83 Br 0.17 ) 3 , we obtain power conversion efficiencies of up to 19.9% and open-circuit voltages of 1.21 V for a material with a bandgap of 1.57 eV, achieving the lowest yet reported loss in potential from bandgap to a V OC of only 360 mV. Metal halide perovskites have shown tremendous promise in optoelectronic devices and are of particular interest as absorber materials in solar cells, having achieved remarkable power conversion efficiencies in a staggeringly short period of time. Although improvements in deposition techniques have greatly increased the quality of perovskite films and have allowed perovskite solar cells to dominate the class of emerging photovoltaic technologies, relatively little focus has been placed on understanding the chemistry of the precursor solutions. Here, we elucidate how the hydrolysis and thermal decomposition of N,N-dimethylformamide, the most commonly used solvent for perovskites, has far-reaching effects on the crystallization and optoelectronic properties of perovskite films and show how controlling the degradation of this solvent allows us to achieve record low voltage losses in highly efficient perovskite solar cells. The degradation of N,N-dimethylformamide results in the formation of formic acid and dimethylamine. The changes in pH that occur as a result of this solvent degradation can be correlated to changes in the colloid concentration in perovskite precursor solutions. By tuning the pH and hence colloid concentration of these solutions, we improve the crystallization and optoelectronic quality of the perovskite films, resulting in solar cells with a record low loss in potential from bandgap to V OC of 360 mV.

Impact of the Halide Cage on the Electronic Properties of Fully Inorganic Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites

ACS Energy Letters 2 (2017) 1621-1627

Z Yang, A Surrente, K Galkowski, A Miyata, O Portugall, RJ Sutton, AA Haghighirad, HJ Snaith, DK Maude, P Plochocka, RJ Nicholas

© 2017 American Chemical Society. Perovskite solar cells with record power conversion efficiency are fabricated by alloying both hybrid and fully inorganic compounds. While the basic electronic properties of the hybrid perovskites are now well understood, key electronic parameters for solar cell performance, such as the exciton binding energy of fully inorganic perovskites, are still unknown. By performing magneto-transmission measurements, we determine with high accuracy the exciton binding energy and reduced mass of fully inorganic CsPbX 3 perovskites (X = I, Br, and an alloy of these). The well-behaved (continuous) evolution of the band gap with temperature in the range of 4-270 K suggests that fully inorganic perovskites do not undergo structural phase transitions like their hybrid counterparts. The experimentally determined dielectric constants indicate that at low temperature, when the motion of the organic cation is frozen, the dielectric screening mechanism is essentially the same for both hybrid and inorganic perovskites and is dominated by the relative motion of atoms within the lead halide cage.

Efficient and Air-Stable Mixed-Cation Lead Mixed-Halide Perovskite Solar Cells with n-Doped Organic Electron Extraction Layers.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) 29 (2017)

Z Wang, DP McMeekin, N Sakai, S van Reenen, K Wojciechowski, JB Patel, MB Johnston, HJ Snaith

Air-stable doping of the n-type fullerene layer in an n-i-p planar heterojunction perovskite device is capable of enhancing device efficiency and improving device stability. Employing a (HC(NH2 )2 )0.83 Cs0.17 Pb(I0.6 Br0.4 )3 perovskite as the photoactive layer, glass-glass laminated devices are reported, which sustain 80% of their "post burn-in" efficiency over 3400 h under full sun illumination in ambient conditions.

How to Avoid Artifacts in Surface Photovoltage Measurements: A Case Study with Halide Perovskites.

The journal of physical chemistry letters 8 (2017) 2941-2943

I Levine, G Hodes, HJ Snaith, PK Nayak

Dopant-Free Planar n-i-p Perovskite Solar Cells with Steady-State Efficiencies Exceeding 18%

ACS ENERGY LETTERS 2 (2017) 622-628

SN Habisreutinger, B Wenger, HJ Snaith, RJ Nicholas

Carbazole-based enamine: Low-cost and efficient hole transporting material for perovskite solar cells

NANO ENERGY 32 (2017) 551-557

M Daskeviciene, S Paek, Z Wang, T Malinauskas, G Jokubauskaite, K Rakstys, KT Cho, A Magomedov, V Jankauskas, S Ahmad, HJ Snaith, V Getautis, MK Nazeeruddin

A low viscosity, low boiling point, clean solvent system for the rapid crystallisation of highly specular perovskite films


NK Noel, SN Habisreutinger, B Wenger, MT Klug, MT Horantner, MB Johnston, RJ Nicholas, DT Moore, HJ Snaith

Near-Infrared and Short-Wavelength Infrared Photodiodes Based on Dye-Perovskite Composites


Q Lin, Z Wang, M Young, JB Patel, RL Milot, LM Maestro, RR Lunt, HJ Snaith, MB Johnston, LM Herz

Processing Solvent-Dependent Electronic and Structural Properties of Cesium Lead Triiodide Thin Films.

The journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (2017) 4172-4176

AJ Ramadan, LA Rochford, S Fearn, HJ Snaith

Cesium lead triiodide (CsPbI3) is an attractive material for photovoltaic applications due to its appropriate band gap, strong optical absorption, and high thermal stability. However, the perovskite phase suffers from moisture induced structural instability. Previous studies have utilized a range of solvent systems to establish the role of solvent choice in structural instabilities. Despite this, effects of different solvents on the electronic structure of this material have not been compared. We report substantial chemical and compositional differences in thin films of CsPbI3 prepared from a range of solvent systems. We confirm via X-ray diffraction thin films formed from DMF, DMSO, and a mixture of these solvent systems share the same crystal structure. However, secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and low energy ion scattering measurements reveal significant differences between films processed via different solvent systems. Our findings reveal the critical impact solvents have upon compositional stoichiometry and thin-film morphology.

Electron injection and scaffold effects in perovskite solar cells.

Journal of materials chemistry. C 5 (2017) 634-644

M Anaya, W Zhang, BC Hames, Y Li, F Fabregat-Santiago, ME Calvo, HJ Snaith, H Míguez, I Mora-Seró

In spite of the impressive efficiencies reported for perovskite solar cells (PSCs), key aspects of their working principles, such as electron injection at the contacts or the suitability of the utilization of a specific scaffold layer, are not yet fully understood. Increasingly complex scaffolds attained by the sequential deposition of TiO2 and SiO2 mesoporous layers onto transparent conducting substrates are used to perform a systematic characterization of both the injection process at the electron selective contact and the scaffold effect in PSCs. By forcing multiple electron injection processes at a controlled sequence of perovskite-TiO2 interfaces before extraction, interfacial injection effects are magnified and hence characterized in detail. An anomalous injection behavior is observed, the fingerprint of which is the presence of significant inductive loops in the impedance spectra with a magnitude that correlates with the number of interfaces in the scaffold. Analysis of the resistive and capacitive behavior of the impedance spectra indicates that the scaffolds could hinder ion migration, with positive consequences such as lowering the recombination rate and implications for the current-potential curve hysteresis. Our results suggest that an appropriate balance between these advantageous effects and the unavoidable charge transport resistive losses introduced by the scaffolds will help in the optimization of PSC performance.