Effect of Ultraviolet Radiation on Organic Photovoltaic Materials and Devices.

ACS applied materials & interfaces 11 (2019) 21543-21551

JB Patel, P Tiwana, N Seidler, GE Morse, OR Lozman, MB Johnston, LM Herz

Organic photovoltaics are a sustainable and cost-effective power-generation technology that may aid the move to zero-emission buildings, carbon neutral cities, and electric vehicles. While state-of-the-art organic photovoltaic devices can be encapsulated to withstand air and moisture, they are currently still susceptible to light-induced degradation, leading to a decline in the long-term efficiency of the devices. In this study, the role of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on a multilayer organic photovoltaic device is systematically uncovered using spectral filtering. By applying long-pass filters to remove different parts of the UV portion of the AM1.5G spectrum, two main photodegradation processes are shown to occur in the organic photovoltaic devices. A UV-activated process is found to cause a significant decrease in the photocurrent across the whole spectrum and is most likely linked to the deterioration of the charge extraction layers. In addition, a photodegradation process caused by UV-filtered sunlight is found to change the micromorphology of the bulk heterojunction material, leading to a reduction in photocurrent at high photon energies. These findings strongly suggest that the fabrication of inherently photostable organic photovoltaic devices will require the replacement of fullerene-based electron transporter materials with alternative organic semiconductors.

Aromaticity and Antiaromaticity in the Excited States of Porphyrin Nanorings


M Peeks, J Gong, K McLoughlin, T Kobatake, R Haver, L Herz, H Anderson

Aromaticity can be a useful concept for predicting the behavior of excited states. Here we show that π-conjugated porphyrin nanorings exhibit size-dependent excited-state global aromaticity and antiaromaticity, for rings containing up to eight porphyrin subunits, although they have no significant global aromaticity in their neutral singlet ground states. Applying Baird’s law, odd rings ([4n] π-electrons) are aromatic in their excited states, whereas the excited states of even rings ([4n+2] π-electrons) are antiaromatic. These predictions are borne out by density functional theory (DFT) studies of the nucleus-independent chemical shift in the T1 triplet state of each ring, which reveal the critical importance of the triplet delocalization to the emergence of excited-state aromaticity. The singlet excited states (S1) are explored by measurements of the radiative rate and fluorescence peak wavelength, revealing a subtle odd-even alternation as a function of ring size, consistent with symmetry-breaking in antiaromatic excited states.

Revealing the nature of photoluminescence emission in the metal-halide double perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6


SJ Zelewski, JM Urban, A Surrente, DK Maude, A Kuc, L Schade, RD Johnson, M Dollmann, PK Nayak, HJ Snaith, P Radaelli, R Kudrawiec, RJ Nicholas, P Plochocka, M Baranowski

Imaging photoinduced surface potentials on hybrid perovskites by real-time Scanning Electron Microscopy.

Micron (Oxford, England : 1993) 121 (2019) 53-65

G Irde, SM Pietralunga, V Sala, M Zani, JM Ball, AJ Barker, A Petrozza, G Lanzani, A Tagliaferri

We introduce laser-assisted Time-Resolved SEM (TR-SEM), joining Scanning Electron Microscopy and laser light excitation, to probe the long-term temporal evolution of optically excited charge distributions at the surface of Metal Ammonium Lead Triiodide (MAPbI3) hybrid perovskite thin films. Laser-assisted TR-SEM relies on the optically induced local modification of Secondary Electron (SE) detection yield to provide mapping of photoexcited potentials and charge dynamics at surfaces, and qualifies as a complementary approach to near-field probe microscopies and nonlinear photoemission spectroscopies for photovoltage measurements. Real-time imaging of evolving field patterns are provided on timescales compatible with SEM scanning rates, so that temporal resolution in the millisecond range can be ultimately envisaged. MAPbI3 is an outstanding light-sensitive material candidate for applications in solar light harvesting and photovoltaics, also appealing as an active system for light generation. In this work, the real time temporal evolution of optically induced SE contrast patterns in MAPbI3 is experimentally recorded, both under illumination by a 405 nm blue laser and after light removal, showing the occurrence of modifications related to photoinduced positive charge fields at surface. The long term evolution of these surface fields are tentatively attributed to ion migration within the film, under the action of the illumination gradient and the hole collecting substrate. This optical excitation is fully reversible in MAPbI3 over timescales of hours and a complete recovery of the system occurs within days. Permanent irradiation damage of the material is avoided by operating the SEM at 5 keV of energy and 1-10 pA of primary current. Optical excitation is provided by intense above-bandgap illumination (up to 50 W/cm2). TR-SEM patterns show a strong dependence on the geometry of SE collection. Measurements are taken at different axial orientations of the sample with respect to the entrance of the in-column detection system of the SEM and compared with numerical modeling of the SE detection process. This enables to single out the information regarding the local potential distribution. Results are interpreted by combining data about the spectral distribution of emitted SEs with the configuration of the electric and magnetic fields in the specimen chamber. The present modeling sets a robust basis for the understanding of photoinduced SE electron contrast.

Photocatalytic water splitting by N-TiO2 on MgO (111) with exceptional quantum efficiencies at elevated temperatures.

Nature communications 10 (2019) 4421-

Y Li, Y-K Peng, L Hu, J Zheng, D Prabhakaran, S Wu, TJ Puchtler, M Li, K-Y Wong, RA Taylor, SCE Tsang

Photocatalytic water splitting is attracting enormous interest for the storage of solar energy but no practical method has yet been identified. In the past decades, various systems have been developed but most of them suffer from low activities, a narrow range of absorption and poor quantum efficiencies (Q.E.) due to fast recombination of charge carriers. Here we report a dramatic suppression of electron-hole pair recombination on the surface of N-doped TiO2 based nanocatalysts under enhanced concentrations of H+ and OH-, and local electric field polarization of a MgO (111) support during photolysis of water at elevated temperatures. Thus, a broad optical absorption is seen, producing O2 and H2 in a 1:2 molar ratio with a H2 evolution rate of over 11,000 μmol g-1 h-1 without any sacrificial reagents at 270 °C. An exceptional range of Q.E. from 81.8% at 437 nm to 3.2% at 1000 nm is also reported.

Impurity Tracking Enables Enhanced Control and Reproducibility of Hybrid Perovskite Vapor Deposition.

ACS applied materials & interfaces 11 (2019) 28851-28857

J Borchert, I Levchuk, LC Snoek, MU Rothmann, R Haver, HJ Snaith, CJ Brabec, LM Herz, MB Johnston

Metal halide perovskite semiconductors have the potential to enable low-cost, flexible, and efficient solar cells for a wide range of applications. Physical vapor deposition by co-evaporation of precursors is a method that results in very smooth and pinhole-free perovskite thin films and allows excellent control over film thickness and composition. However, for a deposition method to become industrially scalable, reproducible process control and high device yields are essential. Unfortunately, to date, the control and reproducibility of evaporating organic precursors such as methylammonium iodide (MAI) have proved extremely challenging. We show that the established method of controlling the evaporation rate of MAI with quartz microbalances (QMBs) is critically sensitive to the concentration of the impurities MAH2PO3 and MAH2PO2 that are usually present in MAI after synthesis. Therefore, controlling the deposition rate of MAI with QMBs is unreliable since the concentration of such impurities typically varies from one batch of MAI to another and even during the course of a deposition. However once reliable control of MAI deposition is achieved, we find that the presence of precursor impurities during perovskite deposition does not degrade the solar cell performance. Our results indicate that as long as precursor deposition rates are well controlled, physical vapor deposition will allow high solar cell device yields even if the purity of precursors changes from one run to another.

Facile Synthesis of Stable and Highly Luminescent Methylammonium Lead Halide Nanocrystals for Efficient Light Emitting Devices.

Journal of the American Chemical Society (2019)

Y Hassan, OJ Ashton, JH Park, G Li, N Sakai, B Wenger, A-A Haghighirad, NK Noel, MH Song, BR Lee, RH Friend, HJ Snaith

Metal halide perovskites are promising candidates for use in light emitting diodes (LEDs), due to their potential for colour tuneable and high luminescence efficiency. While recent advances in perovskite-based light emitting diodes have resulted in external quantum efficiencies exceeding 12.4 % for the green emitters, and infrared emitters based on 3D/2D mixed dimensional perovskites have exceeded 20%, the external quantum efficiencies of the red and blue emitters still lag behind. A critical issue to date is creating highly emissive and stable perovskite emitters with the desirable emission band gap to achieve full-colour displays and white LEDs. Herein, we report the preparation and characterization of a highly luminescent and stable suspension of cubic-shaped methylammonium lead triiodide CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite nanocrystals, where we synthesise the nanocrystals via a ligand-assisted re-precipitation technique, using an acetonitrile/methylamine compound solvent system to solvate the ions, and toluene as the anti-solvent to induce crystallisation. Through tuning the ratio of the ligands, the ligand to toluene ratio, and the temperature of the toluene, we obtain a solution of CH3NH3PbI3 nanocrystals with a photoluminescence quantum yield exceeding 93%, and tuneable emission between 660 nm and 705 nm. We also achieved red emission at 635 nm by blending the nanocrystals with bromide salt and obtained perovskite-based light emitting diodes with maximum electroluminescent external quantum efficiency of 2.75%.

Structural and Optical Properties of Cs2AgBiBr6 Double Perovskite

ACS Energy Letters American Chemical Society (ACS) (2018) 299-305

L Schade, AD Wright, RD Johnson, M Dollmann, B Wenger, PK Nayak, D Prabhakaran, LM Herz, R Nicholas, HJ Snaith, PG Radaelli

Planar perovskite solar cells with long-term stability using ionic liquid additives.

Nature 571 (2019) 245-250

S Bai, P Da, C Li, Z Wang, Z Yuan, F Fu, M Kawecki, X Liu, N Sakai, JT-W Wang, S Huettner, S Buecheler, M Fahlman, F Gao, HJ Snaith

Solar cells based on metal halide perovskites are one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies1-4. Over the past few years, the long-term operational stability of such devices has been greatly improved by tuning the composition of the perovskites5-9, optimizing the interfaces within the device structures10-13, and using new encapsulation techniques14,15. However, further improvements are required in order to deliver a longer-lasting technology. Ion migration in the perovskite active layer-especially under illumination and heat-is arguably the most difficult aspect to mitigate16-18. Here we incorporate ionic liquids into the perovskite film and thence into positive-intrinsic-negative photovoltaic devices, increasing the device efficiency and markedly improving the long-term device stability. Specifically, we observe a degradation in performance of only around five per cent for the most stable encapsulated device under continuous simulated full-spectrum sunlight for more than 1,800 hours at 70 to 75 degrees Celsius, and estimate that the time required for the device to drop to eighty per cent of its peak performance is about 5,200 hours. Our demonstration of long-term operational, stable solar cells under intense conditions is a key step towards a reliable perovskite photovoltaic technology.

Unravelling the key role of surface features behind facet-dependent photocatalysis of anatase TiO2.

Chemical communications (Cambridge, England) 55 (2019) 4415-4418

Y-K Peng, B Keeling, Y Li, J Zheng, T Chen, H-L Chou, TJ Puchtler, RA Taylor, SCE Tsang

The high activity of nanocrystallites is commonly attributed to the terminal high-energy facets. However, we demonstrate that the high activity of the anatase TiO2(001) facet in photocatalytic H2 evolution is not due to its high intrinsic surface energy, but local electronic effects created by surface features on the facet.

Photovoltaic solar cell technologies: analysing the state of the art


PK Nayak, S Mahesh, HJ Snaith, D Cahen

Giant Fine Structure Splitting of the Bright Exciton in a Bulk MAPbBr3 Single Crystal.

Nano letters (2019)

M Baranowski, K Galkowski, A Surrente, JM Urban, Ł Klopotowski, S Mackowski, DK Maude, R Ben Aich, K Boujdaria, M Chamarro, C Testelin, P Nayak, M Dollmann, HJ Snaith, RJ Nicholas, P Plochocka

Exciton fine structure splitting in semiconductors reflects the underlying symmetry of the crystal and quantum confinement. Since the latter factor strongly enhances the exchange interaction, most work has focused on nanostructures. Here, we report on the first observation of the bright exciton fine structure splitting in a bulk semiconductor crystal, where the impact of quantum confinement can be specifically excluded, giving access to the intrinsic properties of the material. Detailed investigation of the exciton photoluminescence and reflection spectra of a bulk methylammonium lead tribromide single crystal reveals a zero magnetic field splitting as large as ~200μeV. This result provides an important starting point for the discussion of the origin of the large bright exciton fine structure observed in perovskite nanocrystals.

Charge-Carrier Cooling and Polarization Memory Loss in Formamidinium Tin Triiodide.

The journal of physical chemistry letters (2019) 6038-6047

KJ Savill, MT Klug, RL Milot, HJ Snaith, LM Herz

Reports of slow charge-carrier cooling in hybrid metal halide perovskites have prompted hopes of achieving higher photovoltaic cell voltages through hot-carrier extraction. However, observations of long-lived hot charge carriers even at low photoexcitation densities and an orders-of-magnitude spread in reported cooling times have been challenging to explain. Here we present ultrafast time-resolved photoluminescence measurements on formamidinum tin triiodide, showing fast initial cooling over tens of picoseconds and demonstrating that a perceived secondary regime of slower cooling instead derives from electronic relaxation, state-filling, and recombination in the presence of energetic disorder. We identify limitations of some widely used approaches to determine charge-carrier temperature and make use of an improved model which accounts for the full photoluminescence line shape. Further, we do not find any persistent polarization anisotropy in FASnI3 within 270 fs after excitation, indicating that excited carriers rapidly lose both polarization memory and excess energy through interactions with the perovskite lattice.

Electronic Traps and Phase Segregation in Lead Mixed-Halide Perovskite

ACS Energy Letters (2018) 75-84

AJ Knight, AD Wright, JB Patel, DP McMeekin, HJ Snaith, MB Johnston, LM Herz

© 2018 American Chemical Society. An understanding of the factors driving halide segregation in lead mixed-halide perovskites is required for their implementation in tandem solar cells with existing silicon technology. Here we report that the halide segregation dynamics observed in the photoluminescence from CH3NH3Pb(Br0.5I0.5)3 is strongly influenced by the atmospheric environment, and that encapsulation of films with a layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) allows for halide segregation dynamics to be fully reversible and repeatable. We further establish an empirical model directly linking the amount of halide segregation observed in the photoluminescence to the fraction of charge carriers recombining through trap-mediated channels, and the photon flux absorbed. From such quantitative analysis we show that under pulsed illumination, the frequency of the modulation alone has no influence on the segregation dynamics. Additionally, we extrapolate that working CH3NH3Pb(Br0.5I0.5)3 perovskite cells would require a reduction of the trap-related charge carrier recombination rate to ≲105s-1 in order for halide segregation to be sufficiently suppressed.

Growth modes and quantum confinement in ultrathin vapour-deposited MAPbI3 films.

Nanoscale 11 (2019) 14276-14284

ES Parrott, JB Patel, A-A Haghighirad, HJ Snaith, MB Johnston, LM Herz

Vapour deposition of metal halide perovskite by co-evaporation of precursors has the potential to achieve large-area high-efficiency solar cells on an industrial scale, yet little is known about the growth of metal halide perovskites by this method at the current time. Here, we report the fabrication of MAPbI3 films with average thicknesses from 2-320 nm by co-evaporation. We analyze the film properties using X-ray diffraction, optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) to provide insights into the nucleation and growth of MAPbI3 films on quartz substrates. We find that the perovskite initially forms crystallite islands of around 8 nm in height, which may be the cause of the persistent small grain sizes reported for evaporated metal halide perovskites that hinder device efficiency and stability. As more material is added, islands coalesce until full coverage of the substrate is reached at around 10 nm average thickness. We also find that quantum confinement induces substantial shifts to the PL wavelength when the average thickness is below 40 nm, offering dual-source vapour deposition as an alternative method of fabricating nanoscale structures for LEDs and other devices.

III-V compounds as single photon emitters

Journal of Semiconductors 40 (2019)

X Wang, L Xu, Y Jiang, Z Yin, CCS Chan, C Deng, RA Taylor

© 2019 Chinese Institute of Electronics. Single-photon emitters (SPEs) are one of the key components in quantum information applications. The ideal SPEs emit a single photon or a photon-pair on demand, with high purity and distinguishability. SPEs can also be integrated in photonic circuits for scalable quantum communication and quantum computer systems. Quantum dots made from III-V compounds such as InGaAs or GaN have been found to be particularly attractive SPE sources due to their well studied optical performance and state of the art industrial flexibility in fabrication and integration. Here, we review the optical and optoelectronic properties and growth methods of general SPEs. Subsequently, a brief summary of the latest advantages in III-V compound SPEs and the research progress achieved in the past few years will be discussed. We finally describe frontier challenges and conclude with the latest SPE fabrication science and technology that can open new possibilities for quantum information applications.

In-depth optical characterization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) after formation of nanosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures.

Nanoscale 11 (2019) 7567-7571

SY Son, G Kang, M Kim, J Lee, T Kim, T Park, J Lim

Herein, poly(3-hexylthiophene) films with periodic wavy surface structures are generated upon laser irradiation at a wavelength of 530 nm using a pulse duration of 5 ns and a repetition frequency of 10 Hz. The optical properties of the films irradiated with 1200, 3000, and 6000 pulses, respectively, are studied using various techniques.

Tuning the ambipolar behaviour of organic field effect transistors via band engineering

AIP ADVANCES 9 (2019) ARTN 035202

PR Warren, JFM Hardigree, AE Lauritzen, J Nelson, M Riede

Deciphering photocarrier dynamics for tuneable high-performance perovskite-organic semiconductor heterojunction phototransistors.

Nature communications 10 (2019) 4475-

Y-H Lin, W Huang, P Pattanasattayavong, J Lim, R Li, N Sakai, J Panidi, MJ Hong, C Ma, N Wei, N Wehbe, Z Fei, M Heeney, JG Labram, TD Anthopoulos, HJ Snaith

Looking beyond energy harvesting, metal-halide perovskites offer great opportunities to revolutionise large-area photodetection technologies due to their high absorption coefficients, long diffusion lengths, low trap densities and simple processability. However, successful extraction of photocarriers from perovskites and their conversion to electrical signals remain challenging due to the interdependency of photogain and dark current density. Here we report hybrid hetero-phototransistors by integrating perovskites with organic semiconductor transistor channels to form either "straddling-gap" type-I or "staggered-gap" type-II heterojunctions. Our results show that gradual transforming from type-II to type-I heterojunctions leads to increasing and tuneable photoresponsivity with high photogain. Importantly, with a preferential edge-on molecular orientation, the type-I heterostructure results in efficient photocarrier cycling through the channel. Additionally, we propose the use of a photo-inverter circuitry to assess the phototransistors' functionality and amplification. Our study provides important insights into photocarrier dynamics and can help realise advanced device designs with "on-demand" optoelectronic properties.

Elucidating the long-range charge carrier mobility in metal halide perovskite thin films

Energy & Environmental Science Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) (2018)

J Lim, M Hoerantner, N Sakai, JM Ball, S Mahesh, NK Noel, Y-H Lin, J Patel, D McMeekin, MB Johnston, B Wenger, H Snaith

<p>Many optoelectronic properties have been reported for lead halide perovskite polycrystalline films. However, ambiguities in the evaluation of these properties remain, especially for long-range lateral charge transport, where ionic conduction...</p>