# Publications

## Spin quantum correlations of relativistic particles

Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics **85** (2012)

We show that a pair of massive relativistic spin-1/2 particles prepared in a maximally entangled spin state in general is not capable of maximally violating the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) version of Bell's inequalities without a postselection of the particles' momenta, representing a major difference in relation to nonrelativistic systems. This occurs because the quantization axis of the measurements performed on each particle depends on the particle velocity, such that it is not possible to define a reduced density matrix for the particles' spin. We also show that the amount of violation of the CHSH inequality depends on the reference frame and that in some frames the inequality may not be violated. © 2012 American Physical Society.

## Quantum discord as resource for remote state preparation

Nature Physics **8** (2012) 666-670

The existence of better-than-classical quantum information processing (QIP) models which consume very little or no entanglement suggests that separable or weakly entangled states could be extremely useful tools for information processing as they are much easier to prepare and control even in dissipative environments. It has been proposed that a resource of advantage is the generation of quantum discord, a measure of non-classical correlations that includes entanglement as a subset. Here we show that quantum discord is the necessary resource for quantum remote state preparation. We explicitly show that the geometric measure of quantum discord is related to the fidelity of this task, which provides its operational meaning. Our results are experimentally demonstrated using photonic quantum systems. Moreover, we demonstrate that separable states with non-zero quantum discord can outperform entangled states. Therefore, the role of quantum discord might provide fundamental insights for resource-efficient QIP. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

## Observing the operational significance of discord consumption

Nature Physics **8** (2012) 671-675

Coherent interactions that generate negligible entanglement can still exhibit unique quantum behaviour. This observation has motivated a search beyond entanglement for a complete description of all quantum correlations. Quantum discord is a promising candidate. Here, we demonstrate that under certain measurement constraints, discord between bipartite systems can be consumed to encode information that can only be accessed by coherent quantum interactions. The inability to access this information by any other means allows us to use discord to directly quantify this quantum advantage'. We experimentally encode information within the discordant correlations of two separable Gaussian states. The amount of extra information recovered by coherent interaction is quantified and directly linked with the discord consumed during encoding. No entanglement exists at any point of this experiment. Thus we introduce and demonstrate an operational method to use discord as a physical resource. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

## Quantumness and entanglement witnesses

Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical **45** (2012)

We analyze the recently introduced notion of quantumness witnesses and compare it to that of entanglement witnesses. We show that any entanglement witness is also a quantumness witness. We then consider some physically relevant examples and explicitly construct some witnesses. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

## Classical to quantum in large-number limit

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences **370** (2012) 4810-4820

We construct a quantumness witness following the work of Alicki & van Ryn (AvR). We reformulate the AvR test by defining it for quantum states rather than for observables. This allows us to identify the necessary quantities and resources to detect quantumness for any given system. The first quantity turns out to be the purity of the system. When applying the witness to a system with even moderate mixedness, the protocol is unable to reveal any quantumness. We then show that having many copies of the system leads the witness to reveal quantumness. This seems contrary to the Bohr correspondence, which asserts that, in the large-number limit, quantum systems become classical, whereas the witness shows quantumness when several non-quantum systems, as determined by the witness, are considered together. However, the resources required to detect the quantumness increase dramatically with the number of systems. We apply the quantumness witness for systems that are highly mixed but in the large-number limit that resembles nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) systems. We make several conclusions about detecting quantumness in NMR-like systems. © 2012 The Royal Society.

## Physics. Moving beyond trust in quantum computing.

Science **335** (2012) 294-295

## Quantum phases with differing computational power.

Nat Commun **3** (2012) 812-

The observation that concepts from quantum information has generated many alternative indicators of quantum phase transitions hints that quantum phase transitions possess operational significance with respect to the processing of quantum information. Yet, studies on whether such transitions lead to quantum phases that differ in their capacity to process information remain limited. Here we show that there exist quantum phase transitions that cause a distinct qualitative change in our ability to simulate certain quantum systems under perturbation of an external field by local operations and classical communication. In particular, we show that in certain quantum phases of the XY model, adiabatic perturbations of the external magnetic field can be simulated by local spin operations, whereas the resulting effect within other phases results in coherent non-local interactions. We discuss the potential implications to adiabatic quantum computation, where a computational advantage exists only when adiabatic perturbation results in coherent multi-body interactions.

## Emergent Thermodynamics in a Quenched Quantum Many-Body System

Physical Review Letters **109** (2012)

We study the statistics of the work done, fluctuation relations, and irreversible entropy production in a quantum many-body system subject to the sudden quench of a control parameter. By treating the quench as a thermodynamic transformation we show that the emergence of irreversibility in the nonequilibrium dynamics of closed many-body quantum systems can be accurately characterized. We demonstrate our ideas by considering a transverse quantum Ising model that is taken out of equilibrium by an instantaneous change of the transverse field. © 2012 American Physical Society.

## Unifying Typical Entanglement and Coin Tossing: on Randomization in Probabilistic Theories

Communications in Mathematical Physics (2012) 1-47

## Quantum nonlocality test by spectral joint measurements of qubits in driven cavity

EPL **100** (2012)

We propose a feasible approach to test quantum nonlocality with two qubits dispersively coupled to a driven cavity. Our proposal is based on spectral joint measurements of two qubits, i.e., their quantum states in the computational basis states {|kl,k,l=0,1} can be measured nondestructively by detecting the steady-state transmission spectra of the driven cavity. With this kind of measurements, the existence of Bell state can be robustly confirmed instead of conventional quantum state tomography. Then this kind of measurements is further utilized to test CHSH-Bell inequality. The advantage and feasibility of our proposal are also discussed. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.

## Photon production from the vacuum close to the superradiant transition: Linking the dynamical Casimir effect to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism

Physical Review Letters **108** (2012)

The dynamical Casimir effect (DCE) predicts the generation of photons from the vacuum due to the parametric amplification of the quantum fluctuations of an electromagnetic field. The verification of such an effect is still elusive in optical systems due to the very demanding requirements of its experimental implementation. We show that an ensemble of two-level atoms collectively coupled to the electromagnetic field of a cavity, driven at low frequencies and close to a quantum phase transition, stimulates the production of photons from the vacuum. This paves the way to an effective simulation of the DCE through a mechanism that has recently found experimental demonstration. The spectral properties of the emitted radiation reflect the critical nature of the system and allow us to link the detection of the DCE to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism for the production of defects when crossing a continuous phase transition. © 2012 American Physical Society.

## Effects of quantum coherence in metalloprotein electron transfer

Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics **86** (2012)

Many intramolecular electron transfer (ET) reactions in biology are mediated by metal centers in proteins. This process is commonly described by a model of diffusive hopping according to the semiclassical theories of Marcus and Hopfield. However, recent studies have raised the possibility that nontrivial quantum mechanical effects play a functioning role in certain biomolecular processes. Here, we investigate the potential effects of quantum coherence in biological ET by extending the semiclassical model to allow for the possibility of quantum coherent phenomena using a quantum master equation based on the Holstein Hamiltonian. We test the model on the structurally defined chain of seven iron-sulfur clusters in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide plus hydrogen:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), a crucial respiratory enzyme and one of the longest chains of metal centers in biology. Using experimental parameters where possible, we find that, in limited circumstances, a small quantum mechanical contribution can provide a marked increase in the ET rate above the semiclassical diffusive-hopping rate. Under typical biological conditions, our model reduces to well-known diffusive behavior. © 2012 American Physical Society.

## Physical interpretation of the Wigner rotations and its implications for relativistic quantum information

New Journal of Physics **14** (2012)

We present a new treatment for the spin of a massive relativistic particle in the context of quantum information based on a physical interpretation of the Wigner rotations, obtaining different results in relation to previous works. We are led to the conclusion that it is not possible to define a reduced density matrix for the particle spin and that the Pauli-Lubanski (or similar) spin operators are not suitable for describing measurements where the spin couples to an electromagnetic field in the measuring apparatus. These conclusions contradict the assumptions made by most of the previous papers on the subject. We also propose an experimental test of our formulation. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

## Quantum mechanics can reduce the complexity of classical models.

Nat Commun **3** (2012) 762-

Mathematical models are an essential component of quantitative science. They generate predictions about the future, based on information available in the present. In the spirit of simpler is better; should two models make identical predictions, the one that requires less input is preferred. Yet, for almost all stochastic processes, even the provably optimal classical models waste information. The amount of input information they demand exceeds the amount of predictive information they output. Here we show how to systematically construct quantum models that break this classical bound, and that the system of minimal entropy that simulates such processes must necessarily feature quantum dynamics. This indicates that many observed phenomena could be significantly simpler than classically possible should quantum effects be involved.

## Quantum optics with ultracold quantum gases: Towards the full quantum regime of the lightmatter interaction

Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics **45** (2012)

Although the study of ultracold quantum gases trapped by light is a prominent direction of modern research, the quantum properties of light were widely neglected in this field. Quantum optics with quantum gases closes this gap and addresses phenomena where the quantum statistical natures of both light and ultracold matter play equally important roles. First, light can serve as a quantum nondemolition probe of the quantum dynamics of various ultracold particles from ultracold atomic and molecular gases to nanoparticles and nanomechanical systems. Second, due to the dynamic lightmatter entanglement, projective measurement-based preparation of the many-body states is possible, where the class of emerging atomic states can be designed via optical geometry. Light scattering constitutes such a quantum measurement with controllable measurement back-action. As in cavity-based spin squeezing, the atom number squeezed and Schrödinger cat states can be prepared. Third, trapping atoms inside an optical cavity, one creates optical potentials and forces, which are not prescribed but quantized and dynamical variables themselves. Ultimately, cavity quantum electrodynamics with quantum gases requires a self-consistent solution for light and particles, which enriches the picture of quantum many-body states of atoms trapped in quantum potentials. This will allow quantum simulations of phenomena related to the physics of phonons, polarons, polaritons and other quantum quasiparticles. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

## Effects of quantum coherence in metalloprotein electron transfer.

Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys **86** (2012) 031922-

Many intramolecular electron transfer (ET) reactions in biology are mediated by metal centers in proteins. This process is commonly described by a model of diffusive hopping according to the semiclassical theories of Marcus and Hopfield. However, recent studies have raised the possibility that nontrivial quantum mechanical effects play a functioning role in certain biomolecular processes. Here, we investigate the potential effects of quantum coherence in biological ET by extending the semiclassical model to allow for the possibility of quantum coherent phenomena using a quantum master equation based on the Holstein Hamiltonian. We test the model on the structurally defined chain of seven iron-sulfur clusters in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide plus hydrogen:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), a crucial respiratory enzyme and one of the longest chains of metal centers in biology. Using experimental parameters where possible, we find that, in limited circumstances, a small quantum mechanical contribution can provide a marked increase in the ET rate above the semiclassical diffusive-hopping rate. Under typical biological conditions, our model reduces to well-known diffusive behavior.

## Information and physics

Information (Switzerland) **3** (2012) 219-223

In this paper I discuss the question: what comes first, physics or information? The two have had a long-standing, symbiotic relationship for almost a hundred years out of which we have learnt a great deal. Information theory has enriched our interpretations of quantum physics, and, at the same time, offered us deep insights into general relativity through the study of black hole thermodynamics. Whatever the outcome of this debate, I argue that physicists will be able to benefit from continuing to explore connections between the two. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.