Publications by Thorsten Hesjedal


Magnetization dynamics in an exchange-coupled NiFe/CoFe bilayer studied by x-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance

NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 17 (2015) ARTN 013019

GBG Stenning, LR Shelford, SA Cavill, F Hoffmann, M Haertinger, T Hesjedal, G Woltersdorf, GJ Bowden, SA Gregory, CH Back, PAJ de Groot, G van der Laan


An ultra-compact, high-throughput molecular beam epitaxy growth system.

The Review of scientific instruments 86 (2015) 043901-

AA Baker, W Braun, G Gassler, S Rembold, A Fischer, T Hesjedal

We present a miniaturized molecular beam epitaxy (miniMBE) system with an outer diameter of 206 mm, optimized for flexible and high-throughput operation. The three-chamber system, used here for oxide growth, consists of a sample loading chamber, a storage chamber, and a growth chamber. The growth chamber is equipped with eight identical effusion cell ports with linear shutters, one larger port for either a multi-pocket electron beam evaporator or an oxygen plasma source, an integrated cryoshroud, retractable beam-flux monitor or quartz-crystal microbalance, reflection high energy electron diffraction, substrate manipulator, main shutter, and quadrupole mass spectrometer. The system can be combined with ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) end stations on synchrotron and neutron beamlines, or equivalently with other complex surface analysis systems, including low-temperature scanning probe microscopy systems. Substrate handling is compatible with most UHV surface characterization systems, as the miniMBE can accommodate standard surface science sample holders. We introduce the design of the system, and its specific capabilities and operational parameters, and we demonstrate the epitaxial thin film growth of magnetoelectric Cr2O3 on c-plane sapphire and ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 on MgO (001).


Growth of Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 on amorphous fused silica by MBE

physica status solidi (b) (2015) n/a-n/a

LJ Collins-McIntyre, W Wang, B Zhou, Speller, Chen, T Hesjedal


Structural properties and growth mechanism of Cd3As2 nanowires

APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 106 (2015) ARTN 013115

P Schoenherr, T Hesjedal


Effect of interfacial structures on spin dependent tunneling in epitaxial L1(0)-FePt/MgO/FePt perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 117 (2015) ARTN 083904

G Yang, DL Li, SG Wang, QL Ma, SH Liang, HX Wei, XF Han, T Hesjedal, RCC Ward, A Kohn, A Elkayam, N Tal, X-G Zhang


Study of Dy-doped Bi2Te3: thin film growth and magnetic properties

Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter IOP Publishing: Hybrid Open Access 27 (2015) 245602

SE Harrison, Collins-Mcintyre, SL zhang, AA baker, AI Figueroa, AJ Kellock, A Pushp, SSP Parkin, JS Harris, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

Breaking the time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in topological insulators (TIs) through ferromagnetic doping is an essential prerequisite for unlocking novel physical phenomena and exploring potential device applications. Here, we report the successful growth of high-quality (DyxBi1−x)2Te3 thin films with Dy concentrations up to x = 0.355 by molecular beam epitaxy. Bulk-sensitive magnetisation studies using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry find paramagnetic behaviour down to 2 K for the entire doping series. The effective magnetic moment, µeff, is strongly doping concentration-dependent and reduces from ∼12.6 µB Dy−1 for x = 0.023 to ∼4.3 µB Dy−1 for x = 0.355. X-ray absorption spectra and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Dy M4,5 edge are employed to provide a deeper insight into the magnetic nature of the Dy3+-doped films. XMCD, measured in surface-sensitive total-electron-yield detection, gives µeff = 4.2 µB Dy−1. The large measured moments make Dy-doped films interesting TI systems in which the TRS may be broken via the proximity effect due to an adjacent ferromagnetic insulator.


A new topological insulator built from quasi one-dimensional atomic ribbons

Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters 9 (2015) 130-135

P Schönherr, S Zhang, Y Liu, Y Liu, P Kusch, S Reich, T Giles, D Daisenberger, D Prabhakaran, Y Chen, T Hesjedal

© 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. A novel topological insulator with orthorhombic crystal structure is demonstrated. It is characterized by quasi one-dimensional, conducting atomic chains instead of the layered, two-dimensional sheets known from the established Bi2(Se,Te)3 system. The Sb-doped Bi2Se3 nanowires are grown in a TiO2-catalyzed process by chemical vapor deposition. The binary Bi2Se3 is transformed from rhombohedral to orthorhombic by substituting Sb on ∼38% of the Bi sites. Pure Sb2Se3 is a topologically trivial band insulator with an orthorhombic crystal structure at ambient conditions, and it is known to transform into a topological insulator at high pressure. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows a topological surface state, while Sb doping also tunes the Fermi level to reside in the bandgap.


Magnetic reversal in Dy-doped DyFe2/YFe2 superlattice films

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 91 (2015) ARTN 094403

GBG Stenning, GJ Bowden, PAJ de Groot, G van der Laan, AI Figueroa, P Bencok, P Steadman, T Hesjedal


Spin pumping in ferromagnet-topological insulator-ferromagnet heterostructures.

Scientific reports 5 (2015) 7907-

AA Baker, AI Figueroa, LJ Collins-McIntyre, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

Topological insulators (TIs) are enticing prospects for the future of spintronics due to their large spin-orbit coupling and dissipationless, counter-propagating conduction channels in the surface state. However, a means to interact with and exploit the topological surface state remains elusive. Here, we report a study of spin pumping at the TI-ferromagnet interface, investigating spin transfer dynamics in a spin-valve like structure using element specific time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and ferromagnetic resonance. Gilbert damping increases approximately linearly with increasing TI thickness, indicating efficient behaviour as a spin sink. However, layer-resolved measurements suggest that a dynamic coupling is limited. These results shed new light on the spin dynamics of this novel material class, and suggest great potential for TIs in spintronic devices, through their novel magnetodynamics that persist even up to room temperature.


A new topological insulator built from quasi one-dimensional atomic ribbons

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI-RAPID RESEARCH LETTERS 9 (2015) 130-135

P Schoenherr, S Zhang, Y Liu, P Kusch, S Reich, T Giles, D Daisenberger, D Prabhakaran, Y Chen, T Hesjedal


Study of Gd-doped Bi2Te3 thin films: Molecular beam epitaxy growth and magnetic properties

Journal of Applied Physics 115 (2014) 2

SE Harrison, LJ Collins-McIntyre, S Li, AA Baker, LR Shelford, Y Huo, A Pushp, SSP Parkin, JS Harris, E Arenholz, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal


Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory.

Scientific reports 4 (2014) 6109-

S Zhang, J Zhang, AA Baker, S Wang, G Yu, T Hesjedal

Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered 'quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory.


Comparison of Au and TiO2 based catalysts for the synthesis of chalcogenide nanowires

APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 104 (2014) ARTN 253103

P Schoenherr, D Prabhakaran, W Jones, N Dimitratos, M Bowker, T Hesjedal


Controlled removal of amorphous Se capping layer from a topological insulator

APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 105 (2014) ARTN 241605

K Virwani, SE Harrison, A Pushp, T Topuria, E Delenia, P Rice, A Kellock, L Collins-McIntyre, J Harris, T Hesjedal, S Parkin


Preparation of layered thin film samples for angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 105 (2014) ARTN 121608

SE Harrison, B Zhou, Y Huo, A Pushp, AJ Kellock, SSP Parkin, JS Harris, Y Chen, T Hesjedal


Engineering of Bi2Se3 nanowires by laser cutting

EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL-APPLIED PHYSICS 66 (2014) ARTN 10401

P Schoenherr, AA Baker, P Kusch, S Reich, T Hesjedal


Vapour-liquid-solid growth of ternary Bi2Se2Te nanowires.

Nanoscale research letters 9 (2014) 127-

P Schönherr, LJ Collins-McIntyre, S Zhang, P Kusch, S Reich, T Giles, D Daisenberger, D Prabhakaran, T Hesjedal

: High-density growth of single-crystalline Bi2Se2Te nanowires was achieved via the vapour-liquid-solid process. The stoichiometry of samples grown at various substrate temperatures is precisely determined based on energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy on individual nanowires. We discuss the growth mechanism and present insights into the catalyst-precursor interaction.


Magnetic Cr doping of Bi2Se3: Evidence for divalent Cr from x-ray spectroscopy

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 90 (2014) ARTN 134402

AI Figueroa, G van der Laan, LJ Collins-McIntyre, S-L Zhang, AA Baker, SE Harrison, P Schoenherr, G Cibin, T Hesjedal


Modelling ferromagnetic resonance in magnetic multilayers: Exchange coupling and demagnetisation-driven effects

JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 115 (2014) ARTN 17D140

AA Baker, CS Davies, AI Figueroa, LR Shelford, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal


Magnetic ordering in Cr-doped Bi2Se3 thin films

EPL 107 (2014) ARTN 57009

LJ Collins-McIntyre, SE Harrison, P Schoenherr, N-J Steinke, CJ Kinane, TR Charlton, D Alba-Veneroa, A Pushp, AJ Kellock, SSP Parkin, JS Harris, S Langridge, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal