Publications


Nuclear binding energy and transverse momentum imbalance in neutrino-nucleus reaction

arxiv (2019)
Part of a series from Arxiv

F Akbar, DA Andrade, MV Ascencio, L Bellantoni, A Bodek, JL Bonilla, MF Carneiro, D Coplowe, A Filkins, H Gallagher, A Ghosh, R Gran, DA Harris, S Henry, S Jena, J Kleykamp, M Kordosky, T Le, A Lozano, E Maher, S Manly, WA Mann, A Olivier, V Paolone

Observables based on the final state kinematic imbalances are measured in the mesonless production of $\nu_\mu+A\rightarrow\mu^-+p+X$ in the MINERvA tracker. Components of the muon-proton momentum imbalances parallel ($\delta p_{Ty}$) and perpendicular($\delta p_{Tx}$) to the momentum transfer in the transverse plane are found to be sensitive to the nuclear effects such as Fermi motion, binding energy and non-QE contributions. The QE peak location in $\delta p_{Ty}$ is particularly sensitive to the binding energy. Differential cross sections are compared to predictions from different neutrino interaction models. None of the Fermi gas models simultaneously describe every feature of the QE peak width, location, and non-QE contribution to the signal process. Correcting the GENIE's binding energy implementation according to theory causes better agreement with data. Hints of proton left-right asymmetry is observed in $\delta p_{Tx}$. Better modelling of the binding energy can reduce bias in neutrino energy reconstruction and these observables can be applied in current and future experiments to better constrain nuclear effects.


Constraint of the MINERνA medium energy neutrino flux using neutrino-electron elastic scattering

Physical Review D American Physical Society 100 (2019) 092001

E Valencia, D Jena, D Coplowe, X Lu


Commissioning and Operation of the Readout System for the SoLid Neutrino Detector

Journal of Instrumentation IOP Publishing (2019)

Y Abreu, Y Amhis, G Ban, W Beaumont, S Binet, M Bongrand, D Boursette, BC Castle, H Chanal, K Clark, B Coupé, P Crochet, D Cussans, AD Roeck, D Durand, M Fallot, L Ghys, L Giot, K Graves, B Guillon, D Henaff, B Hosseini, S Ihantola, S Jenzer, S Kalcheva, LN Kalousis, M Labare, G Lehaut, S Manley, L Manzanillas, J Mermans, I Michiels, S Monteil, C Moortgat, D Newbold, J Park, V Pestel, K Petridis, I Piñera, L Popescu, D Ryckbosch, N Ryder, D Saunders, M-H Schune, M Settimo, L Simard, A Vacheret, G Vandierendonck, SV Dyck, PV Mulders, NV Remortel, S Vercaemer, M Verstraeten, B Viaud, A Weber, F Yermia

The SoLid experiment aims to measure neutrino oscillation at a baseline of 6.4 m from the BR2 nuclear reactor in Belgium. Anti-neutrinos interact via inverse beta decay (IBD), resulting in a positron and neutron signal that are correlated in time and space. The detector operates in a surface building, with modest shielding, and relies on extremely efficient online rejection of backgrounds in order to identify these interactions. A novel detector design has been developed using 12800 5 cm cubes for high segmentation. Each cube is formed of a sandwich of two scintillators, PVT and 6LiF:ZnS(Ag), allowing the detection and identification of positrons and neutrons respectively. The active volume of the detector is an array of cubes measuring 80x80x250 cm (corresponding to a fiducial mass of 1.6 T), which is read out in layers using two dimensional arrays of wavelength shifting fibres and silicon photomultipliers, for a total of 3200 readout channels. Signals are recorded with 14 bit resolution, and at 40 MHz sampling frequency, for a total raw data rate of over 2 Tbit/s. In this paper, we describe a novel readout and trigger system built for the experiment, that satisfies requirements on: compactness, low power, high performance, and very low cost per channel. The system uses a combination of high price-performance FPGAs with a gigabit Ethernet based readout system, and its total power consumption is under 1 kW. The use of zero suppression techniques, combined with pulse shape discrimination trigger algorithms to detect neutrons, results in an online data reduction factor of around 10000. The neutron trigger is combined with a large per-channel history time buffer, allowing for unbiased positron detection. The system was commissioned in late 2017, with successful physics data taking established in early 2018.


Pion-proton correlation in neutrino interactions on nuclei

Physical Review D American Physical Society 100 (2019) 073010

T Cai, X Lu, D Ruterbories

In neutrino-nucleus interactions, a proton produced with a correlated pion might exhibit a left-right asymmetry relative to the lepton scattering plane even when the pion is absorbed. Absent in other proton production mechanisms, such an asymmetry measured in charged-current pionless production could reveal the details of the absorbed-pion events that are otherwise inaccessible. In this study, we demonstrate the idea of using final-state proton left-right asymmetries to quantify the absorbed-pion event fraction and underlying kinematics. This technique might provide critical information that helps constrain all underlying channels in neutrino-nucleus interactions in the GeV regime.


Tuning the GENIE pion production model with MINERvA data

Physical Review D American Physical Society 100 (2019) 072005

P Stowell, L Pickering, C Willkinson, C Wret, F Akbar, DA Andrade, MV Ascencio, L Bellantoni, A Bercellie, M Betancourt, A Bodek, A Bravar, H Budd, G Caceres, T Cai, MF Cameiro, J Chaves, H Da Motta, GA Diaz, J Felix, L Fields, A Filkins, R Fine, N Fiza

Faced with unresolved tensions between neutrino interaction measurements at few-GeV neutrino energies, current experiments are forced to accept large systematic uncertainties to cover discrepancies between their data and model predictions. The widely used pion production model in genie is compared to four MINERνA charged current pion production measurements using nuisance. Tunings, i.e., adjustments of model parameters, to help match genie to MINERνA and older bubble chamber data are presented. We find that scattering off nuclear targets as measured in MINERνA is not in good agreement with expectations based upon scattering off nucleon (hydrogen or deuterium) targets in existing bubble chamber data. An additional ad hoc correction for the low-Q2 region, where collective nuclear effects are expected to be large, is presented. While these tunings and corrections improve the agreement of genie with the data, the modeling is imperfect. The development of these tunings within the nuisance framework allows for straightforward extensions to other neutrino event generators and models, and allows omitting and including new datasets as they become available.


First measurement of inclusive muon neutrino charged current differential cross sections on argon at Eν∼0.8  GeV with the MicroBooNE detector

Physical Review Letters American Physical Society 123 (2019) 131801

M Bass, F Bay, A Bhat, F Cavanna, G Cerati, Y Chen, E Church, D Cianci, EO Cohen, GH Collin, JM Conrad, M Convery, L Cooper-Troendle, JI Crespo-Anadón, M Del Tutto, D Devitt, A Diaz, B Eberly, A Ereditato, L Escudero Sanchez, AP Furmanski, D Garcia-Gamez, D Goeldi, S Gollapinni, O Goodwin

We report the first measurement of the double-differential and total muon-neutrino charged-current inclusive cross sections on argon at a mean neutrino energy of 0.8 GeV. Data were collected using the MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber located in the Fermilab Booster neutrino beam, and correspond to $1.6 \times 10^{20}$ protons on target of exposure. The measured differential cross sections are presented as a function of muon momentum, using multiple Coulomb scattering as a momentum measurement technique, and the muon angle with respect to the beam direction. We compare the measured cross sections to multiple neutrino event generators and find better agreement with those containing more complete physics at low $Q^2$. The total flux integrated cross section is measured to be $0.693 \pm 0.010 \, (\text{stat.}) \pm 0.165 \, (\text{syst.}) \times 10^{-38} \, \text{cm}^{2}$.


Measurement of ¯ ν μ charged-current single π − production on hydrocarbon in the few-GeV region using MINERvA

Physical Review D American Physical Society 100 (2019) 052008

T Le, F Akbar, L Aliaga, DA Andrade, MV Ascencio, A Bashyal, A Bercellie, M Betancourt, A Bodek, JL Bonilla, A Bravar, H Budd, G Caceres, T Cai, MF Carneiro, D Coplowe, GA Diaz, J Felix, L Fields, A Filkins, R Fine, N Fiza, AM Gago, H Gallagher

The antineutrino scattering channel ¯ ν μ CH → μ + π − X (nucleon(s)) is analyzed in the incident energy range 1.5 to 10 GeV using the MINERvA detector at Fermilab. Differential cross sections are reported as functions of μ + momentum and production angle, π − kinetic energy and production angle, and antineutrino energy and squared four-momentum transfer. Distribution shapes are generally reproduced by simulations based on the GENIE, NuWro, and GiBUU event generators, however GENIE (GiBUU) overestimates (underestimates) the cross section normalizations by 8% (10%). Comparisons of data with the GENIE-based reference simulation probe conventional treatments of cross sections and pion intranuclear rescattering. The distribution of nontrack vertex energy is used to decompose the signal sample into reaction categories, and cross sections are determined for the exclusive reactions μ + π − n and μ + π − p . A similar treatment applied to the published MINERvA sample ¯ ν μ CH → μ + π 0 X [nucleon(s)] has determined the μ + π 0 n cross section, and the latter is used with σ ( π − n ) and σ ( π − p ) to carry out an isospin decomposition of ¯ ν μ -induced CC ( π ) . The ratio of magnitudes and relative phase for isospin amplitudes A 3 and A 1 thereby obtained are: R ¯ ν = 0.99 ± 0.19 and ϕ ¯ ν = 9 3 ° ± 7 ° . Our results are in agreement with bubble chamber measurements made four decades ago.


Search for heavy neutrinos with the T2K near detector ND280

Phys. Rev. D100 (2019) 5

K Abe, others


Neutron measurements from antineutrino hydrocarbon reactions

Physical Review D American Physical Society 100 (2019) 052002

M Elkins, T Cai, J Chaves, J Kleykamp, F Akbar, L Albin, L Aliaga, DA Andrade, MV Ascencio, A Bashyal, L Bellantoni, A Bercellie, M Betancourt, A Bodek, A Bravar, H Budd, G Caceres, MF Carneiro, D Coplowe, H Da Motta, GA Diaz, J Felix, L Fields, A Filkins

Charged-current antineutrino interactions on a hydrocarbon scintillator in the MINERvA detector are used to study activity from their final-state neutrons. To ensure that most of the neutrons are from the primary interaction, rather than hadronic reinteractions in the detector, the sample is limited to momentum transfers below 0.8 GeV/c. From 16 129 interactions, 15 246 neutral particle candidates are observed. The reference simulation predicts 64% of these candidates are due to neutrons from the antineutrino interaction directly but also overpredicts the number of candidates by 15% overall. This discrepancy is beyond the standard uncertainty estimates for models of neutrino interactions and neutron propagation in the detector. We explore these two aspects of the models using the measured distributions for energy deposition, time of flight, position, and speed. We also use multiplicity distributions to evaluate the presence of a two-nucleon knockout process. These results provide critical new information toward a complete description of the hadronic final state of neutrino interactions, which is vital to neutrino oscillation experiments.


J-PARC neutrino beamline upgrade technical design report

arXiv Cornell University (2019)

K Abe, H Aihara, A Ajmi, C Alt, C Andreopoulos, M Antonova, S Aoki, Y Asada, Y Ashida, A Atherton, E Atkin, S Ban, FCT Barbato, M Barbi, GJ Barker, G Barr, M Batkiewicz, A Beloshapkin, V Berardi, L Berns, S Bhadra, J Bian, S Bienstock, A Blondel, S Bolognesi

In this document, technical details of the upgrade plan of the J-PARC neutrino beamline for the extension of the T2K experiment are described. T2K has proposed to accumulate data corresponding to $2\times{}10^{22}$ protons-on-target in the next decade, aiming at an initial observation of CP violation with $3\sigma$ or higher significance in the case of maximal CP violation. Methods to increase the neutrino beam intensity, which are necessary to achieve the proposed data increase, are described.


Rejecting cosmic background for exclusive charged current quasi elastic neutrino interaction studies with Liquid Argon TPCs; a case study with the MicroBooNE detector

EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL C 79 (2019) ARTN 673

C Adams, M Alrashed, R An, J Anthony, J Asaadi, A Ashkenazi, M Auger, S Balasubramanian, B Baller, C Barnes, G Barr, M Bass, F Bay, A Bhat, K Bhattacharya, M Bishai, A Blake, T Bolton, L Camilleri, D Caratelli, IC Terrazas, R Carr, RC Fernandez, F Cavanna, G Cerati, Y Chen, E Church, D Cianci, EO Cohen, GH Collin, JM Conrad, M Convery, L Cooper-Troendle, JI Crespo-Anadon, M Del Tutto, D Devitt, A Diaz, K Duffy, S Dytman, B Eberly, A Ereditato, LE Sanchez, J Esquivel, JJ Evans, AA Fadeeva, RS Fitzpatrick, BT Fleming, D Franco, AP Furmanski, D Garcia-Gamez, V Genty, D Goeldi, S Gollapinni, O Goodwin, E Gramellini, H Greenlee, R Grosso, R Guenette, P Guzowski, A Hackenburg, P Hamilton, O Hen, J Hewes, C Hill, GA Horton-Smith, A Hourlier, E-C Huang, C James, JJ de Vries, X Ji, L Jiang, RA Johnson, J Joshi, H Jostlein, Y-J Jwa, G Karagiorgi, W Ketchum, B Kirby, M Kirby, T Kobilarcik, I Kreslo, I Lepetic, Y Li, A Lister, BR Littlejohn, S Lockwitz, D Lorca, WC Louis, M Luethi, B Lundberg, X Luo, A Marchionni, S Marcocci, C Mariani, J Marshall, J Martin-Albo, DAM Caicedo, A Mastbaum, V Meddage, T Mettler, K Mistry, A Mogan, J Moon, M Mooney, CD Moore, J Mousseau, M Murphy, R Murrells, D Naples, P Nienaber, J Nowak, O Palamara, V Pandey, V Paolone, A Papadopoulou, V Papavassiliou, SF Pate, Z Pavlovic, E Piasetzky, D Porzio, G Pulliam, X Qian, JL Raaf, A Rafique, L Ren, L Rochester, M Ross-Lonergan, CR von Rohr, B Russell, G Scanavini, DW Schmitz, A Schukraft, W Seligman, MH Shaevitz, R Sharankova, J Sinclair, A Smith, EL Snider, M Soderberg, S Soldner-Rembold, SR Soleti, P Spentzouris, J Spitz, J St John, T Strauss, K Sutton, S Sword-Fehlberg, AM Szelc, N Tagg, W Tang, K Terao, M Thomson, RT Thornton, M Toups, Y-T Tsai, S Tufanli, T Usher, W Van de Pontseele, RG Van de Water, B Viren, M Weber, H Wei, DA Wickremasinghe, K Wierman, Z Williams, S Wolbers, T Wongjirad, K Woodruff, T Yang, G Yarbrough, LE Yates, GP Zeller, J Zennamo, C Zhang


Search for neutral-current induced single photon production at the ND280 near detector in T2K

Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics IOP Publishing 46 (2019) 08LT01

K Abe, G Barr, M Batkiewicz-Kwasniak, FD Lodovico, N Dokania, S Dolan, O Drapier, KE Duffy, S Emery-Schrenk, P Hamacher-Baumann, M Hartz, A Hiramoto, NTH Van, T Lindner, RP Litchfield, X Li, A Longhin, JP Lopez, T Lou, L Ludovici, X Lu, T Lux, L Magaletti, K Mahn, JF Martin

All rights reserved. Neutrino neutral-current (NC) induced single photon production is a subleading order process for accelerator-based neutrino beam experiments including T2K. It is, however, an important process to understand because it is a background for electron (anti)neutrino appearance oscillation experiments. Here, we performed the first search of this process below 1 GeV using the finegrained detector at the T2K ND280 off-axis near detector. By reconstructing single photon kinematics from electron positron pairs, we achieved 95% pure gamma ray sample from 5.738 1020 protons-on-targets neutrino mode data. We do not find positive evidence of NC induced single photon production in this sample. We set the model-dependent upper limit on the cross-section for this process, at 0.114 10-38 cm2 (90% C.L.) per nucleon, using the J-PARC off-axis neutrino beam with an average energy of .En. ~ 0.6 GeV. This is the first limit on this process below 1.GeV which is important for current and future oscillation experiments looking for electron neutrino appearance oscillation signals.


Measurement of neutron production in atmospheric neutrino interactions at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

Physical Review D American Physical Society 99 (2019) 112007

B Aharmim, SN Ahmed, AE Anthony, S Biller, G Doucas, N Jelley, D Wark, SNO Collaboration

Neutron production in giga electron volt–scale neutrino interactions is a poorly studied process. We have measured the neutron multiplicities in atmospheric neutrino interactions in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment and compared them to the prediction of a Monte Carlo simulation using genie and a minimally modified version of geant4. We analyzed 837 days of exposure corresponding to Phase I, using pure heavy water, and Phase II, using a mixture of Cl in heavy water. Neutrons produced in atmospheric neutrino interactions were identified with an efficiency of 15.3% and 44.3%, for Phases I and II respectively. The neutron production is measured as a function of the visible energy of the neutrino interaction and, for charged current quasielastic interaction candidates, also as a function of the neutrino energy. This study is also performed by classifying the complete sample into two pairs of event categories: charged current quasielastic and non charged current quasielastic, and νμ and νe. Results show good overall agreement between data and Monte Carlo for both phases, with some small tension with a statistical significance below 2σ for some intermediate energies.


Identification of nuclear effects in neutrino and antineutrino interactions on nuclei using generalized final-state correlations

Physical Review C American Physical Society 99 (2019) 055504

X Lu, JT Sobczyk

In the study of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in the GeV regime, kinematic imbalances of the final-state particles have sensitivities to different nuclear effects. Previous ideas based on neutrino quasielastic interactions [Lu, et al., Phys. Rev. C 94, 015503 (2016); Furmanski and Sobczyk, Phys. Rev. C 95, 065501 (2017)] are now generalized to antineutrino quasielastic interactions, as well as neutrino and antineutrino pion productions. Measurements of these generalized final-state correlations could provide unique and direct constraints on the nuclear response inherently different for neutrinos and antineutrinos and, therefore, delineate effects that could mimic charge-parity violation in neutrino oscillations.


First measurement of nu(mu) charged-current pi(0) production on argon with the MicroBooNE detector

PHYSICAL REVIEW D 99 (2019) ARTN 091102

C Adams, M Alrashed, R An, J Anthony, J Asaadi, A Ashkenazi, M Auger, S Balasubramanian, B Baller, C Barnes, G Barr, M Bass, F Bay, A Bhat, K Bhattacharya, M Bishai, A Blake, T Bolton, L Camilleri, D Caratelli, IC Terrazas, R Carr, RC Fernandez, F Cavanna, G Cerati, Y Chen, E Church, D Cianci, E Cohen, GH Collin, JM Conrad, M Convery, L Cooper-Troendle, JI Crespo-Anadon, M Del Tutto, D Devitt, A Diaz, K Duffy, S Dytman, B Eberly, LE Sanchez, J Esquivel, JJ Evans, AA Fadeeva, RS Fitzpatrick, BT Fleming, D Franco, AP Furmanski, D Garcia-Gamez, V Genty, D Goeldi, S Gollapinni, O Goodwin, E Gramellini, H Greenlee, R Grosso, R Guenette, P Guzowski, A Hackenburg, P Hamilton, O Hen, J Hewes, C Hill, GA Horton-Smith, A Hourlier, E-C Huang, C James, JJ de Vries, X Ji, L Jiang, RA Johnson, J Joshi, Y-J Jwa, G Karagiorgi, W Ketchum, B Kirby, M Kirby, T Kobilarcik, I Kreslo, I Lepetic, Y Li, A Lister, BR Littlejohn, S Lockwitz, D Lorca, WC Louis, M Luethi, B Lundberg, X Luo, A Marchionni, S Marcocci, C Mariani, J Marshall, J Martin-Albo, DAM Caicedo, A Mastbaum, V Meddage, T Mettler, K Mistry, A Mogan, J Moon, M Mooney, CD Moore, J Mousseau, M Murphy, R Murrells, D Naples, P Nienaber, J Nowak, O Palamara, V Pandey, V Paolone, A Papadopoulou, V Papavassiliou, SF Pate, Z Pavlovic, E Piasetzky, D Porzio, G Pulliam, X Qian, JL Raaf, AR Que, L Ren, L Rochester, M Ross-Lonergan, CR von Rohr, B Russell, G Scanavini, DW Schmitz, A Schukraft, W Seligman, MH Shaevitz, R Sharankova, J Sinclair, A Smith, EL Snider, M Soderberg, S Soldner-Rembold, SR Soleti, J Spitz, J St John, T Strauss, K Sutton, S Sword-Fehlberg, AM Szelc, N Tagg, W Tang, K Terao, M Thomson, RT Thornton, M Toups, Y-T Tsai, S Tufanli, T Usher, W Van De Pontseele, IRG Van de Water, B Viren, M Weber, H Wei, DA Wickremasinghe, K Wierman, Z Williams, S Wolbers, T Wongjirad, K Woodruff, T Yang, G Yarbrough, LE Yates, GP Zeller, J Zennamo, C Zhang, H Chen, A Ereditato, M Collaboration


Deep neural network for pixel-level electromagnetic particle identification in the MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber

Physical Review D American Physical Society 99 (2019) 092001

O Palamara, V Pandey, V Paolone, A Papadopoulou, V Papavassiliou, SF Pate, Z Pavlovic, E Piasetzky, D Porzio, G Pulliam, X Qian, JL Raaf, A Rafique, L Ren, L Rochester, M Ross-Lonergan, CR Von Rohr, B Russell, G Scanavini, DW Schmitz, A Schukraft, W Seligman, MH Shaevitz, R Sharankova, J Sinclair

We have developed a convolutional neural network that can make a pixel-level prediction of objects in image data recorded by a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) for the first time. We describe the network design, training techniques, and software tools developed to train this network. The goal of this work is to develop a complete deep neural network based data reconstruction chain for the MicroBooNE detector. We show the first demonstration of a network's validity on real LArTPC data using MicroBooNE collection plane images. The demonstration is performed for stopping muon and a νμ charged-current neutral pion data samples.


Search for light sterile neutrinos with the T2K far detector Super-Kamiokande at a baseline of 295 km

Phys. Rev. D99 (2019) 7

K Abe, others


Design and construction of the MicroBooNE Cosmic Ray Tagger system

Journal of Instrumentation IOP Publishing 14 (2019) P04004

M Alrashed, R An, J Anthony, J Asaadi, A Ashkenazi, M Auger, S Balasubramanian, B Baller, C Barnes, K Bhattacharya, M Bishai, A Blake, T Bolton, L Camilleri, RC Fernandez, B Eberly, BT Fleming, AP Furmanski, D Garcia-Gamez, Z Pavlovic, E Piasetzky, D Porzio, A Smith, EL Snider, M Soderberg

The MicroBooNE detector utilizes a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) with an 85 t active mass to study neutrino interactions along the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) at Fermilab. With a deployment location near ground level, the detector records many cosmic muon tracks in each beam-related detector trigger that can be misidentified as signals of interest. To reduce these cosmogenic backgrounds, we have designed and constructed a TPC-external Cosmic Ray Tagger (CRT) . This sub-system was developed by the Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Albert Einstein center for fundamental physics, University of Bern. The system utilizes plastic scintillation modules to provide precise time and position information for TPC-traversing particles. Successful matching of TPC tracks and CRT data will allow us to reduce cosmogenic background and better characterize the light collection system and LArTPC data using cosmic muons. In this paper we describe the design and installation of the MicroBooNE CRT system and provide an overview of a series of tests done to verify the proper operation of the system and its components during installation, commissioning, and physics data-taking.


Comparison of nu(mu)-Ar multiplicity distributions observed by MicroBooNE to GENIE model predictions: MicroBooNE Collaboration

EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL C 79 (2019) ARTN 248

C Adams, R An, J Anthony, J Asaadi, M Auger, S Balasubramanian, B Baller, C Barnes, G Barr, M Bass, F Bay, A Bhat, K Bhattacharya, M Bishai, A Blake, T Bolton, L Camilleri, D Caratelli, RC Fernandez, F Cavanna, G Cerati, H Chen, Y Chen, E Church, D Cianci, E Cohen, GH Collin, JM Conrad, M Convery, L Cooper-Troendle, JI Crespo-Anadon, M Del Tutto, D Devitt, A Diaz, S Dytman, B Eberly, A Ereditato, LE Sanchez, J Esquivel, JJ Evans, AA Fadeeva, BT Fleming, W Foreman, AP Furmanski, D Garcia-Gamez, GT Garvey, V Genty, D Goeldi, S Gollapinni, E Gramellini, H Greenlee, R Grosso, R Guenette, P Guzowski, A Hackenburg, P Hamilton, O Hen, J Hewes, C Hill, J Ho, GA Horton-Smith, A Hourlier, E-C Huang, C James, JJ de Vries, L Jiang, RA Johnson, J Joshi, H Jostlein, Y-J Jwa, D Kaleko, G Karagiorgi, W Ketchum, B Kirby, M Kirby, T Kobilarcik, I Kreslo, Y Li, A Lister, BR Littlejohn, S Lockwitz, D Lorca, WC Louis, M Luethi, B Lundberg, X Luo, A Marchionni, S Marcocci, C Mariani, J Marshall, DA Martinez Caicedo, A Mastbaum, V Meddage, T Mettler, T Miceli, GB Mills, A Mogan, J Moon, M Mooney, CD Moore, J Mousseau, M Murphy, R Murrells, D Naples, P Nienaber, J Nowak, O Palamara, V Pandey, V Paolone, A Papadopoulou, V Papavassiliou, SF Pate, Z Pavlovic, E Piasetzky, D Porzio, G Pulliam, X Qian, JL Raaf, A Rafique, L Rochester, M Ross-Lonergan, CR von Rohr, B Russell, DW Schmitz, A Schukraft, W Seligman, MH Shaevitz, J Sinclair, A Smith, EL Snider, M Soderberg, S Soeldner-Rembold, SR Soleti, P Spentzouris, J Spitz, JS John, T Strauss, K Sutton, S Sword-Fehlberg, AM Szelc, N Tagg, W Tang, K Terao, M Thomson, M Toups, Y-T Tsai, S Tufanli, T Usher, W Van De Pontseele, RG Van de Water, B Viren, M Weber, H Wei, DA Wickremasinghe, K Wierman, Z Williams, S Wolbers, T Wongjirad, K Woodruff, T Yang, G Yarbrough, LE Yates, GP Zeller, J Zennamo, C Zhang


Development of a Quality Assurance Process for the SoLid Experiment

Journal of Instrumentation IOP Publishing (2019)

Y Abreu, Y Amhis, G Ban, W Beaumont, S Binet, M Bongrand, D Boursette, BC Castle, H Chanal, K Clark, B Coupé, P Crochet, D Cussans, AD Roeck, D Durand, M Fallot, L Ghys, L Giot, K Graves, B Guillon, D Henaff, B Hosseini, S Ihantola, S Jenzer, S Kalcheva, LN Kalousis, M Labare, G Lehaut, S Manley, L Manzanillas, J Mermans, I Michiels, S Monteil, C Moortgat, D Newbold, J Park, V Pestel, K Petridis, I Piñera, L Popescu, D Ryckbosch, N Ryder, D Saunders, M-H Schune, M Settimo, L Simard, A Vacheret, G Vandierendonck, SV Dyck, PV Mulders, NV Remortel, S Vercaemer, M Verstraeten, B Viaud, A Weber, F Yermia

The SoLid experiment has been designed to search for an oscillation pattern induced by a light sterile neutrino state, utilising the BR2 reactor of SCK$\bullet$CEN, in Belgium. The detector leverages a new hybrid technology, utilising two distinct scintillators in a cubic array, creating a highly segmented detector volume. A combination of 5 cm cubic polyvinyltoluene cells, with $^6$LiF:ZnS(Ag) sheets on two faces of each cube, facilitate reconstruction of the neutrino signals. % The polyvinyltoluene scintillator is used as an $\overline{\nu}_e$ target for the inverse beta decay of ($\overline{\nu}_e + p \rightarrow e^{+}+n$), with the $^6$LiF:ZnS(Ag) sheets used for associated neutron detection. Scintillation signals are read out by a network of wavelength shifting fibres connected to multipixel photon counters. Whilst the high granularity provides a powerful toolset to discriminate backgrounds; by itself the segmentation also represents a challenge in terms of homogeneity and calibration, for a consistent detector response. The search for this light sterile neutrino implies a sensitivity to distortions of around $\mathcal{O}$(10)\% in the energy spectrum of reactor $\overline{\nu}_e$. Hence, a very good neutron detection efficiency, light yield and homogeneous detector response are critical for data validation. The minimal requirements for the SoLid physics program are a light yield and a neutron detection efficiency larger than 40 PA/MeV/cube and 50 \% respectively. In order to guarantee these minimal requirements, the collaboration developed a rigorous quality assurance process for all 12800 cubic cells of the detector. To carry out the quality assurance process, an automated calibration system called CALIPSO was designed and constructed.

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