Multi-photon quantum interference in a multi-port integrated photonic device

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BJ Metcalf, N Thomas-Peter, JB Spring, D Kundys, MA Broome, P Humphreys, X-M Jin, M Barbieri, WS Kolthammer, JC Gates, BJ Smith, NK Langford, PGR Smith, IA Walmsley

Increasing the complexity of quantum photonic devices is essential for many optical information processing applications to reach a regime beyond what can be classically simulated, and integrated photonics has emerged as a leading platform for achieving this. Here, we demonstrate three-photon quantum operation of an integrated device containing three coupled interferometers, eight spatial modes and many classical and nonclassical interferences. This represents a critical advance over previous complexities and the first on-chip nonclassical interference with more than two photonic inputs. We introduce a new scheme to verify quantum behaviour, using classically characterised device elements and hierarchies of photon correlation functions. We accurately predict the device's quantum behaviour and show operation inconsistent with both classical and bi-separable quantum models. Such methods for verifying multiphoton quantum behaviour are vital for achieving increased circuit complexity. Our experiment paves the way for the next generation of integrated photonic quantum simulation and computing devices.

On-chip, photon-number-resolving, telecom-band detectors for scalable photonic information processing

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T Gerrits, N Thomas-Peter, JC Gates, AE Lita, BJ Metcalf, B Calkins, NA Tomlin, AE Fox, AL Linares, JB Spring, NK Langford, RP Mirin, PGR Smith, IA Walmsley, SW Nam

Integration is currently the only feasible route towards scalable photonic quantum processing devices that are sufficiently complex to be genuinely useful in computing, metrology, and simulation. Embedded on-chip detection will be critical to such devices. We demonstrate an integrated photon-number resolving detector, operating in the telecom band at 1550 nm, employing an evanescently coupled design that allows it to be placed at arbitrary locations within a planar circuit. Up to 5 photons are resolved in the guided optical mode via absorption from the evanescent field into a tungsten transition-edge sensor. The detection efficiency is 7.2 \pm 0.5 %. The polarization sensitivity of the detector is also demonstrated. Detailed modeling of device designs shows a clear and feasible route to reaching high detection efficiencies.

Single-shot quantum memory advantage in the simulation of stochastic processes

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F Ghafari, N Tischler, J Thompson, M Gu, LK Shalm, VB Verma, SW Nam, RB Patel, HM Wiseman, GJ Pryde

Stochastic processes underlie a vast range of natural and social phenomena. Some processes such as atomic decay feature intrinsic randomness, whereas other complex processes, e.g. traffic congestion, are effectively probabilistic because we cannot track all relevant variables. To simulate a stochastic system's future behaviour, information about its past must be stored and thus memory is a key resource. Quantum information processing promises a memory advantage for stochastic simulation that has been validated in recent proof-of-concept experiments. Yet, in all past works, the memory saving would only become accessible in the limit of a large number of parallel simulations, because the memory registers of individual quantum simulators had the same dimensionality as their classical counterparts. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration that a quantum stochastic simulator can encode the relevant information in fewer dimensions than any classical simulator, thereby achieving a quantum memory advantage even for an individual simulator. Our photonic experiment thus establishes the potential of a new, practical resource saving in the simulation of complex systems.

Engineered photon-pair generation by four-wave mixing in asymmetric coupled waveguides

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RJA Francis-Jones, TA Wright, AV Gorbach, PJ Mosley

Third-order nonlinear processes require phase matching between the interacting fields to achieve high efficiencies. Typically in guided-wave $\chi^{(3)}$ platforms this is achieved by engineering the dispersion of the modes through the transverse profile of the device. However, this limits the flexibility of the phase matching that can be achieved. Instead, we analyze four-wave mixing in a pair of asymmetric waveguides and show that phasematching may be achieved in any $\chi^{(3)}$ waveguide by coupling of a nondegenerate pump from an adjacent waveguide. We demonstrate the additional flexibility that this approach yields in the case of photon-pair generation by spontaneous FWM, where the supermode dispersion may be modified to produce pure heralded single photons -- a critical capability required for example by silicon platforms for chip-scale quantum photonics.

Passive, broadband and low-frequency suppression of laser amplitude noise to the shot-noise limit using hollow-core fibre

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EJ Allen, G Ferranti, KR Rusimova, RJA Francis-Jones, M Azini, DH Mahler, TC Ralph, PJ Mosley, JCF Matthews

We use hollow-core fibre to preserve the spectrum and temporal profile of picosecond laser pulses in CBD to suppress 2.6 dB of amplitude noise at MHz noise frequencies, to within 0.01 dB of the shot-noise limit. We provide an enhanced version of the CBD scheme that concatenates circuits to suppress over multiple frequencies and over broad frequency ranges --- we perform a first demonstration that reduces total excess amplitude noise, between 2 - 6 MHz, by 85%. These demonstrations enable passive, broad-band, all-guided fibre laser technology operating at the shot-noise limit.

Exploring the limits of multiplexed photon-pair sources for the preparation of pure single-photon states

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RJA Francis-Jones, PJ Mosley

Current sources of heralded single photons based on nonlinear optics operate in a probabilistic manner. In order to build quantum-enhanced devices based around the use of single photons, compact, turn-key and deterministic sources are required. A possible solution is to multiplex a number of sources to increase the single-photon generation probability and in so doing reducing the waiting time to deliver large numbers of photons simultaneously, from independent sources. Previously it has been shown that, in the ideal case, 17 multiplexed sources allow deterministic generation of heralded single photons [Christ and Silberhorn, Phys. Rev. A 85, 023829 (2012)]. Here we extend this analysis to include undesirable effects of detector inefficiency and photon loss on a number of multiplexed sources using a variety of different detectors for heralding. We compare these systems for fixed signal-to-noise ratio to allow a direct comparison of performance for real- world heralded single photon sources.