Stellar mergers as the origin of magnetic massive stars.

Nature 574 (2019) 211-214

FRN Schneider, ST Ohlmann, P Podsiadlowski, FK Röpke, SA Balbus, R Pakmor, V Springel

About ten per cent of 'massive' stars (those of more than 1.5 solar masses) have strong, large-scale surface magnetic fields1-3. It has been suggested that merging of main-sequence and pre-main-sequence stars could produce such strong fields4,5, and the predicted fraction of merged massive stars is also about ten per cent6,7. The merger hypothesis is further supported by a lack of magnetic stars in close binaries8,9, which is as expected if mergers produce magnetic stars. Here we report three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the coalescence of two massive stars and follow the evolution of the merged product. Strong magnetic fields are produced in the simulations, and the merged star rejuvenates such that it appears younger and bluer than other coeval stars. This can explain the properties of the magnetic 'blue straggler' star τ Sco in the Upper Scorpius association that has an observationally inferred, apparent age of less than five million years, which is less than half the age of its birth association10. Such massive blue straggler stars seem likely to be progenitors of magnetars, perhaps giving rise to some of the enigmatic fast radio bursts observed11, and their supernovae may be affected by their strong magnetic fields12.

No surviving non-compact stellar companion to Cassiopeia A


WE Kerzendorf, T Do, SE de Mink, Y Gotberg, D Milisavljevic, E Zapartas, M Renzo, S Justham, P Podsiadlowski, RA Fesen

Surveys with small optical telescopes

ASTRONOMY & GEOPHYSICS 60 (2019) 14-18

T Lynas-Gray

Massive Stellar Mergers as Precursors of Hydrogen-rich Pulsational Pair Instability Supernovae


A Vigna-Gomez, S Justham, I Mandel, SE de Mink, P Podsiadlowski

New hot subdwarf variables from the EC survey


D Kilkenny, HL Worters, AE Lynas-Gray

New Hot Subdwarf Variables from the EC Survey

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press (OUP) (2019)

D Kilkenny, H Worters, A Lynas-Gray

Comprehensive Study of Ejecta-companion Interaction for Core-collapse Supernovae in Massive Binaries


R Hirai, P Podsiadlowski, S Yamada

The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XXVIII. Nitrogen abundances for apparently single dwarf and giant B-type stars with small projected rotational velocities


PL Dufton, A Thompson, PA Crowther, CJ Evans, FRN Schneider, A de Koter, SE de Mink, R Garland, N Langer, DJ Lennon, CM McEvoy, OH Ramirez-Agudelo, H Sana, S Simon Diaz, WD Taylor, JS Vink

An excess of massive stars in the local 30 Doradus starburst.

Science (New York, N.Y.) 359 (2018) 69-71

FRN Schneider, H Sana, CJ Evans, JM Bestenlehner, N Castro, L Fossati, G Gräfener, N Langer, OH Ramírez-Agudelo, C Sabín-Sanjulián, S Simón-Díaz, F Tramper, PA Crowther, A de Koter, SE de Mink, PL Dufton, M Garcia, M Gieles, V Hénault-Brunet, A Herrero, RG Izzard, V Kalari, DJ Lennon, J Maíz Apellániz, N Markova, F Najarro, P Podsiadlowski, J Puls, WD Taylor, JT van Loon, JS Vink, C Norman

The 30 Doradus star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud is a nearby analog of large star-formation events in the distant universe. We determined the recent formation history and the initial mass function (IMF) of massive stars in 30 Doradus on the basis of spectroscopic observations of 247 stars more massive than 15 solar masses ([Formula: see text]). The main episode of massive star formation began about 8 million years (My) ago, and the star-formation rate seems to have declined in the last 1 My. The IMF is densely sampled up to 200 [Formula: see text] and contains 32 ± 12% more stars above 30 [Formula: see text] than predicted by a standard Salpeter IMF. In the mass range of 15 to 200 [Formula: see text], the IMF power-law exponent is [Formula: see text], shallower than the Salpeter value of 2.35.

Do SN 2002cx-like and SN Ia-CSM Objects Share the Same Origin?


X Meng, P Podsiadlowski

On the formation history of Galactic double neutron stars


A Vigna-Gomez, CJ Neijssel, S Stevenson, JW Barrett, K Belczynski, S Justham, SE de Mink, B Mueller, P Podsiadlowski, M Renzo, D Szecsi, I Mandel

The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XXIX. Massive star formation in the local 30 Doradus starburst


FRN Schneider, OH Ramirez-Agudelo, F Tramper, JM Bestenlehner, N Castro, H Sana, CJ Evans, C Sabin-Sanjulian, S Simon-Diaz, N Langer, L Fossati, G Graefener, PA Crowther, SE de Mink, A de Koter, M Gieles, A Herrero, RG Izzard, V Kalari, RS Klessen, DJ Lennon, L Mahy, J Maiz Apellaniz, N Markova, JT van Loon, JS Vink, NR Walborn

Orbital Characteristics of the Subdwarf-B and F V Star Binary EC 20117-4014 (=V4640 Sgr)


T Otani, TD Oswalt, AE Lynas-Gray, D Kilkenny, C Koen, M Amaral, R Jordan

Response to Comment on "An excess of massive stars in the local 30 Doradus starburst".

Science (New York, N.Y.) 361 (2018)

FRN Schneider, H Sana, CJ Evans, JM Bestenlehner, N Castro, L Fossati, G Gräfener, N Langer, OH Ramírez-Agudelo, C Sabín-Sanjulián, S Simón-Díaz, F Tramper, PA Crowther, A de Koter, SE de Mink, PL Dufton, M Garcia, M Gieles, V Hénault-Brunet, A Herrero, RG Izzard, V Kalari, DJ Lennon, J Maíz Apellániz, N Markova, F Najarro, P Podsiadlowski, J Puls, WD Taylor, JT van Loon, JS Vink, C Norman

Farr and Mandel reanalyze our data, finding initial mass function slopes for high-mass stars in 30 Doradus that agree with our results. However, their reanalysis appears to underpredict the observed number of massive stars. Their technique results in more precise slopes than in our work, strengthening our conclusion that there is an excess of massive stars (>30 solar masses) in 30 Doradus.

A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source.

Nature 551 (2017) 75-79

SJ Smartt, T-W Chen, A Jerkstrand, M Coughlin, E Kankare, SA Sim, M Fraser, C Inserra, K Maguire, KC Chambers, ME Huber, T Krühler, G Leloudas, M Magee, LJ Shingles, KW Smith, DR Young, J Tonry, R Kotak, A Gal-Yam, JD Lyman, DS Homan, C Agliozzo, JP Anderson, CR Angus, C Ashall, C Barbarino, FE Bauer, M Berton, MT Botticella, M Bulla, J Bulger, G Cannizzaro, Z Cano, R Cartier, A Cikota, P Clark, A De Cia, M Della Valle, L Denneau, M Dennefeld, L Dessart, G Dimitriadis, N Elias-Rosa, RE Firth, H Flewelling, A Flörs, A Franckowiak, C Frohmaier, L Galbany, S González-Gaitán, J Greiner, M Gromadzki, AN Guelbenzu, CP Gutiérrez, A Hamanowicz, L Hanlon, J Harmanen, KE Heintz, A Heinze, M-S Hernandez, ST Hodgkin, IM Hook, L Izzo, PA James, PG Jonker, WE Kerzendorf, S Klose, Z Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, M Kowalski, M Kromer, H Kuncarayakti, A Lawrence, TB Lowe, EA Magnier, I Manulis, A Martin-Carrillo, S Mattila, O McBrien, A Müller, J Nordin, D O'Neill, F Onori, JT Palmerio, A Pastorello, F Patat, G Pignata, P Podsiadlowski, ML Pumo, SJ Prentice, A Rau, A Razza, A Rest, T Reynolds, R Roy, AJ Ruiter, KA Rybicki, L Salmon, P Schady, ASB Schultz, T Schweyer, IR Seitenzahl, M Smith, J Sollerman, B Stalder, CW Stubbs, M Sullivan, H Szegedi, F Taddia, S Taubenberger, G Terreran, B van Soelen, J Vos, RJ Wainscoat, NA Walton, C Waters, H Weiland, M Willman, P Wiseman, DE Wright, Ł Wyrzykowski, O Yaron

Gravitational waves were discovered with the detection of binary black-hole mergers and they should also be detectable from lower-mass neutron-star mergers. These are predicted to eject material rich in heavy radioactive isotopes that can power an electromagnetic signal. This signal is luminous at optical and infrared wavelengths and is called a kilonova. The gravitational-wave source GW170817 arose from a binary neutron-star merger in the nearby Universe with a relatively well confined sky position and distance estimate. Here we report observations and physical modelling of a rapidly fading electromagnetic transient in the galaxy NGC 4993, which is spatially coincident with GW170817 and with a weak, short γ-ray burst. The transient has physical parameters that broadly match the theoretical predictions of blue kilonovae from neutron-star mergers. The emitted electromagnetic radiation can be explained with an ejected mass of 0.04 ± 0.01 solar masses, with an opacity of less than 0.5 square centimetres per gram, at a velocity of 0.2 ± 0.1 times light speed. The power source is constrained to have a power-law slope of -1.2 ± 0.3, consistent with radioactive powering from r-process nuclides. (The r-process is a series of neutron capture reactions that synthesise many of the elements heavier than iron.) We identify line features in the spectra that are consistent with light r-process elements (atomic masses of 90-140). As it fades, the transient rapidly becomes red, and a higher-opacity, lanthanide-rich ejecta component may contribute to the emission. This indicates that neutron-star mergers produce gravitational waves and radioactively powered kilonovae, and are a nucleosynthetic source of the r-process elements.

Episodic mass ejections from common-envelope objects


M Clayton, P Podsiadlowski, N Ivanova, S Justham

Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger


BP Abbott, R Abbott, TD Abbott, F Acernese, K Ackley, C Adams, T Adams, P Addesso, RX Adhikari, VB Adya, C Affeldt, M Afrough, B Agarwal, M Agathos, K Agatsuma, N Aggarwal, OD Aguiar, L Aiello, A Ain, P Ajith, B Allen, G Allen, A Allocca, PA Altin, A Amato, A Ananyeva, SB Anderson, WG Anderson, SV Angelova, S Antier, S Appert, K Arai, MC Araya, JS Areeda, N Arnaud, KG Arun, S Ascenzi, G Ashton, M Ast, SM Aston, P Astone, DV Atallah, P Aufmuth, C Aulbert, K AultONeal, C Austin, A Avila-Alvarez, S Babak, P Bacon, MKM Bader, S Bae, PT Baker, F Baldaccini, G Ballardin, SW Ballmer, S Banagiri, JC Barayoga, SE Barclay, BC Barish, D Barker, K Barkett, F Barone, B Barr, L Barsotti, M Barsuglia, D Barta, SD Barthelmy, J Bartlett, I Bartos, R Bassiri, A Basti, JC Batch, M Bawaj, JC Bayley, M Bazzan, B Becsy, C Beer, M Bejger, I Belahcene, AS Bell, BK Berger, G Bergmann, JJ Bero, CPL Berry, D Bersanetti, A Bertolini, J Betzwieser, S Bhagwat, R Bhandare, IA Bilenko, G Billingsley, CR Billman, J Birch, R Birney, O Birnholtz, S Biscans, S Biscoveanu, A Bisht, M Bitossi, C Biwer, MA Bizouard, JK Blackburn, J Blackman, CD Blair, DG Blair, RM Blair, S Bloemen, O Bock, N Bode, M Boer, G Bogaert, A Bohe, F Bondu, E Bonilla, R Bonnand, BA Boom, R Bork, V Boschi, S Bose, K Bossie, Y Bouffanais, A Bozzi, C Bradaschia, PR Brady, M Branchesi, JE Brau, T Briant, A Brillet, M Brinkmann, V Brisson, P Brockill, JE Broida, AF Brooks, DA Brown, DD Brown, S Brunett, CC Buchanan, A Buikema, T Bulik, HJ Bulten, A Buonanno, D Buskulic, C Buy, RL Byer, M Cabero, L Cadonati, G Cagnoli, C Cahillane, JC Bustillo, TA Callister, E Calloni, JB Camp, M Canepa, P Canizares, KC Cannon, H Cao, J Cao, CD Capano, E Capocasa, F Carbognani, S Caride, MF Carney, JC Diaz, C Casentini, S Caudill, M Cavagli, F Cavalier, R Cavalieri, G Cella, CB Cepeda, P Cerd-Durn, G Cerretani, E Cesarini, SJ Chamberlin, M Chan, S Chao, P Charlton, E Chase, E Chassande-Mottin, D Chatterjee, K Chatziioannou, BD Cheeseboro, HY Chen, X Chen, Y Chen, H-P Cheng, H Chia, A Chincarini, A Chiummo, T Chmiel, HS Cho, M Cho, JH Chow, N Christensen, Q Chu, AJK Chua, S Chua, AKW Chung, S Chung, G Ciani, R Ciolfi, CE Cirelli, A Cirone, F Clara, JA Clark, P Clearwater, F Cleva, C Cocchieri, E Coccia, P-F Cohadon, D Cohen, A Colla, CG Collette, LR Cominsky, M Constancio, L Conti, SJ Cooper, P Corban, TR Corbitt, I Cordero-Carrion, KR Corley, N Cornish, A Corsi, S Cortese, CA Costa, MW Coughlin, SB Coughlin, J-P Coulon, ST Countryman, P Couvares, PB Covas, EE Cowan, DM Coward, MJ Cowart, DC Coyne, R Coyne, JDE Creighton, TD Creighton, J Cripe, SG Crowder, TJ Cullen, A Cumming, L Cunningham, E Cuoco, T Dal Canton, G Dlya, SL Danilishin, S D'Antonio, K Danzmann, A Dasgupta, CFDS Costa, V Dattilo, I Dave, M Davier, D Davis, EJ Daw, B Day, S De, D Debra, J Degallaix, M De laurentis, S Deleglise, W Del Pozzo, N Demos, T Denker, T Dent, R De Pietri, V Dergachev, R De Rosa, RT DeRosa, C De Rossi, R DeSalvo, O De Varona, J Devenson, S Dhurandhar, MC Diaz, L Di Fiore, M Di Giovanni, T Di Girolamo, A Di Lieto, S Di Pace, I Di Palma, F Di Renzo, Z Doctor, V Dolique, F Donovan, KL Dooley, S Doravari, I Dorrington, R Douglas, MD Alvarez, TP Downes, M Drago, C Dreissigacker, JC Driggers, Z Du, M Ducrot, P Dupej, SE Dwyer, TB Edo, MC Edwards, A Effler, H-B Eggenstein, P Ehrens, J Eichholz, SS Eikenberry, RA Eisenstein, RC Essick, D Estevez, ZB Etienne, T Etzel, M Evans, TM Evans, M Factourovich, V Fafone, H Fair, S Fairhurst, X Fan, S Farinon, B Farr, WM Farr, EJ Fauchon-Jones, M Favata, M Fays, C Fee, H Fehrmann, J Feicht, MM Fejer, A Fernandez-Galiana, I Ferrante, EC Ferreira, F Ferrini, F Fidecaro, D Finstad, I Fiori, D Fiorucci, M Fishbach, RP Fisher, M Fitz-Axen, R Flaminio, M Fletcher, H Fong, JA Font, PWF Forsyth, SS Forsyth, J-D Fournier, S Frasca, F Frasconi, Z Frei, A Freise, R Frey, V Frey, EM Fries, P Fritschel, VV Frolov, P Fulda, M Fyffe, H Gabbard, BU Gadre, SM Gaebel, JR Gair, L Gammaitoni, MR Ganija, SG Gaonkar, C Garcia-Quiros, F Garufi, B Gateley, S Gaudio, G Gaur, V Gayathri, N Gehrels, G Gemme, E Genin, A Gennai, D George, J George, L Gergely, V Germain, S Ghonge, A Ghosh, A Ghosh, S Ghosh, JA Giaime, KD Giardina, A Giazotto, K Gill, L Glover, E Goetz, R Goetz, S Gomes, B Goncharov, G Gonzlez, JMG Castro, A Gopakumar, ML Gorodetsky, SE Gossan, M Gosselin, R Gouaty, A Grado, C Graef, M Granata, A Grant, S Gras, C Gray, G Greco, AC Green, EM Gretarsson, B Griswold, P Groot, H Grote, S Grunewald, P Gruning, GM Guidi, X Guo, A Gupta, MK Gupta, KE Gushwa, EK Gustafson, R Gustafson, O Halim, BR Hall, ED Hall, EZ Hamilton, G Hammond, M Haney, MM Hanke, J Hanks, C Hanna, MD Hannam, OA Hannuksela, J Hanson, T Hardwick, J Harms, GM Harry, IW Harry, MJ Hart, C-J Haster, K Haughian, J Healy, A Heidmann, MC Heintze, H Heitmann, P Hello, G Hemming, M Hendry, IS Heng, J Hennig, AW Heptonstall, M Heurs, S Hild, T Hinderer, D Hoak, D Hofman, K Holt, DE Holz, P Hopkins, C Horst, J Hough, EA Houston, EJ Howell, A Hreibi, YM Hu, EA Huerta, D Huet, B Hughey, S Husa, SH Huttner, T Huynh-Dinh, N Indik, R Inta, G Intini, HN Isa, J-M Isac, M Isi, BR Iyer, K Izumi, T Jacqmin, K Jani, P Jaranowski, S Jawahar, F Jimenez-Forteza, WW Johnson, DI Jones, R Jones, RJG Jonker, L Ju, J Junker, CV Kalaghatgi, V Kalogera, B Kamai, S Kandhasamy, G Kang, JB Kanner, SJ Kapadia, S Karki, KS Karvinen, M Kasprzack, M Katolik, E Katsavounidis, W Katzman, S Kaufer, K Kawabe, F Kefelian, D Keitel, AJ Kemball, R Kennedy, C Kent, JS Key, FY Khalili, I Khan, S Khan, Z Khan, EA Khazanov, N Kijbunchoo, C Kim, JC Kim, K Kim, W Kim, WS Kim, Y-M Kim, SJ Kimbrell, EJ King, PJ King, M Kinley-Hanlon, R Kirchhoff, JS Kissel, L Kleybolte, S Klimenko, TD Knowles, P Koch, SM Koehlenbeck, S Koley, V Kondrashov, A Kontos, M Korobko, WZ Korth, I Kowalska, DB Kozak, C Krmer, V Kringel, B Krishnan, A Krlak, G Kuehn, P Kumar, R Kumar, S Kumar, L Kuo, A Kutynia, S Kwang, BD Lackey, KH Lai, M Landry, RN Lang, J Lange, B Lantz, RK Lanza, SL Larson, A Lartaux-Vollard, PD Lasky, M Laxen, A Lazzarini, C Lazzaro, P Leaci, S Leavey, CH Lee, HK Lee, HM Lee, HW Lee, K Lee, J Lehmann, A Lenon, M Leonardi, N Leroy, N Letendre, Y Levin, TGF Li, SD Linker, TB Littenberg, J Liu, RKL Lo, NA Lockerbie, LT London, JE Lord, M Lorenzini, V Loriette, M Lormand, G Losurdo, JD Lough, CO Lousto, G Lovelace, H Lck, D Lumaca, AP Lundgren, R Lynch, Y Ma, R Macas, S Macfoy, B Machenschalk, M MacInnis, DM Macleod, IM Hernandez, F Magaa-Sandoval, LM Zertuche, RM Magee, E Majorana, I Maksimovic, N Man, V Mandic, V Mangano, GL Mansell, M Manske, M Mantovani, F Marchesoni, F Marion, S Mrka, Z Mrka, C Markakis, AS Markosyan, A Markowitz, E Maros, A Marquina, P Marsh, F Martelli, L Martellini, IW Martin, RM Martin, DV Martynov, K Mason, E Massera, A Masserot, TJ Massinger, M Masso-Reid, S Mastrogiovanni, A Matas, F Matichard, L Matone, N Mavalvala, N Mazumder, R McCarthy, DE McClelland, S McCormick, L McCuller, SC McGuire, G McIntyre, J McIver, DJ McManus, L McNeill, T Mcrae, ST McWilliams, D Meacher, GD Meadors, M Mehmet, J Meidam, E Mejuto-Villa, A Melatos, G Mendell, RA Mercer, EL Merilh, M Merzougui, S Meshkov, C Messenger, C Messick, R Metzdorff, PM Meyers, H Miao, C Michel, H Middleton, EE Mikhailov, L Milano, AL Mueller, BB Mueller, J Miller, M Millhouse, MC Milovich-Goff, O Minazzoli, Y Minenkov, J Ming, C Mishra, S Mitra, VP Mitrofanov, G Mitselmakher, R Mittleman, D Moffa, A Moggi, K Mogushi, M Mohan, SRP Mohapatra, M Montani, CJ Moore, D Moraru, G Moreno, SR Morriss, B Mours, CM Mow-Lowry, G Mueller, AW Muir, A Mukherjee, D Mukherjee, S Mukherjee, N Mukund, A Mullavey, J Munch, EA Muniz, M Muratore, PG Murray, K Napier, I Nardecchia, L Naticchioni, RK Nayak, J Neilson, G Nelemans, TJN Nelson, M Nery, A Neunzert, L Nevin, JM Newport, G Newton, KKY Ng, P Nguyen, TT Nguyen, D Nichols, AB Nielsen, S Nissanke, A Nitz, A Noack, F Nocera, D Nolting, C North, LK Nuttall, J Oberling, GD O'Dea, GH Ogin, JJ Oh, SH Oh, F Ohme, MA Okada, M Oliver, P Oppermann, RJ Oram, B O'Reilly, R Ormiston, LF Ortega, R O'Shaughnessy, S Ossokine, DJ Ottaway, H Overmier, BJ Owen, AE Pace, J Page, MA Page, A Pai, SA Pai, JR Palamos, O Palashov, C Palomba, A Pal-Singh, H Pan, H-W Pan, B Pang, PTH Pang, C Pankow, F Pannarale, BC Pant, F Paoletti, A Paoli, MA Papa, A Parida, W Parker, D Pascucci, A Pasqualetti, R Passaquieti, D Passuello, M Patil, B Patricelli, BL Pearlstone, M Pedraza, R Pedurand, L Pekowsky, A Pele, S Penn, CJ Perez, A Perreca, LM Perri, HP Pfeiffer, M Phelps, OJ Piccinni, M Pichot, F Piergiovanni, V Pierro, G Pillant, L Pinard, IM Pinto, M Pirello, M Pitkin, M Poe, R Poggiani, P Popolizio, EK Porter, A Post, J Powell, J Prasad, JWW Pratt, G Pratten, V Predoi, T Prestegard, LR Price, M Prijatelj, M Principe, S Privitera, GA Prodi, LG Prokhorov, O Puncken, M Punturo, P Puppo, M Prrer, H Qi, V Quetschke, EA Quintero, R Quitzow-James, FJ Raab, DS Rabeling, H Radkins, P Raffai, S Raja, C Rajan, B Rajbhandari, M Rakhmanov, KE Ramirez, A Ramos-Buades, P Rapagnani, V Raymond, M Razzano, J Read, T Regimbau, L Rei, S Reid, DH Reitze, W Ren, SD Reyes, F Ricci, PM Ricker, S Rieger, K Riles, M Rizzo, NA Robertson, R Robie, F Robinet, A Rocchi, L Rolland, JG Rollins, VJ Roma, R Romano, CL Romel, JH Romie, D Rosinska, MP Ross, S Rowan, A Rdiger, P Ruggi, G Rutins, K Ryan, S Sachdev, T Sadecki, L Sadeghian, M Sakellariadou, L Salconi, M Saleem, F Salemi, A Samajdar, L Sammut, LM Sampson, EJ Sanchez, LE Sanchez, N Sanchis-Gual, V Sandberg, JR Sanders, B Sassolas, BS Sathyaprakash, PR Saulson, O Sauter, RL Savage, A Sawadsky, P Schale, M Scheel, J Scheuer, J Schmidt, P Schmidt, R Schnabel, RMS Schofield, A Schonbeck, E Schreiber, D Schuette, BW Schulte, BF Schutz, SG Schwalbe, J Scott, SM Scott, E Seidel, D Sellers, AS Sengupta, D Sentenac, V Sequino, A Sergeev, DA Shaddock, TJ Shaffer, AA Shah, MS Shahriar, MB Shaner, L Shao, B Shapiro, P Shawhan, A Sheperd, DH Shoemaker, DM Shoemaker, K Siellez, X Siemens, M Sieniawska, D Sigg, AD Silva, LP Singer, A Singh, A Singhal, AM Sintes, BJJ Slagmolen, B Smith, JR Smith, RJE Smith, S Somala, EJ Son, JA Sonnenberg, B Sorazu, F Sorrentino, T Souradeep, AP Spencer, AK Srivastava, K Staats, A Staley, M Steinke, J Steinlechner, S Steinlechner, D Steinmeyer, SP Stevenson, R Stone, DJ Stops, KA Strain, G Stratta, SE Strigin, A Strunk, R Sturani, AL Stuver, TZ Summerscales, L Sun, S Sunil, J Suresh, PJ Sutton, BL Swinkels, MJ Szczepanczyk, M Tacca, SC Tait, C Talbot, D Talukder, DB Tanner, M Tpai, A Taracchini, JD Tasson, JA Taylor, R Taylor, SV Tewari, T Theeg, F Thies, EG Thomas, M Thomas, P Thomas, KA Thorne, KS Thorne, E Thrane, S Tiwari, V Tiwari, KV Tokmakov, K Toland, M Tonelli, Z Tornasi, A Torres-Forn, CI Torrie, D Toyr, F Travasso, G Traylor, J Trinastic, MC Tringali, L Trozzo, KW Tsang, M Tse, R Tso, L Tsukada, D Tsuna, D Tuyenbayev, K Ueno, D Ugolini, CS Unnikrishnan, AL Urban, SA Usman, H Vahlbruch, G 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Ishizaki, ML Cherry, S Ricciarini, AV Penacchioni, PS Marrocchesi, AS Pozanenko, AA Volnova, ED Mazaeva, PY Minaev, MA Krugov, AV Kusakin, IV Reva, AS Moskvitin, VV Rumyantsev, R Inasaridze, EV Klunko, N Tungalag, SE Schmalz, O Burhonov, H Abdalla, A Abramowski, F Aharonian, FA Benkhali, EO Angner, M Arakawa, M Arrieta, P Aubert, M Backes, A Balzer, M Barnard, Y Becherini, JB Tjus, D Berge, S Bernhard, K Bernrhr, R Blackwell, M Bottcher, C Boisson, J Bolmont, S Bonnefoy, P Bordas, J Bregeon, F Brun, P Brun, M Bryan, M Bchele, T Bulik, M Capasso, S Caroff, A Carosi, S Casanova, M Cerruti, N Chakraborty, RCG Chaves, A Chen, J Chevalier, S Colafrancesco, B Condon, J Conrad, ID Davids, J Decock, C Deil, J Devin, P Dewilt, L Dirson, A Djannati-Atao, A Donath, LO Drury, K Dutson, J Dyks, T Edwards, K Egberts, G Emery, J-P Ernenwein, S Eschbach, C Farnier, S Fegan, MV Fernandes, A Fiasson, G Fontaine, S Funk, M Fssling, S Gabici, YA Gallant, T Garrigoux, F Gate, G Giavitto, B Giebels, D Glawion, JF Glicenstein, D Gottschall, M-H Grondin, J Hahn, M Haupt, J Hawkes, G Heinzelmann, G Henri, G Hermann, JA Hinton, W Hofmann, C Hoischen, TL Holch, M Holler, D Horns, A Ivascenko, H Iwasaki, A Jacholkowska, M Jamrozy, D Jankowsky, F Jankowsky, M Jingo, L Jouvin, I Jung-Richardt, MA Kastendieck, K Katarzynski, M Katsuragawa, D Khangulyan, B Khelifi, J King, S Klepser, D Klochkov, W Kluzniak, N Komin, K Kosack, S Krakau, M Kraus, PP Krger, H Laffon, G Lamanna, J Lau, J-P Lees, J Lefaucheur, A Lemiere, M Lemoine-Goumard, J-P Lenain, E Leser, T Lohse, M Lorentz, R Liu, I Lypova, D Malyshev, V Marandon, A Marcowith, C Mariaud, R Marx, G Maurin, N Maxted, M Mayer, PJ Meintjes, M Meyer, AMW Mitchell, R Moderski, M Mohamed, L Mohrmann, K Mor, E Moulin, T Murach, S Nakashima, M De Naurois, H Ndiyavala, F Niederwanger, J Niemiec, L Oakes, P O'Brien, H Odaka, S Ohm, M Ostrowski, I Oya, M Padovani, M Panter, RD Parsons, NW Pekeur, G Pelletier, C Perennes, P-O Petrucci, B Peyaud, Q Piel, 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