Publications by Thorsten Hesjedal

Study of Gd-doped Bi2Te3 thin films: Molecular beam epitaxy growth and magnetic properties

Journal of Applied Physics 115 (2014) 2

SE Harrison, LJ Collins-McIntyre, S Li, AA Baker, LR Shelford, Y Huo, A Pushp, SSP Parkin, JS Harris, E Arenholz, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

Vapour-liquid-solid growth of ternary Bi2Se2Te nanowires.

Nanoscale research letters 9 (2014) 127-

P Schönherr, LJ Collins-McIntyre, S Zhang, P Kusch, S Reich, T Giles, D Daisenberger, D Prabhakaran, T Hesjedal

: High-density growth of single-crystalline Bi2Se2Te nanowires was achieved via the vapour-liquid-solid process. The stoichiometry of samples grown at various substrate temperatures is precisely determined based on energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy on individual nanowires. We discuss the growth mechanism and present insights into the catalyst-precursor interaction.

Engineering of BiSe nanowires by laser cutting

EPJ Applied Physics 66 (2014)

P Schönherr, AA Baker, T Hesjedal, P Kusch, S Reich

We present a method to control the length and diameter of Bi Se nanowires through laser-cutting. Nanowires of the topologically insulating and thermoelectric material BiSe were grown using the vapor-liquid-solid method, and cut using a 532-nm-laser operating at a minimum power of 1 μW. The cutting process can be controlled through laser intensity and exposure time, and is based upon evaporation of Se from the nanowires. This method has many applications from pure research to device engineering. © 2014 EDP Sciences.

Modelling ferromagnetic resonance in magnetic multilayers: Exchange coupling and demagnetisation-driven effects

Journal of Applied Physics 115 (2014) 17D140

AA Baker, CS Davies, AI Figueroa, LR Shelford, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

Ferromagnetic resonance in thin films and heterostructures is studied by micromagnetic simulation. Using a Fourier transform, we obtain the power spectrum of modes of precession and demonstrate that they agree with experimental results. Additional resonance modes associated with demagnetization effects are observed and studied as a function of the sample dimensions. Sufficiently confined geometries lead to a reorientation of the resonance mode, and a dramatic change in its frequency. Finally, the simulations are extended to exchange-coupled bilayers where energy is transferred between magnetic materials.

Extraordinary hall balance

Scientific Reports Nature Publishing Group 3 (2013) 2087

SL Zhang, Y Liu, LJ Collins-McIntyre, T Hesjedal, JY Zhang, SG Wang, GH Yu

Magnetoresistance (MR) effects are at the heart of modern information technology. However, future progress of giant and tunnelling MR based storage and logic devices is limited by the usable MR ratios of currently about 200% at room-temperature. Colossal MR structures, on the other hand, achieve their high MR ratios of up to 106% only at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. We introduce the extraordinary Hall balance (EHB) and demonstrate room-temperature MR ratios in excess of 31,000%. The new device concept exploits the extraordinary Hall effect in two separated ferromagnetic layers with perpendicular anisotropy in which the Hall voltages can be configured to be carefully balanced or tipped out of balance. Reprogrammable logic and memory is realised using a single EHB element.

Study of the structural, electric and magnetic properties of Mn-doped Bi 2 Te 3 single crystals

New Journal of Physics 15 (2013) 10

MD Watson, LJ Collins-McIntyre, LR Shelford, AI Coldea, D Prabhakaran, SC Speller, T Mousavi, CRM Grovenor, Z Salman, SR Giblin, GVD Laan, T Hesjedal

Breaking the time reversal symmetry of a topological insulator, for example by the presence of magnetic ions, is a prerequisite for spin-based electronic applications in the future. In this regard Mn-doped Bi 2 Te 3 is a prototypical example that merits a systematic investigation of its magnetic properties. Unfortunately, Mn doping is challenging in many host materials—resulting in structural or chemical inhomogeneities affecting the magnetic properties. Here, we present a systematic study of the structural, magnetic and magnetotransport properties of Mn-doped Bi 2 Te 3 single crystals using complimentary experimental techniques. These materials exhibit a ferromagnetic phase that is very sensitive to the structural details, with T C varying between 9 and 13 K (bulk values) and a saturation moment that reaches4.4(5) μ B per Mn in the ordered phase. Muon spin rotation suggests that the magnetism is homogeneous throughout the sample. Furthermore, torque measurements in fields up to 33 T reveal an easy axis magnetic anisotropy perpendicular to the ab -plane. The electrical transport data show an anomaly around T C that is easily suppressed by an applied magnetic field, and also anisotropic behavior due to the spin-dependent scattering in relation to the alignment of the Mn magnetic moment. Hall measurements on different crystals established that these systems are n -doped with carrier concentrations of ∼ 0.5–3.0 × 10 20 cm −3 . X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Mn L 2,3 edge at 1.8 K reveals a large spin magnetic moment of4.3(3) μ B /Mn, and a small orbital magnetic moment of0.18(2) μ B /Mn. The results also indicate a ground state of mixed d 4 –d 5 –d 6 character of a localized electronic nature, similar to the diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga 1− x Mn x As. XMCD measurements in a field of 6 T give a transition point at T ≈ 16 K, which is ascribed to short range magnetic order induced by the magnetic field. In the ferromagnetic state the easy direction of magnetization is along the c -axis, in agreement with bulk magnetization measurements. This could lead to gap opening at the Dirac point, providing a means to control the surface electric transport, which is of great importance for applications.

Nonvolatile full adder based on a single multivalued Hall junction

SPIN World Scientific Publishing 3 (2013) 1350008

SL Zhang, LJ Collins-McIntyre, JY Zhang, SG Wang, GH Yu, T Hesjedal

Multivalued logic devices are promising candidates for achieving high-density, low-power memory and logic functionalities. We present a ferromagnetic multilayer Hall junction device with four distinct resistance - and thus logic - states. The states can be encoded as a quaternary bit and decoded into two binary bits. We demonstrate a nonvolatile full adder that is based on a single Hall junction, the extraordinary Hall balance. The device can be easily integrated into complex logic circuits for logic-in-memory architectures.

Structure of epitaxial L10-FePt/MgO perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

Applied Physics Letters 102 (2013) 062403

A Kohn, N Tal, A Elkayam, A Kovacs, D Li, S Wang, S Ghannadzadeh, T Hesjedal, RCC Ward

Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with MgO barriers are interesting for high-density information-storage devices. Chemically ordered L10-FePt is a potential electrode due to its large perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy. To-date, a single theoretical study on L10-FePt/MgO p-MTJ based on an idealized structure reported significant dependence of spin-dependent tunneling on interface structure. [Y. Taniguchi et al., IEEE Trans. Magn. 44, 2585 (2008).] We report a structural study of epitaxial L10-FePt(001)[110]//MgO(001)[110]//L10-FePt(001)[110] p-MTJs, focusing on the interfaces using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Interfaces are semi-coherent, with oxygen atomic-columns of MgO located opposite to iron atomic-columns in L10-FePt. Up to three lattice planes show atomic-column steps, the origin of which is attributed to antiphase boundaries in L10-FePt.

Magnetic properties of gadolinium substituted Bi2Te3 thin films

Applied Physics Letters 102 (2013) 242412

S Li, SA Harrison, Y Huo, A Pushp, HT Yuan, B Zhou, AJ Kellock, SSP Parkin, Y-L Chen, T Hesjedal, JS Harris

Thin film GdBiTe3 has been proposed as a candidate material in which to observe the quantum anomalous Hall effect. As a thermal non-equilibrium deposition method, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has the ability to incorporate large amounts of Gd into Bi2Te3 crystal structures. High-quality rhombohedral (GdxBi1−x)2Te3 films with substitutional Gd concentrations of x ≤ 0.4 were grown by MBE. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows that the topological surface state remains intact up to the highest Gd concentration. Magnetoresistance measurements show weak antilocalization, indicating strong spin orbit interaction. Magnetometry reveals that the films are paramagnetic with a magnetic moment of 6.93 μB per Gd3+ ion.

Micromagnetic Investigation of the S-State Reconfigurable Logic Element

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2012)

L Hu, T Hesjedal

Magnetic susceptibility of n-type GaAs

Semiconductor Science and Technology IOP 27 (2012) 055018

T Hesjedal, U Kretzer, A Ney

Methane chemical vapor deposition on transition metal/GaAs samples - A possible route to Haeckelite carbon nanotubes?

Surface and Interface Analysis 44 (2012) 456-465

MJ Burek, T Hesjedal

We present a systematic study of atmospheric chemical vapor deposition growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on patterned, transition metal/GaAs samples employing methane as the carbon feedstock. Controlled CNT growth was found to occur from the exposed metal-semiconductor interface, rather than from the metal or semiconductor surfaces themselves. A fast sample loading system allowed for a minimization of the exposure to high temperatures, thereby preventing excessive sample damage. The optimum growth temperature for CrNi/GaAs interfaces is 700 °C (at a methane flow rate of 700 sccm). Possible growth scenarios involving the Ni-As-Ga system and its interaction with C is discussed. Raman spectroscopy of the CNTs revealed the presence of pentagon-heptagon defects. Closer analysis of the spectra points towards a mixture of so-called Haeckelite CNTs. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Transverse magnetic exchange springs in a DyFe2/YFe2 superlattice

Physical Review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 86 (2012) 174420

GBG Stenning, GJ Bowden, SA Gregory, PAJ de Groot, G van der Laan, LR Shelford, P Bencok, P Steadman, AN Dobrynin, T Hesjedal

Using a history-dependent method, it is possible to prepare magnetic superlattices, consisting of alternating hard and soft layers, in transverse exchange spring states. The procedure, which involves both physical rotation and magnetization routines, is illustrated using a (110)-oriented [DyFe2(60 Å)/YFe2(240 Å)]15 multilayer film. In small applied fields, it is shown that the magnetic response of a transverse magnetic exchange spring is reversible. However, in fields of up to 14 T, the Dy moments are pulled up out of their local in-plane [00¯1] minimum into an out-of-plane [100] (or equivalent [010]) axis. The reversible transverse exchange spring state is then lost. Thereafter, the magnetic loop is characterized by an irreversible out-of-plane magnetic exchange spring state.

Electronic structure of Fe and Co magnetic adatoms on Bi Te surfaces

Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 86 (2012)

LR Shelford, SS Dhesi, F MacCherozzi, G Van Der Laan, T Hesjedal, L Collins-Mcintyre

Magnetic doping of topological insulators (TIs) is a prerequisite for their application as spin-based devices. Using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) we investigate the influence of an ultralow coverage (∼0.5% of a monolayer) of magnetic atoms on a TI substrate. For Fe and Co adatoms on Bi Te at ∼1.5 K we find an orbital-to-spin magnetic moment ratio of ∼0.45. The magnetization curve of the Fe atoms recorded by XMCD is in quantitative agreement with a paramagnetic behavior with no indication of long-range magnetic order. The spectral shape of the XMCD indicates that the adatoms are weakly hybridized with the substrate and form narrowband states. The results show that the adatoms are not capable of breaking time-reversal symmetry. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Methane chemical vapor deposition on transition metal/GaAs samples - a possible route to Haeckelite carbon nanotubes?

Surface and Interface Analysis (2011)

MJ Burek, T Hesjedal

Magnetic reversal in a YFe₂ dominated DyFe₂/YFe₂ multilayer film

Applied Physics Letters 101 (2012) 072412

GBG Stenning, GJ Bowden, SA Gregory, J-ML Beaujour, PAJ de Groot, G van der Laan, LR Shelford, P Bencok, P Steadman, AN Dobrynin, T Hesjedal

Interface Characterization of Epitaxial Fe/MgO/Fe Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 12 (2012) 1006-1023

SG Wang, RCC Ward, T Hesjedal, XG Zhang, C Wang, A Kohn, QL Ma, J Zhang, HF Liu, XF Han

An undergraduate nanotechnology engineering laboratory course on atomic force microscopy

IEEE Transactions on Education 54 (2011) 428-441

D Russo, RD Fagan, T Hesjedal

The University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, is home to North America's first undergraduate program in nanotechnology. As part of the Nanotechnology Engineering degree program, a scanning probe microscopy (SPM)-based laboratory has been developed for students in their fourth year. The one-term laboratory course Nanoprobing and Lithography is accompanied by a preceding one-term lecture course, Nanoprobing and Lithography. The lecture course lays the theoretical foundation for the concepts covered in the laboratory course. The students work in groups of two and obtain hands-on experience in biweekly 3-h laboratory sessions. The labs use a dedicated undergraduate SPM teaching facility consisting of five atomic force microscope stations. The laboratory course covers all common standard modes of operation, as well as force spectroscopy, electrostatic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning probe lithography by electrochemical oxidation and scratching/ploughing of resist. In light of the breadth of the nanotechnology engineering educational program in terms of synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials, the authors designed a dedicated SPM lab with a capacity of up to 130 students per term. © 2010 IEEE.

Continuous roll-to-roll growth of graphene films by chemical vapor deposition

Applied Physics Letters 98 (2011)

T Hesjedal

Few-layer graphene is obtained in atmospheric chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline copper in a roll-to-roll process. Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to confirm the few-layer nature of the graphene film, to map the inhomogeneities, and to study and optimize the growth process. This continuous growth process can be easily scaled up and enables the low-cost fabrication of graphene films for industrial applications. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Are carbon nanotubes a naturally occurring material? Hints from methane CVD using lava as a catalyst

Current Nanoscience 7 (2011) 294-296

J Mracek, T Hesjedal, RD Fagan, RM Stengelin

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were grown using methane CVD with lava as a catalyst and substrate. Metal-oxide phases embedded in the lava are reduced in the presence of hydrogen, thereby promoting catalytic growth. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy show a correlation between the growth of carbonaceous nanomaterials and the presence of iron in the alumina matrix. Raman spectroscopy of the carbon deposits proves the occurrence of SWNTs. Although this growth route lacks ef-ficiency, it provides evidence for the claim that SWNTs are a natural allotrope of carbon and that volcanoes may provide an environment for their synthesis. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.