Publications by Thorsten Hesjedal
Journal of Applied Physics 115 (2014) 2
SPIN World Scientific Publishing 3 (2013) 1350008
Multivalued logic devices are promising candidates for achieving high-density, low-power memory and logic functionalities. We present a ferromagnetic multilayer Hall junction device with four distinct resistance - and thus logic - states. The states can be encoded as a quaternary bit and decoded into two binary bits. We demonstrate a nonvolatile full adder that is based on a single Hall junction, the extraordinary Hall balance. The device can be easily integrated into complex logic circuits for logic-in-memory architectures.
Applied Physics Letters 102 (2013) 062403
Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with MgO barriers are interesting for high-density information-storage devices. Chemically ordered L10-FePt is a potential electrode due to its large perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy. To-date, a single theoretical study on L10-FePt/MgO p-MTJ based on an idealized structure reported significant dependence of spin-dependent tunneling on interface structure. [Y. Taniguchi et al., IEEE Trans. Magn. 44, 2585 (2008).] We report a structural study of epitaxial L10-FePt(001)//MgO(001)//L10-FePt(001) p-MTJs, focusing on the interfaces using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Interfaces are semi-coherent, with oxygen atomic-columns of MgO located opposite to iron atomic-columns in L10-FePt. Up to three lattice planes show atomic-column steps, the origin of which is attributed to antiphase boundaries in L10-FePt.
Scientific Reports Nature Publishing Group 3 (2013) 2087
Magnetoresistance (MR) effects are at the heart of modern information technology. However, future progress of giant and tunnelling MR based storage and logic devices is limited by the usable MR ratios of currently about 200% at room-temperature. Colossal MR structures, on the other hand, achieve their high MR ratios of up to 106% only at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. We introduce the extraordinary Hall balance (EHB) and demonstrate room-temperature MR ratios in excess of 31,000%. The new device concept exploits the extraordinary Hall effect in two separated ferromagnetic layers with perpendicular anisotropy in which the Hall voltages can be configured to be carefully balanced or tipped out of balance. Reprogrammable logic and memory is realised using a single EHB element.
Applied Physics Letters 102 (2013) 242412
Thin film GdBiTe3 has been proposed as a candidate material in which to observe the quantum anomalous Hall effect. As a thermal non-equilibrium deposition method, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has the ability to incorporate large amounts of Gd into Bi2Te3 crystal structures. High-quality rhombohedral (GdxBi1−x)2Te3 films with substitutional Gd concentrations of x ≤ 0.4 were grown by MBE. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows that the topological surface state remains intact up to the highest Gd concentration. Magnetoresistance measurements show weak antilocalization, indicating strong spin orbit interaction. Magnetometry reveals that the films are paramagnetic with a magnetic moment of 6.93 μB per Gd3+ ion.
New Journal of Physics 15 (2013) 10
Breaking the time reversal symmetry of a topological insulator, for example by the presence of magnetic ions, is a prerequisite for spin-based electronic applications in the future. In this regard Mn-doped Bi 2 Te 3 is a prototypical example that merits a systematic investigation of its magnetic properties. Unfortunately, Mn doping is challenging in many host materials—resulting in structural or chemical inhomogeneities affecting the magnetic properties. Here, we present a systematic study of the structural, magnetic and magnetotransport properties of Mn-doped Bi 2 Te 3 single crystals using complimentary experimental techniques. These materials exhibit a ferromagnetic phase that is very sensitive to the structural details, with T C varying between 9 and 13 K (bulk values) and a saturation moment that reaches4.4(5) μ B per Mn in the ordered phase. Muon spin rotation suggests that the magnetism is homogeneous throughout the sample. Furthermore, torque measurements in fields up to 33 T reveal an easy axis magnetic anisotropy perpendicular to the ab -plane. The electrical transport data show an anomaly around T C that is easily suppressed by an applied magnetic field, and also anisotropic behavior due to the spin-dependent scattering in relation to the alignment of the Mn magnetic moment. Hall measurements on different crystals established that these systems are n -doped with carrier concentrations of ∼ 0.5–3.0 × 10 20 cm −3 . X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Mn L 2,3 edge at 1.8 K reveals a large spin magnetic moment of4.3(3) μ B /Mn, and a small orbital magnetic moment of0.18(2) μ B /Mn. The results also indicate a ground state of mixed d 4 –d 5 –d 6 character of a localized electronic nature, similar to the diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga 1− x Mn x As. XMCD measurements in a field of 6 T give a transition point at T ≈ 16 K, which is ascribed to short range magnetic order induced by the magnetic field. In the ferromagnetic state the easy direction of magnetization is along the c -axis, in agreement with bulk magnetization measurements. This could lead to gap opening at the Dirac point, providing a means to control the surface electric transport, which is of great importance for applications.
Physical Review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 86 (2012) 174420
Using a history-dependent method, it is possible to prepare magnetic superlattices, consisting of alternating hard and soft layers, in transverse exchange spring states. The procedure, which involves both physical rotation and magnetization routines, is illustrated using a (110)-oriented [DyFe2(60 Å)/YFe2(240 Å)]15 multilayer film. In small applied fields, it is shown that the magnetic response of a transverse magnetic exchange spring is reversible. However, in fields of up to 14 T, the Dy moments are pulled up out of their local in-plane [00¯1] minimum into an out-of-plane  (or equivalent ) axis. The reversible transverse exchange spring state is then lost. Thereafter, the magnetic loop is characterized by an irreversible out-of-plane magnetic exchange spring state.
Applied Physics Letters 101 (2012) 072412
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2012)
Methane chemical vapor deposition on transition metal/GaAs samples - A possible route to Haeckelite carbon nanotubes?
Surface and Interface Analysis 44 (2012) 456-465
We present a systematic study of atmospheric chemical vapor deposition growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on patterned, transition metal/GaAs samples employing methane as the carbon feedstock. Controlled CNT growth was found to occur from the exposed metal-semiconductor interface, rather than from the metal or semiconductor surfaces themselves. A fast sample loading system allowed for a minimization of the exposure to high temperatures, thereby preventing excessive sample damage. The optimum growth temperature for CrNi/GaAs interfaces is 700 °C (at a methane flow rate of 700 sccm). Possible growth scenarios involving the Ni-As-Ga system and its interaction with C is discussed. Raman spectroscopy of the CNTs revealed the presence of pentagon-heptagon defects. Closer analysis of the spectra points towards a mixture of so-called Haeckelite CNTs. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 12 (2012) 1006-1023
Methane chemical vapor deposition on transition metal/GaAs samples - a possible route to Haeckelite carbon nanotubes?
Surface and Interface Analysis (2011)
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 86 (2012)
Magnetic doping of topological insulators (TIs) is a prerequisite for their application as spin-based devices. Using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) we investigate the influence of an ultralow coverage (∼0.5% of a monolayer) of magnetic atoms on a TI substrate. For Fe and Co adatoms on Bi Te at ∼1.5 K we find an orbital-to-spin magnetic moment ratio of ∼0.45. The magnetization curve of the Fe atoms recorded by XMCD is in quantitative agreement with a paramagnetic behavior with no indication of long-range magnetic order. The spectral shape of the XMCD indicates that the adatoms are weakly hybridized with the substrate and form narrowband states. The results show that the adatoms are not capable of breaking time-reversal symmetry. © 2012 American Physical Society.
European Journal of Physics 32 (2011) 675-686
The teaching of the different aspects of a sensor system, with a focus on the involved nanotechnology, is a challenging, yet important task. We present the development of an electronic nose system that utilizes a nanoscale amperometric sensing mechanism for gas mixtures. The fabrication of the system makes use of a basic microfabrication facility, as well as an undergraduate chemistry laboratory for material synthesis and preparation. The sensing device consists of an array of cross-reactive sensors composed of metal-oxide semiconducting nanoparticles. Each sensor in the array produces a unique response in the presence of a target gas, allowing the sensor to determine the identity and concentration of multiple gases in a mixture. The educational aspects include microheater simulation and fabrication, design and fabrication of interdigitated electrodes, development of interfacing circuitry and software, development and calibration of a sensory array, sol-gel processing of nanoparticle films and their characterization, and details of the fundamental chemical sensing mechanism. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Applied Physics Letters 98 (2011)
Few-layer graphene is obtained in atmospheric chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline copper in a roll-to-roll process. Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to confirm the few-layer nature of the graphene film, to map the inhomogeneities, and to study and optimize the growth process. This continuous growth process can be easily scaled up and enables the low-cost fabrication of graphene films for industrial applications. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 323 (2011) 1840-1845
V-shaped domain transitions in αMnAs nanowires were investigated by micromagnetic simulations. These rather unusual domain patterns are commonly observed experimentally by surface-sensitive magnetic imaging techniques. It has been speculated that the accompanying inclined domain walls in MnAs are the result of either an exchange biasing effect between ferromagnetic αMnAs wires and antiferromagnetic βMnAs wires or possibly due to competing exchange mechanisms in MnAs. Here we present evidence that these domain features are in fact transitions between three-dimensional flux-closure domains of opposite chirality and can therefore rule out the involvement of an antiferromagnetic biasing effect or anisotropic exchange. The formation of the energetically unfavorable V-shaped domain transitions is discussed in the context of the magneto-structural phase transition of the sample. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Are carbon nanotubes a naturally occurring material? Hints from methane CVD using lava as a catalyst
Current Nanoscience 7 (2011) 294-296
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were grown using methane CVD with lava as a catalyst and substrate. Metal-oxide phases embedded in the lava are reduced in the presence of hydrogen, thereby promoting catalytic growth. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy show a correlation between the growth of carbonaceous nanomaterials and the presence of iron in the alumina matrix. Raman spectroscopy of the carbon deposits proves the occurrence of SWNTs. Although this growth route lacks ef-ficiency, it provides evidence for the claim that SWNTs are a natural allotrope of carbon and that volcanoes may provide an environment for their synthesis. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
IEEE Transactions on Education 54 (2011) 428-441
The University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, is home to North America's first undergraduate program in nanotechnology. As part of the Nanotechnology Engineering degree program, a scanning probe microscopy (SPM)-based laboratory has been developed for students in their fourth year. The one-term laboratory course Nanoprobing and Lithography is accompanied by a preceding one-term lecture course, Nanoprobing and Lithography. The lecture course lays the theoretical foundation for the concepts covered in the laboratory course. The students work in groups of two and obtain hands-on experience in biweekly 3-h laboratory sessions. The labs use a dedicated undergraduate SPM teaching facility consisting of five atomic force microscope stations. The laboratory course covers all common standard modes of operation, as well as force spectroscopy, electrostatic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning probe lithography by electrochemical oxidation and scratching/ploughing of resist. In light of the breadth of the nanotechnology engineering educational program in terms of synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials, the authors designed a dedicated SPM lab with a capacity of up to 130 students per term. © 2010 IEEE.
Reports on Progress in Physics 73 (2010)
Elastic properties of nanoscopic materials, structures and thin films are important parameters controlling their growth, as well as their optical and electronic properties. Acoustic microscopy is a well-established method for elastic imaging. In order to overcome its micrometer-scale diffraction-limited lateral resolution, scanning probe microscopy-based acoustic near-field techniques have been developed. Among the acoustic modes used for microscopy, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are especially suited for probing very small and thin objects due to their localization in the vicinity of the surface. Moreover, the study of SAWs is crucial for the design of frequency filter devices as well as for fundamental physical studies, for instance, the probing of composite fermions in two-dimensional electron systems. This review discusses the capabilities and limitations of SAW-based scanning probe microscopy techniques. Particular emphasis is laid on the review of surface acoustic waves and their interaction with elastic inhomogeneities. Scattering, diffraction and wave localization phenomena will be discussed in detail. Finally, the possibilities for quantitative acoustic microscopy of objects on the nanoscale, as well as practical applications, are presented. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.