Antidamping torques from simultaneous resonances in ferromagnet-topological insulator-ferromagnet heterostructures

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 473 (2019) 470-476

AA Baker, AI Figueroa, T Hesjedal, G van der Laan

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. We studied the magnetodynamics of ferromagnetic films coupling across a topological insulator (TI) Bi2Se3 layer using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). TIs have attracted much attention across the physics community as they hold the potential for dissipationless carrier transport, extremely high spin-orbit torques, and are host to novel quantum effects. To investigate the coupling between the ferromagnetic (FM) layers, vector network analyzer (VNA)-FMR measurements of the resonance linewidth were performed as a function of bias field angle. By bringing the resonances of the two FM layers into close proximity, it was possible to observe antidamping torques that lead to a narrowing of linewidth, a characteristic of spin pumping. The element- and hence layer-specific technique of X-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance (XFMR) was used to circumvent the difficulty of obtaining accurate fits to the two overlapping resonances in close proximity. Our results confirm that the interaction across the TI is a dynamic exchange mediated by spin pumping, as opposed to a self-coupling of the surface state or similar, more unconventional mechanisms.

Systematic Study of Ferromagnetism in CrxSb2-xTe3 Topological Insulator Thin Films using Electrical and Optical Techniques

Scientific Reports Nature Publishing Group (2018)

A Singh, V Kamboj, J Liu, J Llandro, L Duffy, SP Senanayak, HE Beere, A Ionescu, DA Ritchie, T HESJEDAL, CHW Barnes

Ferromagnetic ordering in a topological insulator can break time-reversal symmetry, realizing dissipationless electronic states in the absence of a magnetic field. The control of the magnetic state is of great importance for future device applications. We provide a detailed systematic study of the magnetic state in highly doped CrxSb2-xTe3 thin films using electrical transport, magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements and terahertz time domain spectroscopy, and also report an efficient electric gating of ferromagnetic order using the electrolyte ionic liquid [DEME][TFSI]. Upon increasing the Cr concentration from x = 0.15 to 0.76, the Curie temperature (Tc) was observed to increase by ~5 times to 176 K. In addition, it was possible to modify the magnetic moment by up to 50% with a gate bias variation of just ± 3V, which corresponds to an increase in carrier density by 50%. Further analysis on a sample with x = 0.76 exhibits a clear insulator-metal transition at Tc, indicating the consistency between the electrical and optical measurements. The direct correlation obtained between the carrier density and ferromagnetism - in both electrostatic and chemical doping - using optical and electrical means strongly suggests a carrier-mediated Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) coupling scenario. Our low-voltage means of manipulating ferromagnetism, and consistency in optical and electrical measurements provides a way to realize exotic quantum states for spintronic and low energy magneto-electronic device applications.

Magnetic X-ray spectroscopy of two-dimensional CrI3 layers

MATERIALS LETTERS 232 (2018) 5-7

A Frisk, LB Duffy, S Zhang, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

Real-Space Observation of Skyrmionium in a Ferromagnet-Magnetic Topological Insulator Heterostructure.

Nano letters ACS 18 (2018) 1057-1063

S Zhang, F Kronast, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

The combination of topological insulators, i.e., bulk insulators with gapless, topologically protected surface states, with magnetic order is a love-hate relationship that can unlock new quantum states and exotic physical phenomena, such as the quantum anomalous Hall effect and axion electrodynamics. Moreover, the unusual coupling between topological insulators and ferromagnets can also result in the formation of topological spin textures in the ferromagnetic layer. Skyrmions are topologically-protected magnetization swirls that are promising candidates for spintronics memory carriers. Here, we report on the observation of skyrmionium in thin ferromagnetic films coupled to a magnetic topological insulator. The occurrence of skyrmionium, which appears as a soliton composed of two skyrmions with opposite winding numbers, is tied to the ferromagnetic state of the topological insulator. Our work presents a new combination of two important classes of topological materials and may open the door to new topologically inspired information-storage concepts in the future.

Direct Observation of Twisted Surface skyrmions in Bulk Crystals.

Physical review letters 120 (2018) 227202-

SL Zhang, G van der Laan, WW Wang, AA Haghighirad, T Hesjedal

Magnetic skyrmions in noncentrosymmetric helimagnets with D_{n} symmetry are Bloch-type magnetization swirls with a helicity angle of ±90°. At the surface of helimagnetic thin films below a critical thickness, a twisted skyrmion state with an arbitrary helicity angle has been proposed; however, its direct experimental observation has remained elusive. Here, we show that circularly polarized resonant elastic x-ray scattering is able to unambiguously measure the helicity angle of surface skyrmions, providing direct experimental evidence that a twisted skyrmion surface state also exists in bulk systems. The exact surface helicity angles of twisted skyrmions for both left- and right-handed chiral bulk Cu_{2}OSeO_{3}, in the single as well as in the multidomain skyrmion lattice state, are determined, revealing their detailed internal structure. Our findings suggest that a skyrmion surface reconstruction is a universal phenomenon, stemming from the breaking of translational symmetry at the interface.

Proposal for a micromagnetic standard problem for materials with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

New Journal of Physics Institute of Physics (IoP) and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft 20 (2018) 113015

D Cortes-Ortuno, M Beg, V Nehruji, L Breth, R Pepper, T Kluyver, G Downing, T HESJEDAL, P Hatton, T Lancaster, R Hertel, O Hovorka, H Fabgohr

Understanding the role of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) for the formation of helimagnetic order, as well as the emergence of skyrmions in magnetic systems that lack inversion symmetry, has found increasing interest due to the significant potential for novel spin based technologies. Candidate materials to host skyrmions include those belonging to the B20 group such as FeGe, known for stabilising Bloch-like skyrmions, interfacial systems such as cobalt multilayers or Pd/Fe bilayers on top of Ir(111), known for stabilising N´eel-like skyrmions, and, recently, alloys with a crystallographic symmetry where anti-skyrmions are stabilised. Micromagnetic simulations have become a standard approach to aid the design and optimisation of spintronic and magnetic nanodevices and are also applied to the modelling of device applications which make use of skyrmions. Several public domain micromagnetic simulation packages such as OOMMF, MuMax3 and Fidimag already offer implementations of different DMI terms. It is therefore highly desirable to propose a so-called micromagnetic standard problem that would allow one to benchmark and test the different software packages in a similar way as is done for ferromagnetic materials without DMI. Here, we provide a sequence of well-defined and increasingly complex computational problems for magnetic materials with DMI. Our test problems include 1D, 2D and 3D domains, spin wave dynamics in the presence of DMI, and validation of the analytical and numerical solutions including uniform magnetisation, edge tilting, spin waves and skyrmion formation. This set of problems can be used by developers and users of new micromagnetic simulation codes for testing and validation and hence establishing scientific credibility.

THz carrier dynamics and magnetotransport study of topological surface states in thin film Bi<inf>2</inf>Se<inf>3</inf>

Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 10531 (2018)

VS Kamboj, A Singh, T Ferrus, HE Beere, LB Duffy, T Hesjedal, CHW Barnes, DA Ritchie

© 2018 SPIE. The surface of a topological insulator harbors exotic topological states, protected against backscattering from disorder by time reversal symmetry. The study of these exotic quantum states not only provides an opportunity to explore fundamental phenomena in condensed matter physics, such as the spin Hall effect, but also lays the foundation for applications from quantum computing to spintronics. Conventional electrical measurements suffer from substantial bulk interference, making it difficult to clearly distinguish topological surface states from bulk states. Employing terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, we study the temperature-dependent optical behavior of a 23-quintuple-thick film of bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) allowing for the deconvolution of the surface state response from the bulk. Our measurement of carrier dynamics give an optical mobility exceeding 2100 cm2/V•s at 4 K, indicative of a surface-dominated response, and a scattering lifetime of ∼0.18 ps and a carrier density of 6×1012cm-2at 4 K for the Bi2Se3film. The sample was further processed into a Hall bar device using two different etching techniques, a wet chemical etching and Ar+ion milling, which resulting in a reduced Hall mobility. Even so, the magneto-conductance transport reveals weak antilocalization behavior in our Bi2Se3 sample, consistent with the presence of a single topological surface state mode.

Electronic Structure and Enhanced Charge-Density Wave Order of Monolayer VSe2.

Nano letters 18 (2018) 4493-4499

J Feng, D Biswas, A Rajan, MD Watson, F Mazzola, OJ Clark, K Underwood, I Marković, M McLaren, A Hunter, DM Burn, LB Duffy, S Barua, G Balakrishnan, F Bertran, P Le Fèvre, TK Kim, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal, P Wahl, PDC King

How the interacting electronic states and phases of layered transition-metal dichalcogenides evolve when thinned to the single-layer limit is a key open question in the study of two-dimensional materials. Here, we use angle-resolved photoemission to investigate the electronic structure of monolayer VSe2 grown on bilayer graphene/SiC. While the global electronic structure is similar to that of bulk VSe2, we show that, for the monolayer, pronounced energy gaps develop over the entire Fermi surface with decreasing temperature below Tc = 140 ± 5 K, concomitant with the emergence of charge-order superstructures evident in low-energy electron diffraction. These observations point to a charge-density wave instability in the monolayer that is strongly enhanced over that of the bulk. Moreover, our measurements of both the electronic structure and of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism reveal no signatures of a ferromagnetic ordering, in contrast to the results of a recent experimental study as well as expectations from density functional theory. Our study thus points to a delicate balance that can be realized between competing interacting states and phases in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides.

Microscopic effects of Dy doping in the topological insulator Bi2Te3

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 97 (2018) ARTN 174427

LB Duffy, N-J Steinke, JA Krieger, AI Figueroa, K Kummer, T Lancaster, SR Giblin, FL Pratt, SJ Blundell, T Prokscha, A Suter, S Langridge, VN Strocov, Z Salman, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

Reciprocal space tomography of 3D skyrmion lattice order in a chiral magnet.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018) 6386-6391

S Zhang, G van der Laan, J Müller, L Heinen, M Garst, A Bauer, H Berger, C Pfleiderer, T Hesjedal

It is commonly assumed that surfaces modify the properties of stable materials within the top few atomic layers of a bulk specimen only. Exploiting the polarization dependence of resonant elastic X-ray scattering to go beyond conventional diffraction and imaging techniques, we have determined the depth dependence of the full 3D spin structure of skyrmions-that is, topologically nontrivial whirls of the magnetization-below the surface of a bulk sample of Cu2OSeO3 We found that the skyrmions change exponentially from pure Néel- to pure Bloch-twisting over a distance of several hundred nanometers between the surface and the bulk, respectively. Though qualitatively consistent with theory, the strength of the Néel-twisting at the surface and the length scale of the variation observed experimentally exceed material-specific modeling substantially. In view of the exceptionally complete quantitative theoretical account of the magnetic rigidities and associated static and dynamic properties of skyrmions in Cu2OSeO3 and related materials, we conclude that subtle changes of the materials properties must exist at distances up to several hundred atomic layers into the bulk, which originate in the presence of the surface. This has far-reaching implications for the creation of skyrmions in surface-dominated systems and identifies, more generally, surface-induced gradual variations deep within a bulk material and their impact on tailored functionalities as an unchartered scientific territory.

Imposing long-range ferromagnetic order in rare-earth-doped magnetic topological-insulator heterostructures


LB Duffy, A Frisk, DM Burn, N-J Steinke, J Herrero-Martin, A Ernst, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

Manipulation of skyrmion motion by magnetic field gradients.

Nature communications 9 (2018) 2115-

SL Zhang, WW Wang, DM Burn, H Peng, H Berger, A Bauer, C Pfleiderer, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

Magnetic skyrmions are particle-like, topologically protected magnetisation entities that are promising candidates as information carriers in racetrack memory. The transport of skyrmions in a shift-register-like fashion is crucial for their embodiment in practical devices. Here, we demonstrate that chiral skyrmions in Cu2OSeO3 can be effectively manipulated under the influence of a magnetic field gradient. In a radial field gradient, skyrmions were found to rotate collectively, following a given velocity-radius relationship. As a result of this relationship, and in competition with the elastic properties of the skyrmion lattice, the rotating ensemble disintegrates into a shell-like structure of discrete circular racetracks. Upon reversing the field direction, the rotation sense reverses. Field gradients therefore offer an effective handle for the fine control of skyrmion motion, which is inherently driven by magnon currents. In this scheme, no local electric currents are needed, thus presenting a different approach to shift-register-type operations based on spin transfer torque.

Topological surface state of α-Sn on InSb(001) as studied by photoemission

Physical review B: Condensed matter and materials physics American Physical Society 97 (2018) 075101

MR Scholz, L Dudy, F Reis, F Adler, J Aulbach, LJ Collins-McIntyre, LB Duffy, HF Yang, YL Chen, T Hesjedal, ZK Liu, M Hoesch, S Muff, JH Dil, J Schaefer, R Claessen

Crossover from lattice to plasmonic polarons of a spin-polarised electron gas in ferromagnetic EuO.

Nature communications 9 (2018) 2305-

JM Riley, F Caruso, C Verdi, LB Duffy, MD Watson, L Bawden, K Volckaert, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal, M Hoesch, F Giustino, PDC King

Strong many-body interactions in solids yield a host of fascinating and potentially useful physical properties. Here, from angle-resolved photoemission experiments and ab initio many-body calculations, we demonstrate how a strong coupling of conduction electrons with collective plasmon excitations of their own Fermi sea leads to the formation of plasmonic polarons in the doped ferromagnetic semiconductor EuO. We observe how these exhibit a significant tunability with charge carrier doping, leading to a polaronic liquid that is qualitatively distinct from its more conventional lattice-dominated analogue. Our study thus suggests powerful opportunities for tailoring quantum many-body interactions in solids via dilute charge carrier doping.

Synthesis of Superconductor-Topological Insulator Hybrid Nanoribbon Structures

NANO 12 (2017) ARTN 1750095

P Schonherr, F Zhang, V Srot, P van Aken, T Hesjedal

Direct experimental determination of the topological winding number of skyrmions in Cu2OSeO3.

Nature communications 8 (2017) 14619-

SL Zhang, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

The mathematical concept of topology has brought about significant advantages that allow for a fundamental understanding of the underlying physics of a system. In magnetism, the topology of spin order manifests itself in the topological winding number which plays a pivotal role for the determination of the emergent properties of a system. However, the direct experimental determination of the topological winding number of a magnetically ordered system remains elusive. Here, we present a direct relationship between the topological winding number of the spin texture and the polarized resonant X-ray scattering process. This relationship provides a one-to-one correspondence between the measured scattering signal and the winding number. We demonstrate that the exact topological quantities of the skyrmion material Cu2OSeO3 can be directly experimentally determined this way. This technique has the potential to be applicable to a wide range of materials, allowing for a direct determination of their topological properties.

Temperature evolution of topological surface states in Bi2Se3 thin films studied using terahertz spectroscopy


VS Kamboj, A Singh, HE Beere, T Hesjedal, CHW Barnes, DA Ritchie

Van der Waals epitaxy between the highly lattice mismatched Cu-doped FeSe and Bi2Te3


A Ghasemi, D Kepaptsoglou, PL Galindo, QM Ramasse, T Hesjedal, VK Lazarov

Anisotropic magnetic switching along hard [110]-type axes in Er-doped DyFe2/YFe2 thin films


GBG Stenning, GJ Bowden, G van der Laan, AI Figueroa, P Bencok, P Steadman, T Hesjedal

Magnetic proximity coupling to Cr-doped Sb2Te3 thin films

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 95 (2017) ARTN 224422

LB Duffy, AI Figueroa, L Gladczuk, N-J Steinke, K Kummer, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal