Publications associated with Quantum Materials

Detailed crystallographic analysis of the ice V to ice XIII hydrogen-ordering phase transition.

The Journal of chemical physics 154 (2021) 134504-

CG Salzmann, A Rosu-Finsen, Z Sharif, PG Radaelli, JL Finney

Ice V is a structurally highly complex material with 28 water molecules in its monoclinic unit cell. It is classified as a hydrogen-disordered phase of ice. Yet, some of its hydrogen-bonded water molecules display significant orientational order. Upon cooling pure ice V, additional orientational ordering cannot be achieved on the experimental time scale. Doping with hydrochloric acid has been shown to be most effective in enabling the phase transition of ice V to its hydrogen-ordered counterpart ice XIII. Here, we present a detailed crystallographic study of this phase transition investigating the effects of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid as well as lithium and potassium hydroxide doping. The magnitudes of the stepwise changes in the lattice constants during the phase transition are found to be more sensitive indicators for the extent of hydrogen order in ice XIII than the appearance of new Bragg peaks. Hydrofluoric acid and lithium hydroxide doping enable similar ordering processes as hydrochloric acid but with slower kinetics. The various possible space groups and ordered configurations of ice XIII are examined systematically, and the previously determined P2<sub>1</sub>/a structure is confirmed. Interestingly, the partial hydrogen order already present in ice V is found to perpetuate into ice XIII, and these ordering processes are found to be independent of pressure. Overall, the hydrogen ordering goes along with a small increase in volume, which appears to be the origin of the slower hydrogen-ordering kinetics under pressure. Heating pressure-quenched samples at ambient pressure revealed low-temperature "transient ordering" features in both diffraction and calorimetry.

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