Quenched nematic criticality and two superconducting domes in an iron-based superconductor under pressure

Nature Physics 16, 89–94 (2020) Nature Research (2019)

P Reiss, D Graf, AA Haghighirad, W Knafo, L Drigo, M Bristow, AJ Schofield, AI Coldea

The nematic electronic state and its associated critical fluctuations have emerged as a potential candidate for the superconducting pairing in various unconventional superconductors. However, in most materials their coexistence with magnetically ordered phases poses a significant challenge in determining their importance. Here, by combining chemical and hydrostatic physical pressure in FeSe0.89S0.11, we access a nematic quantum phase transition isolated from any other competing magnetic phases. From quantum oscillations in high magnetic fields, we trace the evolution of the Fermi surface and electronic correlations as a function of applied pressure and detect a Lifshitz transition that separates two distinct superconducting regions. One emerges from the nematic phase with a small Fermi surface and strong electronic correlations, while the other one has a large Fermi surface and weak correlations that promotes nesting and stabilization of a magnetically ordered phase at high pressures. The absence of mass divergence at the nematic quantum phase transition suggests that the nematic fluctuations could be quenched by the strong coupling to the lattice or local strain effects. A direct consequence is the weakening of superconductivity at the nematic quantum phase transition in the absence of magnetically driven fluctuations.

Optimization of superconducting properties of the stoichiometric CaKFe4As4

Supercond. Sci. Technol. 33 (2020) 025003 IOP Publishing (2019)

SJ Singh, SJ Cassidy, M Bristow, S Blundell, SJ Clarke, AI Coldea

Magnetic Weyl semimetal phase in a Kagomé crystal

Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 365 (2019) 1282-1285

DF Liu, AJ Liang, EK Liu, QN Xu, Y Li, C Chen, D Pei, WJ Shi, SK Mo, P Dudin, T Kim, C Cacho, G Li, Y Sun, LX Yang, ZK Liu, SSP Parkin, C Felser, Y Chen

Weyl semimetals are crystalline solids that host emergent relativistic Weyl fermions and have characteristic surface Fermi-arcs in their electronic structure. Weyl semimetals with broken time reversal symmetry are difficult to identify unambiguously. In this work, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we visualized the electronic structure of the ferromagnetic crystal Co3Sn2S2 and discovered its characteristic surface Fermi-arcs and linear bulk band dispersions across the Weyl points. These results establish Co3Sn2S2 as a magnetic Weyl semimetal that may serve as a platform for realizing phenomena such as chiral magnetic effects, unusually large anomalous Hall effect and quantum anomalous Hall effect.

Magnetic structure and excitations of the topological semimetal YbMnBi2

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 100 (2019) ARTN 144431

J-R Soh, H Jacobsen, B Ouladdiaf, A Ivanov, A Piovano, T Tejsner, Z Feng, H Wang, H Su, Y Guo, Y Shi, AT Boothroyd

Probing magnetic order and disorder in the one-dimensional molecular spin chains CuF2(pyz) and [Ln(hfac)3(boaDTDA)] n (Ln  =  Sm, La) using implanted muons.

Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal 31 (2019) 394002-394002

T Lancaster, BM Huddart, RC Williams, F Xiao, KJA Franke, PJ Baker, FL Pratt, SJ Blundell, JA Schlueter, MB Mills, AC Maahs, KE Preuss

We present the results of muon-spin relaxation ([Formula: see text]SR) measurements on antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic spin chains. In antiferromagnetic CuF2(pyz) we identify a transition to long range magnetic order taking place at [Formula: see text] K, allowing us to estimate a ratio with the intrachain exchange of [Formula: see text] and the ratio of interchain to intrachain exchange coupling as [Formula: see text]. The ferromagnetic chain [Sm(hfac)3(boaDTDA)] n undergoes an ordering transition at [Formula: see text] K, seen via a broad freezing of dynamic fluctuations on the muon (microsecond) timescale and implying [Formula: see text]. The ordered radical moment continues to fluctuate on this timescale down to 0.3 K, while the Sm moments remain disordered. In contrast, the radical spins in [La(hfac)3(boaDTDA)] n remain magnetically disordered down to T  =  0.1 K suggesting [Formula: see text].

Photocatalytic water splitting by N-TiO2 on MgO(111) with exceptional quantum efficiencies at elevated temperature

Nature Communications Springer Nature 10 (2019) 4421

Y Li, Y-K Peng, L Hu, J Zheng, D Prabhakaran, S Wu, TJ Puchtler, M Li, K-Y Wong, R Taylor, SCE Tsang

Photocatalytic water splitting is attracting enormous interest for the storage of solar energy but no practical method has yet been identified. In the past decades, various systems have been developed but most of them suffer from low activities, a narrow range of absorption and poor quantum efficiencies (Q.E.) due to fast recombination of charge carriers. Here we report a dramatic suppression of electron-hole pair recombination on the surface of N-doped TiO2 based nanocatalysts under enhanced concentrations of H+ and OH−, and local electric field polarization of a MgO (111) support during photolysis of water at elevated temperatures. Thus, a broad optical absorption is seen, producing O2 and H2 in a 1:2 molar ratio with a H2 evolution rate of over 11,000 μmol g−1 h−1 without any sacrificial reagents at 270 °C. An exceptional range of Q.E. from 81.8% at 437 nm to 3.2% at 1000 nm is also reported.

Determining the anisotropy and exchange parameters of polycrystalline spin-1 magnets

NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 21 (2019) 93025

W Blackmore, J Brambleby, T Lancaster, S Clark, J Schlueter, J Singleton, A Ozarowski, R Johnson, Y-S Chen, R Williams, S Lapidus, A Arif, F Xiao, S Blundell, M Pearce, P Manuel, M Lees, P Goddard, J Manson, D Villa, J Villa

© 2019 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd on behalf of the Institute of Physics and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. Although low-dimensional S = 1 antiferromagnets remain of great interest, difficulty in obtaining high-quality single crystals of the newest materials hinders experimental research in this area. Polycrystalline samples are more readily produced, but there are inherent problems in extracting the magnetic properties of anisotropic systems from powder data. Following a discussion of the effect of powder-Averaging on various measurement techniques, we present a methodology to overcome this issue using thermodynamic measurements. In particular we focus on whether it is possible to characterise the magnetic properties of polycrystalline, anisotropic samples using readily available laboratory equipment. We test the efficacy of our method using the magnets [Ni(H2O)2(3,5-lutidine)4](BF4)2 and Ni(H2O)2(acetate)2(4-picoline)2, which have negligible exchange interactions, as well as the antiferromagnet [Ni(H2O)2(pyrazine)2](BF4)2, and show that we are able to extract the anisotropy parameters in each case. The results obtained from the thermodynamic measurements are checked against electron-spin resonance and neutron diffraction. We also present a density functional method, which incorporates spin-orbit coupling to estimate the size of the anisotropy in [Ni(H2O)2(pyrazine)2](BF4)2.

Atomic and electronic structure of an epitaxial Nb2O3 honeycomb monolayer on Au(111)

Physical Review B American Physical Society 100 (2019) 125408

S Wang, J Goniakowski, C Noguera, M Castell

Wave Vector Difference of Magnetic Bragg Reflections and Low Energy Magnetic Excitations in Charge-stripe Ordered La2NiO4.11.

Scientific reports 9 (2019) 14468-

PG Freeman, SR Giblin, M Skoulatos, RA Mole, D Prabhakaran

We report on the magnetism of charge-stripe ordered La2NiO4.11±0.01 by neutron scattering and μSR. On going towards zero energy transfer there is an observed wave vector offset in the centring of the magnetic excitations and magnetic Bragg reflections, meaning the excitations cannot be described as Goldstone modes of the magnetic order. Weak transverse field μSR measurements determine the magnetically order volume fraction is 87% from the two stripe twins, and the temperature evolution of the magnetic excitations is consistent with the low energy excitations coming from the magnetically ordered volume of the material. We will discuss how these results contrast with the proposed origin of a similar wave vector offset recently observed in a La-based cuprate, and possible origins of this effect in La2NiO4.11.

Helical magnetic ordering in thin FeGe membranes

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 100 (2019) ARTN 184403

DM Burn, SL Zhang, S Wang, HF Du, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

Coherent spin manipulation of individual atoms on a surface

Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 366 (2019) 509-512

K Yang, W Paul, S-H Phark, P Willke, Y Bae, T Choi, T Esat, A Ardavan, A Heinrich, C Lutz

Achieving time-domain control of quantum states with atomic-scale spatial resolution in nanostructures is a long-term goal in quantum nanoscience and spintronics. Here, we demonstrate coherent spin rotations of individual atoms on a surface at the nanosecond time scale, using an all-electric scheme in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). By modulating the atomically confined magnetic interaction between the STM tip and surface atoms, we drive quantum Rabi oscillations between spin-up and spin-down states in as little as ~20 nanoseconds. Ramsey fringes and spin echo signals allow us to understand and improve quantum coherence. We further demonstrate coherent operations on engineered atomic dimers. The coherent control of spins arranged with atomic precision provides a solid-state platform for quantum-state engineering and simulation of many-body systems.

Fractionalized pair density wave in the pseudogap phase of cuprate superconductors

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 100 (2019) ARTN 224511

D Chakraborty, M Grandadam, MH Hamidian, JCS Davis, Y Sidis, C Pepin

Robustness of superconducting properties to transition metal substitution and impurity phases in Fe1-xVxSe

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 100 (2019) 94527

SJ Blundell, SJ Clarke, PJ Baker, FKK Kirschner, DN Woodruff, MJ Bristow, F Lang

© 2019 American Physical Society. We have performed transverse- and zero-field muon spin rotation/relaxation experiments, as well as magnetometry measurements, on samples of Fe1-xVxSe and their Li+NH3 intercalates Li0.6(NH2)0.2(NH3)0.8Fe1-xVxSe. We examine the low vanadium substitution regime: x=0.005, 0.01, and 0.02. The intercalation reaction significantly increases the critical temperature (Tc) and the superfluid stiffness for all x. The nonintercalated samples all exhibit Tc≈8.5 K while the intercalated samples all show an enhanced Tc>40 K. Vanadium substitution has a negligible effect on Tc, but seems to suppress the superfluid stiffness for the nonintercalated samples and weakly enhance it for the intercalated materials. The optimal substitution level for the intercalated samples is found to be x=0.01, with Tc≈41K and λab(0)≈0.18μm. The nonintercalated samples can be modeled with either a single d-wave superconducting gap or with an anisotropic gap function based on recent quasiparticle imaging experiments, whereas the intercalates display multigap nodal behavior which can be fitted using s+d- or d+d-wave models. Magnetism, likely from iron impurities, appears after the intercalation reaction and coexists and competes with the superconductivity. However, it appears that the superconductivity is remarkably robust to the impurity phase, providing an avenue to stably improve the superconducting properties of transition metal substituted FeSe.

Exsolution of SrO during the topochemical conversion of LaSr3CoRuO8 to the oxyhydride LaSr3CoRuO4H4

Inorganic Chemistry American Chemical Society (2019)

L Jin, M Batuk, FKK Kirschner, F Lang, SJ Blundell, J Hadermann, M Hayward

Reaction of the n = 1 Ruddlesden-Popper oxide LaSr3CoRuO8 with CaH2 yields the oxyhydride phase LaSr3CoRuO4H4 via a topochemical anion exchange. Close inspection of the X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data in combination with HAADF-STEM images reveals that the nanoparticles of SrO are exsolved from the system during the reaction, with the change in cation stoichiometry accommodated by the inclusion of n > 1 (Co/Ru)nOn+1H2n "perovskite" layers into the Ruddlesden-Popper stacking sequence. This novel pseudotopochemical process offers a new route for the formation of n > 1 Ruddlesden-Popper structured materials. Magnetization data are consistent with a LaSr3Co+Ru2+O4H4 (Co+, d8, S = 1; Ru2+, d6, S = 0) oxidation/spin state combination. Neutron diffraction and μ+SR data show no evidence for long-range magnetic order down to 2 K, suggesting the diamagnetic Ru2+ centers impede the Co-Co magnetic-exchange interactions.

Spin-wave directional anisotropies in antiferromagnetic Ba3NbFe3Si2O14

Physical Review B American Physical Society 100 (2019) 134429

C Stock, RD Johnson, N Giles-Donovan, M Songvilay, JA Rodriguez-Rivera, N Lee, X Xu, P Radaelli, LC Chapon, A Bombardi, S Cochran, C Niedermayer, A Schneidewind, Z Husges, Z Lu, S Meng, S-W Cheong

Ba3NbFe3Si2O14 (langasite) is structurally and magnetically single-domain chiral with the magnetic helicity induced through competing symmetric exchange interactions. Using neutron scattering, we show that the spin waves in antiferromagnetic langasite display directional anisotropy. On applying a time-reversal symmetry breaking magnetic field along the c axis, the spin-wave energies differ when the sign is reversed for either the momentum transfer ±Q- or applied magnetic field ±μ0H. When the field is applied within the crystallographic ab plane, the spin-wave dispersion is directionally isotropic and symmetric in ±μ0H. However, a directional anisotropy is observed in the spin-wave intensity. We discuss this directional anisotropy in the dispersion in langasite in terms of a field-induced precession of the dynamic unit cell staggered magnetization resulting from a broken twofold symmetry. Directional anisotropy, often referred to as nonreciprocal responses, can occur in antiferromagnetic phases in the absence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction or other effects resulting from spin-orbit coupling.

Magnetic structure and excitations of the topological semimetal YbMnBi2

Physical Review B American Physical Society 100 (2019) 144431

J-R Soh, H Jacobsen, B Ouladdiaf, A Ivanov, A Piovano, T Tejsner, Z Feng, H Wang, H Su, Y Guo, Y Shi, A Boothroyd

We investigated the magnetic structure and dynamics of YbMnBi2, with elastic and inelastic neutron scattering, to shed light on the topological nature of the charge carriers in the antiferromagnetic phase. We confirm C-type antiferromagnetic ordering of the Mn spins below TN = 290 K and determine that the spins point along the c axis to within about 3◦. The observed magnon spectrum can be described very well by the same effective spin Hamiltonian that was used previously to model the magnon spectrum of CaMnBi2. Our results show conclusively that the creation of Weyl nodes in YbMnBi2 by the time-reversal symmetry-breaking mechanism can be excluded in the bulk.

Magnetic and electronic structure of Dirac semimetal candidate EuMnSb2

Physical Review B American Physical Society 100 (2019) 174406

J-R Soh, P Manuel, NMB Schroeter, CJ Yi, F Orlandi, YG Shi, D Prabhakaran, A Boothroyd

We report an experimental study of the magnetic order and electronic structure and transport of the layered pnictide EuMnSb2, performed using neutron diffraction, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), and magnetotransport measurements. We find that the Eu and Mn sublattices display antiferromagnetic (AFM) order below T EuN = 21(1) K and T MnN = 350(2) K, respectively. The former can be described by an A-type AFM structure with the Eu spins aligned along the c axis (an in-plane direction), whereas the latter has a C-type AFM structure with Mn moments along the a -axis (perpendicular to the layers). The ARPES spectra reveal Dirac-like linearly dispersing bands near the Fermi energy. Furthermore, our magnetotransport measurements show strongly anisotropic magnetoresistance and indicate that the Eu sublattice is intimately coupled to conduction electron states near the Dirac point.

An ideal Weyl semimetal induced by magnetic exchange

Physical review B: Condensed matter and materials physics American Physical Society 100 (2019) 201102(R)

J-R Soh, F De Juan, M Vergniory, N Schroeter, M Rahn, DY Yan, J Jiang, M Bristow, P Reiss, J Blandy, Y Guo, Y Shi, T Kim, A McCollam, S Simon, Y Chen, A Coldea, A Boothroyd

Weyl-like points from band inversions of spin-polarised surface states in NbGeSb

Nature Communications Springer Science and Business Media LLC 10 (2019) 5485

I Marković, CA Hooley, OJ Clark, F Mazzola, MD Watson, JM Riley, K Volckaert, K Underwood, MS Dyer, PAE Murgatroyd, KJ Murphy, PL Fèvre, F Bertran, J Fujii, I Vobornik, S Wu, T Okuda, J Alaria, PDC King

Modular thermal Hall effect measurement setup for fast-turnaround screening of materials over wide temperature range using capacitive thermometry

Review of Scientific Instruments AIP Publishing 90 (2019) 103904-103904

H-L Kim, MJ Coak, JC Baglo, K Murphy, RW Hill, M Sutherland, MC Hatnean, G Balakrishnan, J-G Park