Publications


Spin quantum correlations of relativistic particles

Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics 85 (2012)

PL Saldanha, V Vedral

We show that a pair of massive relativistic spin-1/2 particles prepared in a maximally entangled spin state in general is not capable of maximally violating the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) version of Bell's inequalities without a postselection of the particles' momenta, representing a major difference in relation to nonrelativistic systems. This occurs because the quantization axis of the measurements performed on each particle depends on the particle velocity, such that it is not possible to define a reduced density matrix for the particles' spin. We also show that the amount of violation of the CHSH inequality depends on the reference frame and that in some frames the inequality may not be violated. © 2012 American Physical Society.


An information-theoretic equality implying the Jarzynski relation

Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical 45 (2012)

V Vedral

We derive a general informationtheoretic equality for a system undergoing two projective measurements separated by a general temporal evolution. The equality implies the non-negativity of the mutual information between the measurement outcomes of the earlier and later projective measurements. We show that it also contains the Jarzynski relation between the average exponential of the thermodynamical work and the exponential of the difference between the initial and final free energy. Our result elucidates the informationtheoretic underpinning of thermodynamics and explains why the Jarzynski relation holds identically both quantumly as well as classically. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Quantum discord as resource for remote state preparation

Nature Physics (2012)

B Dakić, YO Lipp, X Ma, M Ringbauer, S Kropatschek, S Barz, T Paterek, V Vedral, A Zeilinger, C Brukner, P Walther


Observing the operational significance of discord consumption

Nature Physics (2012)

M Gu, HM Chrzanowski, SM Assad, T Symul, K Modi, TC Ralph, V Vedral, PK Lam


Quantumness and entanglement witnesses

Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical 45 (2012)

P Facchi, S Pascazio, V Vedral, K Yuasa

We analyze the recently introduced notion of quantumness witnesses and compare it to that of entanglement witnesses. We show that any entanglement witness is also a quantumness witness. We then consider some physically relevant examples and explicitly construct some witnesses. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Geometric-phase backaction in a mesoscopic qubit-oscillator system

Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics 85 (2012)

G Vacanti, R Fazio, MS Kim, GM Palma, M Paternostro, V Vedral

We illustrate a reverse Von Neumann measurement scheme in which a geometric phase induced on a quantum harmonic oscillator is measured using a microscopic qubit as a probe. We show how such a phase, generated by a cyclic evolution in the phase space of the harmonic oscillator, can be kicked back on the qubit, which plays the role of a quantum interferometer. We also extend our study to finite-temperature dissipative Markovian dynamics and discuss potential implementations in micro- and nanomechanical devices coupled to an effective two-level system. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Classical to quantum in large-number limit

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 370 (2012) 4810-4820

K Modi, R Fazio, S Pascazio, V Vedral, K Yuasa

We construct a quantumness witness following the work of Alicki & van Ryn (AvR). We reformulate the AvR test by defining it for quantum states rather than for observables. This allows us to identify the necessary quantities and resources to detect quantumness for any given system. The first quantity turns out to be the purity of the system. When applying the witness to a system with even moderate mixedness, the protocol is unable to reveal any quantumness. We then show that having many copies of the system leads the witness to reveal quantumness. This seems contrary to the Bohr correspondence, which asserts that, in the large-number limit, quantum systems become classical, whereas the witness shows quantumness when several non-quantum systems, as determined by the witness, are considered together. However, the resources required to detect the quantumness increase dramatically with the number of systems. We apply the quantumness witness for systems that are highly mixed but in the large-number limit that resembles nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) systems. We make several conclusions about detecting quantumness in NMR-like systems. © 2012 The Royal Society.


Towards quantum simulations of biological information flow

Interface Focus 2 (2012) 522-528

R Dorner, J Goold, V Vedral

Recent advances in the spectroscopy of biomolecules have highlighted the possibility of quantum coherence playing an active role in biological energy transport. The revelation that quantum coherence can survive in the hot and wet environment of biology has generated a lively debate across both the physics and biology communities. In particular, it remains unclear to what extent non-trivial quantum effects are used in biology and what advantage, if any, they afford. We propose an analogue quantum simulator, based on currently available techniques in ultra-cold atom physics, to study a model of energy and electron transport based on the Holstein Hamiltonian. By simulating the salient aspects of a biological system in a tunable laboratory set-up, we hope to gain insight into the validity of several theoretical models of biological quantum transport in a variety of relevant parameter regimes. © 2012 The Royal Society.


Physics. Moving beyond trust in quantum computing.

Science 335 (2012) 294-295

V Vedral


Quantum phases with differing computational power.

Nat Commun 3 (2012) 812-

J Cui, M Gu, LC Kwek, MF Santos, H Fan, V Vedral

The observation that concepts from quantum information has generated many alternative indicators of quantum phase transitions hints that quantum phase transitions possess operational significance with respect to the processing of quantum information. Yet, studies on whether such transitions lead to quantum phases that differ in their capacity to process information remain limited. Here we show that there exist quantum phase transitions that cause a distinct qualitative change in our ability to simulate certain quantum systems under perturbation of an external field by local operations and classical communication. In particular, we show that in certain quantum phases of the XY model, adiabatic perturbations of the external magnetic field can be simulated by local spin operations, whereas the resulting effect within other phases results in coherent non-local interactions. We discuss the potential implications to adiabatic quantum computation, where a computational advantage exists only when adiabatic perturbation results in coherent multi-body interactions.


Unifying Typical Entanglement and Coin Tossing: on Randomization in Probabilistic Theories

Communications in Mathematical Physics (2012) 1-47

MP Müller, OCO Dahlsten, V Vedral


Quantum nonlocality test by spectral joint measurements of qubits in driven cavity

EPL 100 (2012)

H Yuan, LF Wei, JS Huang, V Vedral

We propose a feasible approach to test quantum nonlocality with two qubits dispersively coupled to a driven cavity. Our proposal is based on spectral joint measurements of two qubits, i.e., their quantum states in the computational basis states {|kl,k,l=0,1} can be measured nondestructively by detecting the steady-state transmission spectra of the driven cavity. With this kind of measurements, the existence of Bell state can be robustly confirmed instead of conventional quantum state tomography. Then this kind of measurements is further utilized to test CHSH-Bell inequality. The advantage and feasibility of our proposal are also discussed. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.


Photon production from the vacuum close to the superradiant transition: Linking the dynamical Casimir effect to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism

Physical Review Letters 108 (2012)

G Vacanti, S Pugnetti, N Didier, M Paternostro, GM Palma, R Fazio, V Vedral

The dynamical Casimir effect (DCE) predicts the generation of photons from the vacuum due to the parametric amplification of the quantum fluctuations of an electromagnetic field. The verification of such an effect is still elusive in optical systems due to the very demanding requirements of its experimental implementation. We show that an ensemble of two-level atoms collectively coupled to the electromagnetic field of a cavity, driven at low frequencies and close to a quantum phase transition, stimulates the production of photons from the vacuum. This paves the way to an effective simulation of the DCE through a mechanism that has recently found experimental demonstration. The spectral properties of the emitted radiation reflect the critical nature of the system and allow us to link the detection of the DCE to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism for the production of defects when crossing a continuous phase transition. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Effects of quantum coherence in metalloprotein electron transfer

Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 86 (2012)

R Dorner, J Goold, L Heaney, T Farrow, V Vedral

Many intramolecular electron transfer (ET) reactions in biology are mediated by metal centers in proteins. This process is commonly described by a model of diffusive hopping according to the semiclassical theories of Marcus and Hopfield. However, recent studies have raised the possibility that nontrivial quantum mechanical effects play a functioning role in certain biomolecular processes. Here, we investigate the potential effects of quantum coherence in biological ET by extending the semiclassical model to allow for the possibility of quantum coherent phenomena using a quantum master equation based on the Holstein Hamiltonian. We test the model on the structurally defined chain of seven iron-sulfur clusters in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide plus hydrogen:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), a crucial respiratory enzyme and one of the longest chains of metal centers in biology. Using experimental parameters where possible, we find that, in limited circumstances, a small quantum mechanical contribution can provide a marked increase in the ET rate above the semiclassical diffusive-hopping rate. Under typical biological conditions, our model reduces to well-known diffusive behavior. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Physical interpretation of the Wigner rotations and its implications for relativistic quantum information

New Journal of Physics 14 (2012)

PL Saldanha, V Vedral

We present a new treatment for the spin of a massive relativistic particle in the context of quantum information based on a physical interpretation of the Wigner rotations, obtaining different results in relation to previous works. We are led to the conclusion that it is not possible to define a reduced density matrix for the particle spin and that the Pauli-Lubanski (or similar) spin operators are not suitable for describing measurements where the spin couples to an electromagnetic field in the measuring apparatus. These conclusions contradict the assumptions made by most of the previous papers on the subject. We also propose an experimental test of our formulation. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.


Quantum mechanics can reduce the complexity of classical models.

Nat Commun 3 (2012) 762-

M Gu, K Wiesner, E Rieper, V Vedral

Mathematical models are an essential component of quantitative science. They generate predictions about the future, based on information available in the present. In the spirit of simpler is better; should two models make identical predictions, the one that requires less input is preferred. Yet, for almost all stochastic processes, even the provably optimal classical models waste information. The amount of input information they demand exceeds the amount of predictive information they output. Here we show how to systematically construct quantum models that break this classical bound, and that the system of minimal entropy that simulates such processes must necessarily feature quantum dynamics. This indicates that many observed phenomena could be significantly simpler than classically possible should quantum effects be involved.


IN FROM THE COLD

NEW SCIENTIST 216 (2012) 32-37

V Vedral


Quantum optics with ultracold quantum gases: Towards the full quantum regime of the lightmatter interaction

Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 45 (2012)

IB Mekhov, H Ritsch

Although the study of ultracold quantum gases trapped by light is a prominent direction of modern research, the quantum properties of light were widely neglected in this field. Quantum optics with quantum gases closes this gap and addresses phenomena where the quantum statistical natures of both light and ultracold matter play equally important roles. First, light can serve as a quantum nondemolition probe of the quantum dynamics of various ultracold particles from ultracold atomic and molecular gases to nanoparticles and nanomechanical systems. Second, due to the dynamic lightmatter entanglement, projective measurement-based preparation of the many-body states is possible, where the class of emerging atomic states can be designed via optical geometry. Light scattering constitutes such a quantum measurement with controllable measurement back-action. As in cavity-based spin squeezing, the atom number squeezed and Schrödinger cat states can be prepared. Third, trapping atoms inside an optical cavity, one creates optical potentials and forces, which are not prescribed but quantized and dynamical variables themselves. Ultimately, cavity quantum electrodynamics with quantum gases requires a self-consistent solution for light and particles, which enriches the picture of quantum many-body states of atoms trapped in quantum potentials. This will allow quantum simulations of phenomena related to the physics of phonons, polarons, polaritons and other quantum quasiparticles. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Effects of quantum coherence in metalloprotein electron transfer.

Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 86 (2012) 031922-

R Dorner, J Goold, L Heaney, T Farrow, V Vedral

Many intramolecular electron transfer (ET) reactions in biology are mediated by metal centers in proteins. This process is commonly described by a model of diffusive hopping according to the semiclassical theories of Marcus and Hopfield. However, recent studies have raised the possibility that nontrivial quantum mechanical effects play a functioning role in certain biomolecular processes. Here, we investigate the potential effects of quantum coherence in biological ET by extending the semiclassical model to allow for the possibility of quantum coherent phenomena using a quantum master equation based on the Holstein Hamiltonian. We test the model on the structurally defined chain of seven iron-sulfur clusters in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide plus hydrogen:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), a crucial respiratory enzyme and one of the longest chains of metal centers in biology. Using experimental parameters where possible, we find that, in limited circumstances, a small quantum mechanical contribution can provide a marked increase in the ET rate above the semiclassical diffusive-hopping rate. Under typical biological conditions, our model reduces to well-known diffusive behavior.


Information and physics

Information (Switzerland) 3 (2012) 219-223

V Vedral

In this paper I discuss the question: what comes first, physics or information? The two have had a long-standing, symbiotic relationship for almost a hundred years out of which we have learnt a great deal. Information theory has enriched our interpretations of quantum physics, and, at the same time, offered us deep insights into general relativity through the study of black hole thermodynamics. Whatever the outcome of this debate, I argue that physicists will be able to benefit from continuing to explore connections between the two. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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