Publications by Thorsten Hesjedal

Spin pumping through a topological insulator probed by x-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (2015)

AI Figueroa, AA Baker, AA Baker, LJ Collins-McIntyre, T Hesjedal, G van der Laan

© 2015 Elsevier B.V. In the field of spintronics, the generation of a pure spin current (without macroscopic charge flow) through spin pumping of a ferromagnetic (FM) layer opens up the perspective of a new generation of dissipation-less devices. Microwave driven ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) can generate a pure spin current that enters adjacent layers, allowing for both magnetization reversal (through spin-transfer torque) and to probe spin coherence in non-magnetic materials. However, standard FMR is unable to probe multilayer dynamics directly, since the measurement averages over the contributions from the whole system. The synchrotron radiation-based technique of x-ray detected FMR (XFMR) offers an elegant solution to this drawback, giving access to element-, site-, and layer-specific dynamical measurements in heterostructures. In this work, we show how XFMR has provided unique information to understand spin pumping and spin transfer torque effects through a topological insulator (TI) layer in a pseudo-spin valve heterostructure. We demonstrate that TIs function as efficient spin sinks, while also allowing a limited dynamic coupling between ferromagnetic layers. These results shed new light on the spin dynamics of this novel class of materials, and suggest future directions for the development of room temperature TI-based spintronics.

Structural properties and growth mechanism of Cd3As2 nanowires


P Schoenherr, T Hesjedal

Transverse field muon-spin rotation signature of the skyrmion-lattice phase in Cu2OSeO3

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 91 (2015) ARTN 224408

T Lancaster, RC Williams, IO Thomas, F Xiao, FL Pratt, SJ Blundell, JC Loudon, T Hesjedal, SJ Clark, PD Hatton, MC Hatnean, DS Keeble, G Balakrishnan

Magnetic proximity-enhanced Curie temperature of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 thin films

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 92 (2015) ARTN 094420

AA Baker, AI Figueroa, K Kummer, LJ Collins-McIntyre, T Hesjedal, G van der Laan

Local Structure and Bonding of Transition Metal Dopants in Bi2Se3 Topological Insulator Thin Films

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C 119 (2015) 17344-17351

AI Figueroa, G van der Laan, LJ Collins-McIntyre, G Cibin, AJ Dent, T Hesjedal

Growth of Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 on amorphous fused silica by MBE

physica status solidi (b) 252 (2015) 1334-1338

LJ Collins-McIntyre, W Wang, B Zhou, Speller, Chen, T Hesjedal

Topological insulator (TI) thin films of Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 have been successfully grown on amorphous fused silica (vitreous SiO2) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. We find that such growth is possible and investigations by X-ray diffraction reveal good crystalline quality with a high degree of order along the caxis. Atomic force microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray reflectivity are used to study the surface morphology and structural film parameters. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy studies confirm the existence of a topological surface state. This work shows that TI films can be grown on amorphous substrates, while maintaining the topological surface state despite the lack of in-plane rotational order of the domains. The growth on fused silica presents a promising route to detailed thermoelectric measurements of TI films, free from unwanted thermal, electrical, and piezoelectric influences from the substrate.

Tailoring of magnetic properties of ultrathin epitaxial Fe films by Dy doping

AIP ADVANCES 5 (2015) ARTN 077117

AA Baker, AI Figueroa, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

Magnetic reversal in Dy-doped DyFe2/YFe2 superlattice films

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 91 (2015) ARTN 094403

GBG Stenning, GJ Bowden, PAJ de Groot, G van der Laan, AI Figueroa, P Bencok, P Steadman, T Hesjedal

Exchange spring switching in Er-doped DyFe2/YFe2 magnetic thin films

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 92 (2015) ARTN 104404

GBG Stenning, GJ Bowden, PAJ de Groot, G van der Laan, AI Figueroa, P Bencok, P Steadman, T Hesjedal

Massive Dirac Fermion Observed in Lanthanide-Doped Topological Insulator Thin Films.

Scientific reports 5 (2015) 15767-

SE Harrison, LJ Collins-McIntyre, P Schönherr, A Vailionis, V Srot, PA van Aken, AJ Kellock, A Pushp, SS Parkin, JS Harris, B Zhou, YL Chen, T Hesjedal

The breaking of time reversal symmetry (TRS) in three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators (TIs), and thus the opening of a 'Dirac-mass gap' in the linearly dispersed Dirac surface state, is a prerequisite for unlocking exotic physical states. Introducing ferromagnetic long-range order by transition metal doping has been shown to break TRS. Here, we present the study of lanthanide (Ln) doped Bi2Te3, where the magnetic doping with high-moment lanthanides promises large energy gaps. Using molecular beam epitaxy, single-crystalline, rhombohedral thin films with Ln concentrations of up to ~35%, substituting on Bi sites, were achieved for Dy, Gd, and Ho doping. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows the characteristic Dirac cone for Gd and Ho doping. In contrast, for Dy doping above a critical doping concentration, a gap opening is observed via the decreased spectral intensity at the Dirac point, indicating a topological quantum phase transition persisting up to room-temperature.

Universal Magnetic Hall Circuit Based on Paired Spin Heterostructures


S Zhang, AA Baker, J-Y Zhang, G Yu, S Wang, T Hesjedal

Study of Dy-doped Bi₂Te₃: thin film growth and magnetic properties.

Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal 27 (2015) 245602-

SE Harrison, LJ Collins-McIntyre, SL Zhang, AA Baker, AI Figueroa, AJ Kellock, A Pushp, SS Parkin, JS Harris, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

Breaking the time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in topological insulators (TIs) through ferromagnetic doping is an essential prerequisite for unlocking novel physical phenomena and exploring potential device applications. Here, we report the successful growth of high-quality (Dy(x)Bi(1-x))2Te3 thin films with Dy concentrations up to x = 0.355 by molecular beam epitaxy. Bulk-sensitive magnetisation studies using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry find paramagnetic behaviour down to 2 K for the entire doping series. The effective magnetic moment, μeff, is strongly doping concentration-dependent and reduces from ∼12.6 μ(B) Dy(-1) for x = 0.023 to ∼4.3 μ(B) Dy(-1) for x = 0.355. X-ray absorption spectra and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Dy M4,5 edge are employed to provide a deeper insight into the magnetic nature of the Dy(3+)-doped films. XMCD, measured in surface-sensitive total-electron-yield detection, gives μ(eff )= 4.2 μ(B) Dy(-1). The large measured moments make Dy-doped films interesting TI systems in which the TRS may be broken via the proximity effect due to an adjacent ferromagnetic insulator.

Transverse field muon-spin rotation signature of the skyrmion-lattice phase in Cu2OSeO3

Phys Rev B. Solid State 91 (2015) 224408

T Lancaster, RC Williams, IO Thomas, F Xiao, FL Pratt, SJ Blundell, JC Loudon, T Hesjedal, SJ Clark, PD Hatton, M Ciomaga Hatnean, DS Keeble, G Balakrishnan

We present the results of transverse field (TF) muon-spin rotation (μ+SR) measurements on Cu2OSeO3, which has a skyrmion-lattice (SL) phase. We measure the response of the TF μ+SR signal in that phase along with the surrounding ones, and suggest how the phases might be distinguished using the results of these measurements. Dipole field simulations support the conclusion that the muon is sensitive to the SL via the TF line shape and, based on this interpretation, our measurements suggest that the SL is quasistatic on a time scale τ>100 ns.

Local electronic and structural environment of transition metal doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator thin films

Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2015)

AI Figuorea, G van der Laan, Collins-McIntyre, G Cibin, AJ Dent, T Hesjedal

Transition metal (TM) doped topological insulators have been the focus of many recent studies since they exhibit exotic quantum and magneto-electric effects, and offer the prospect of potential applications in spintronic devices. Here we report a systematic study of the local electronic and structural environment using x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) in TM (= Cr, Mn, and Fe) doped Bi2Se3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Analysis of the TM K-edge XAFS reveals a divalent character for Cr, Mn, and Fe when substituting Bi in the films, despite the trivalent character of the Bi. All dopants occupy octahedral sites in the Bi2Se3 lattice, which agrees with substitutional incorporation onto the Bi sites. With the incorporation of TM dopants a local structural relaxation of the Bi2Se3 lattice is observed, which strengthens the covalent character of the TM–Se bond. The presence of additional phases and interstitial incorporation for the Mn and Fe dopants is also observed, even at low concentrations.

Topological computation based on direct magnetic logic communication.

Scientific reports 5 (2015) 15773-

S Zhang, AA Baker, S Komineas, T Hesjedal

Non-uniform magnetic domains with non-trivial topology, such as vortices and skyrmions, are proposed as superior state variables for nonvolatile information storage. So far, the possibility of logic operations using topological objects has not been considered. Here, we demonstrate numerically that the topology of the system plays a significant role for its dynamics, using the example of vortex-antivortex pairs in a planar ferromagnetic film. Utilising the dynamical properties and geometrical confinement, direct logic communication between the topological memory carriers is realised. This way, no additional magnetic-to-electrical conversion is required. More importantly, the information carriers can spontaneously travel up to ~300 nm, for which no spin-polarised current is required. The derived logic scheme enables topological spintronics, which can be integrated into large-scale memory and logic networks capable of complex computations.

Study of Ho-doped Bi2Te3 topological insulator thin films

Applied Physics Letters 107 (2015)

SE Harrison, SE Harrison, LJ Collins-McIntyre, SL Zhang, AA Baker, AA Baker, AI Figueroa, AJ Kellock, A Pushp, YL Chen, SSP Parkin, JS Harris, G Van Der Laan, T Hesjedal

© 2015 Author(s). Breaking time-reversal symmetry through magnetic doping of topological insulators has been identified as a key strategy for unlocking exotic physical states. Here, we report the growth of Bi2Te3 thin films doped with the highest magnetic moment element Ho. Diffraction studies demonstrate high quality films for up to 21% Ho incorporation. Superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry reveals paramagnetism down to 2 K with an effective magnetic moment of ∼5 μB/Ho. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows that the topological surface state remains intact with Ho doping, consistent with the material's paramagnetic state. The large saturation moment achieved makes these films useful for incorporation into heterostructures, whereby magnetic order can be introduced via interfacial coupling.

Magnetization dynamics in an exchange-coupled NiFe/CoFe bilayer studied by x-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance


GBG Stenning, LR Shelford, SA Cavill, F Hoffmann, M Haertinger, T Hesjedal, G Woltersdorf, GJ Bowden, SA Gregory, CH Back, PAJ de Groot, G van der Laan

A new topological insulator built from quasi one-dimensional atomic ribbons


P Schoenherr, S Zhang, Y Liu, P Kusch, S Reich, T Giles, D Daisenberger, D Prabhakaran, Y Chen, T Hesjedal

Spin pumping in ferromagnet-topological insulator-ferromagnet heterostructures.

Scientific reports 5 (2015) 7907-

AA Baker, AI Figueroa, LJ Collins-McIntyre, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

Topological insulators (TIs) are enticing prospects for the future of spintronics due to their large spin-orbit coupling and dissipationless, counter-propagating conduction channels in the surface state. However, a means to interact with and exploit the topological surface state remains elusive. Here, we report a study of spin pumping at the TI-ferromagnet interface, investigating spin transfer dynamics in a spin-valve like structure using element specific time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and ferromagnetic resonance. Gilbert damping increases approximately linearly with increasing TI thickness, indicating efficient behaviour as a spin sink. However, layer-resolved measurements suggest that a dynamic coupling is limited. These results shed new light on the spin dynamics of this novel material class, and suggest great potential for TIs in spintronic devices, through their novel magnetodynamics that persist even up to room temperature.

A new topological insulator built from quasi one-dimensional atomic ribbons

Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters 9 (2015) 130-135

P Schönherr, S Zhang, Y Liu, Y Liu, P Kusch, S Reich, T Giles, D Daisenberger, D Prabhakaran, Y Chen, T Hesjedal

© 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. A novel topological insulator with orthorhombic crystal structure is demonstrated. It is characterized by quasi one-dimensional, conducting atomic chains instead of the layered, two-dimensional sheets known from the established Bi2(Se,Te)3 system. The Sb-doped Bi2Se3 nanowires are grown in a TiO2-catalyzed process by chemical vapor deposition. The binary Bi2Se3 is transformed from rhombohedral to orthorhombic by substituting Sb on ∼38% of the Bi sites. Pure Sb2Se3 is a topologically trivial band insulator with an orthorhombic crystal structure at ambient conditions, and it is known to transform into a topological insulator at high pressure. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows a topological surface state, while Sb doping also tunes the Fermi level to reside in the bandgap.