Evolution without evolution and without ambiguities

PHYSICAL REVIEW D 95 (2017) ARTN 043510

C Marletto, V Vedral

Local reversibility and entanglement structure of many-body ground states


T Kuwahara, I Arad, L Amico, V Vedral

Device-Independent Tests of Quantum Measurements.

Physical review letters 118 (2017) 250501-250501

M Dall'Arno, S Brandsen, F Buscemi, V Vedral

We consider the problem of characterizing the set of input-output correlations that can be generated by an arbitrarily given quantum measurement. Our main result is to provide a closed-form, full characterization of such a set for any qubit measurement, and to discuss its geometrical interpretation. As applications, we further specify our results to the cases of real and complex symmetric, informationally complete measurements and mutually unbiased bases of a qubit, in the presence of isotropic noise. Our results provide the optimal device-independent tests of quantum measurements.

The classical-quantum divergence of complexity in modelling spin chains

QUANTUM 1 (2017) UNSP 25

WY Suen, J Thompson, AJP Garner, V Vedral, M Gu

Using quantum theory to simplify input-output processes


J Thompson, AJP Garner, V Vedral, M Gu

Why we need to quantise everything, including gravity


C Marletto, V Vedral

Universal upper bounds on the Bose-Einstein condensate and the Hubbard star

Physical Review B American Physical Society 96 (2017) 064502-

F Tennie, V Vedral, C Schilling

For N hard-core bosons on an arbitrary lattice with d sites and independent of additional interaction terms we prove that the hard-core constraint itself already enforces a universal upper bound on the Bose-Einstein condensate given by Nmax=(N/d)(d-N+1). This bound can only be attained for one-particle states |φ) with equal amplitudes with respect to the hard-core basis (sites) and when the corresponding N-particle state |Ψ) is maximally delocalized. This result is generalized to the maximum condensate possible within a given sublattice. We observe that such maximal local condensation is only possible if the mode entanglement between the sublattice and its complement is minimal. We also show that the maximizing state |Ψ) is related to the ground state of a bosonic "Hubbard star" showing Bose-Einstein condensation.

Information-theoretic equilibrium and observable thermalization.

Scientific reports 7 (2017) 44066-44066

F Anzà, V Vedral

A crucial point in statistical mechanics is the definition of the notion of thermal equilibrium, which can be given as the state that maximises the von Neumann entropy, under the validity of some constraints. Arguing that such a notion can never be experimentally probed, in this paper we propose a new notion of thermal equilibrium, focused on observables rather than on the full state of the quantum system. We characterise such notion of thermal equilibrium for an arbitrary observable via the maximisation of its Shannon entropy and we bring to light the thermal properties that it heralds. The relation with Gibbs ensembles is studied and understood. We apply such a notion of equilibrium to a closed quantum system and show that there is always a class of observables which exhibits thermal equilibrium properties and we give a recipe to explicitly construct them. Eventually, an intimate connection with the Eigenstate Thermalisation Hypothesis is brought to light.

Influence of the fermionic exchange symmetry beyond Pauli's exclusion principle

Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics American Physical Society 95 (2017) 022336-

F Tennie, V Vedral, C Schilling

Pauli's exclusion principle has a strong impact on the properties of most fermionic quantum systems. Remarkably, the fermionic exchange symmetry implies further constraints on the one-particle picture. By exploiting those generalized Pauli constraints, we derive a measure which quantifies the influence of the exchange symmetry beyond Pauli's exclusion principle. It is based on a geometric hierarchy induced by the exclusion principle constraints. We provide a proof of principle by applying our measure to a simple model. In that way, we conclusively confirm the physical relevance of the generalized Pauli constraints and show that the fermionic exchange symmetry can have an influence on the one-particle picture beyond Pauli's exclusion principle. Our findings provide a perspective on fermionic multipartite correlation since our measure allows one to distinguish between static and dynamic correlations.

No-Hypersignaling Principle.

Physical review letters 119 (2017) 020401-020401

M Dall'Arno, S Brandsen, A Tosini, F Buscemi, V Vedral

A paramount topic in quantum foundations, rooted in the study of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox and Bell inequalities, is that of characterizing quantum theory in terms of the spacelike correlations it allows. Here, we show that to focus only on spacelike correlations is not enough: we explicitly construct a toy model theory that, while not contradicting classical and quantum theories at the level of spacelike correlations, still displays an anomalous behavior in its timelike correlations. We call this anomaly, quantified in terms of a specific communication game, the "hypersignaling" phenomena. We hence conclude that the "principle of quantumness," if it exists, cannot be found in spacelike correlations alone: nontrivial constraints need to be imposed also on timelike correlations, in order to exclude hypersignaling theories.

Witness gravity's quantum side in the lab.

Nature 547 (2017) 156-158

C Marletto, V Vedral

A nanophotonic structure containing living photosynthetic bacteria

Small Wiley‐VCH Verlag 13 (2017) 1701777

D Coles, LC Flatten, T Sydney, E Hounslow, SK Saikin, A Aspuru-Guzik, V Vedral, JK Tang, RA Taylor, JM Smith, DG Lidzey

Photosynthetic organisms rely on a series of self‐assembled nanostructures with tuned electronic energy levels in order to transport energy from where it is collected by photon absorption, to reaction centers where the energy is used to drive chemical reactions. In the photosynthetic bacteria Chlorobaculum tepidum, a member of the green sulfur bacteria family, light is absorbed by large antenna complexes called chlorosomes to create an exciton. The exciton is transferred to a protein baseplate attached to the chlorosome, before migrating through the Fenna–Matthews–Olson complex to the reaction center. Here, it is shown that by placing living Chlorobaculum tepidum bacteria within a photonic microcavity, the strong exciton–photon coupling regime between a confined cavity mode and exciton states of the chlorosome can be accessed, whereby a coherent exchange of energy between the bacteria and cavity mode results in the formation of polariton states. The polaritons have energy distinct from that of the exciton which can be tuned by modifying the energy of the optical modes of the microcavity. It is believed that this is the first demonstration of the modification of energy levels within living biological systems using a photonic structure.

Thermodynamics of complexity and pattern manipulation.

Physical review. E 95 (2017) 042140-042140

AJP Garner, J Thompson, V Vedral, M Gu

Many organisms capitalize on their ability to predict the environment to maximize available free energy and reinvest this energy to create new complex structures. This functionality relies on the manipulation of patterns-temporally ordered sequences of data. Here, we propose a framework to describe pattern manipulators-devices that convert thermodynamic work to patterns or vice versa-and use them to build a "pattern engine" that facilitates a thermodynamic cycle of pattern creation and consumption. We show that the least heat dissipation is achieved by the provably simplest devices, the ones that exhibit desired operational behavior while maintaining the least internal memory. We derive the ultimate limits of this heat dissipation and show that it is generally nonzero and connected with the pattern's intrinsic crypticity-a complexity theoretic quantity that captures the puzzling difference between the amount of information the pattern's past behavior reveals about its future and the amount one needs to communicate about this past to optimally predict the future.

Entropic equality for worst-case work at any protocol speed


OCO Dahlsten, M-S Choi, D Braun, AJP Garner, NY Halpern, V Vedral

Organic molecule fluorescence as an experimental test-bed for quantum jumps in thermodynamics

Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences Royal Society 473 (2017) 20170099-

C Browne, T Farrow, O Dahlsten, R Taylor, V Vedral

We demonstrate with an experiment how molecules are a natural test bed for probing fundamental quantum thermodynamics. Single-molecule spectroscopy has undergone transformative change in the past decade with the advent of techniques permitting individual molecules to be distinguished and probed. We demonstrate that the quantum Jarzynski equality for heat is satisfied in this set-up by considering the time-resolved emission spectrum of organic molecules as arising from quantum jumps between states. This relates the heat dissipated into the environment to the free energy difference between the initial and final state. We demonstrate also how utilizing the quantum Jarzynski equality allows for the detection of energy shifts within a molecule, beyond the relative shift.

Quantum Processes Which Do Not Use Coherence

Physical Review X American Physical Society 6 (2016)

B Yadin, J Ma, D Girolami, M Gu, V Vedral

A major signature of quantum mechanics beyond classical physics is coherence, the existence of superposition states. The recently developed resource theory of quantum coherence allows the formalization of incoherent operations—those operations which cannot create coherence. We identify the set of operations which additionally do not use coherence. These are such that coherence cannot be exploited by a classical observer, who measures incoherent properties of the system, to go beyond classical dynamics. We give a physical interpretation in terms of interferometry and prove a dilation theorem, showing how these operations can always be constructed by the system interacting, in an incoherent way, with an ancilla. Such a physical justification is not known for the incoherent operations; thus, our results lead to a physically well-motivated resource theory of coherence. Next, we investigate the implications for coherence in multipartite systems. We show that quantum correlations can be defined naturally with respect to a fixed basis, providing a link between coherence and quantum discord. We demonstrate the interplay between these two quantities in the operations that we study and suggest implications for the theory of quantum discord by relating these operations to those which cannot create discord.

Verifying Heisenberg's error-disturbance relation using a single trapped ion.

Science advances 2 (2016) e1600578-e1600578

F Zhou, L Yan, S Gong, Z Ma, J He, T Xiong, L Chen, W Yang, M Feng, V Vedral

Heisenberg's uncertainty relations have played an essential role in quantum physics since its very beginning. The uncertainty relations in the modern quantum formalism have become a fundamental limitation on the joint measurements of general quantum mechanical observables, going much beyond the original discussion of the trade-off between knowing a particle's position and momentum. Recently, the uncertainty relations have generated a considerable amount of lively debate as a result of the new inequalities proposed as extensions of the original uncertainty relations. We report an experimental test of one of the new Heisenberg's uncertainty relations using a single 40Ca+ ion trapped in a harmonic potential. By performing unitary operations under carrier transitions, we verify the uncertainty relation proposed by Busch, Lahti, and Werner (BLW) based on a general error-trade-off relation for joint measurements on two compatible observables. The positive operator-valued measure, required by the compatible observables, is constructed by single-qubit operations, and the lower bound of the uncertainty, as observed, is satisfied in a state-independent manner. Our results provide the first evidence confirming the BLW-formulated uncertainty at a single-spin level and will stimulate broad interests in various fields associated with quantum mechanics.

Engineering Many-Body Dynamics with Quantum Light Potentials and Measurements

Phys. Rev. A APS 94 (2016) 013614

TJ Elliott, IB Mekhov

Interactions between many-body atomic systems in optical lattices and light in cavities induce long-range and correlated atomic dynamics beyond the standard Bose-Hubbard model, due to the global nature of the light modes. We characterize these processes, and show that uniting such phenomena with dynamical constraints enforced by the backaction resultant from strong light measurement leads to a synergy that enables the atomic dynamics to be tailored, based on the particular optical geometry, exploiting the additional structure imparted by the quantum light field. This leads to a range of tunable effects such as long-range density-density interactions, perfectly correlated atomic tunneling, superexchange, and effective pair processes. We further show that this provides a framework for enhancing quantum simulations to include such long-range and correlated processes, including reservoir models and dynamical global gauge fields.

Incoherent quantum feedback control of collective light scattering by Bose-Einstein condensates

arXiv (2016)

DA Ivanov, TY Ivanova, IB Mekhov

It is well known that in the presence of a ring cavity the light scattering from a uniform atomic ensemble can become unstable resulting in the collective atomic recoil lasing. This is the result of a positive feedback due to the cavity. We propose to add an additional electronic feedback loop based on the photodetection of the scattered light. The advantage is a great flexibility in choosing the feedback algorithm, since manipulations with electric signals are very well developed. In this paper we address the application of such a feedback to atoms in the Bose-Einstein condensed state and explore the quantum noise due to the incoherent feedback action. We show that although the feedback based on the photodetection does not change the local stability of the initial uniform distribution with respect to small disturbances, it reduces the region of attraction of the uniform equilibrium. The feedback-induced nonlinearity enables quantum fluctuations to bring the system out of the stability region and cause an exponential growth even if the uniform state is globally stable without the feedback. Using numerical solution of the feedback master equation we show that there is no feedback-induced noise in the quadratures of the excited atomic and light modes. The feedback loop, however, introduces additional noise into the number of quanta of these modes. Importantly, the feedback opens an opportunity to position the modulated BEC inside a cavity as well as tune the phase of scattered light. This can find applications in precision measurements and quantum simulations.

Pinning of fermionic occupation numbers: Higher spatial dimensions and spin

Physical Review A American Physical Society 94 (2016) 012120-

F Tennie, V Vedral, C Schilling

The role of the generalized Pauli constraints (GPCs) in higher spatial dimensions and by incorporating spin degrees of freedom is systematically explored for a system of interacting fermions confined by a harmonic trap. Physical relevance of the GPCs is confirmed by analytical means for the ground state in the regime of weak couplings by finding its vector of natural occupation numbers close to the boundary of the allowed region. Such quasipinning is found to become weaker in the intermediate- and strong-coupling regime. The study of crossovers between different spatial dimensions by detuning the harmonic trap frequencies suggests that quasipinning is essentially an effect for systems with reduced spatial dimensionality. In addition, we find that quasipinning becomes stronger by increasing the degree of spin polarization. Consequently, the number of states available around the Fermi level plays a key role for the occurrence of quasipinning. This suggests that quasipinning emerges from the conflict between energy minimization and fermionic exchange symmetry.