Publications


Magnetic Weyl semimetal phase in a Kagomé crystal.

Science (New York, N.Y.) 365 (2019) 1282-1285

DF Liu, AJ Liang, EK Liu, QN Xu, YW Li, C Chen, D Pei, WJ Shi, SK Mo, P Dudin, T Kim, C Cacho, G Li, Y Sun, LX Yang, ZK Liu, SSP Parkin, C Felser, YL Chen

Weyl semimetals are crystalline solids that host emergent relativistic Weyl fermions and have characteristic surface Fermi-arcs in their electronic structure. Weyl semimetals with broken time reversal symmetry are difficult to identify unambiguously. In this work, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we visualized the electronic structure of the ferromagnetic crystal Co3Sn2S2 and discovered its characteristic surface Fermi-arcs and linear bulk band dispersions across the Weyl points. These results establish Co3Sn2S2 as a magnetic Weyl semimetal that may serve as a platform for realizing phenomena such as chiral magnetic effects, unusually large anomalous Hall effect and quantum anomalous Hall effect.


Magnetic structure and spin-flop transition in the A -site columnar-ordered quadruple perovskite TmMn3O6

Physical Review B American Physical Society (APS) 99 (2019) 104424

AM Vibhakar, DD Khalyavin, P Manuel, L Zhang, K Yamaura, PG Radaelli, AA Belik, RD Johnson


Electromagnon excitation in cupric oxide measured by Fabry-Pérot enhanced terahertz Mueller matrix ellipsometry.

Scientific reports 9 (2019) 1353-

S Knight, D Prabhakaran, C Binek, M Schubert

Here we present the use of Fabry-Pérot enhanced terahertz (THz) Mueller matrix ellipsometry to measure an electromagnon excitation in monoclinic cupric oxide (CuO). As a magnetically induced ferroelectric multiferroic, CuO exhibits coupling between electric and magnetic order. This gives rise to special quasiparticle excitations at THz frequencies called electromagnons. In order to measure the electromagnons in CuO, we exploit single-crystal CuO as a THz Fabry-Pérot cavity to resonantly enhance the excitation's signature. This enhancement technique enables the complex index of refraction to be extracted. We observe a peak in the absorption coefficient near 0.705 THz and 215 K, which corresponds to the electromagnon excitation. This absorption peak is observed along only one major polarizability axis in the monoclinic a-c plane. We show the excitation can be represented using the Lorentz oscillator model, and discuss how these Lorentz parameters evolve with temperature. Our findings are in excellent agreement with previous characterizations by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), which demonstrates the validity of this enhancement technique.


Strong spin-orbit coupling and Dirac nodal lines in the three-dimensional electronic structure of metallic rutile IrO2

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 99 (2019) ARTN 195106

X Xu, J Jiang, WJ Shi, V Suess, C Shekhar, SC Sun, YJ Chen, S-K Mo, C Felser, BH Yan, HF Yang, ZK Liu, Y Sun, LX Yang, YL Chen


Strain Engineering a Multiferroic Monodomain in Thin-Film BiFeO3

PHYSICAL REVIEW APPLIED 11 (2019) ARTN 024035

NW Price, AM Vibhakar, RD Johnson, J Schad, W Saenrang, A Bombardi, FP Chmiel, CB Eom, PG Radaelli


Structural and Optical Properties of Cs2AgBiBr6 Double Perovskite

ACS ENERGY LETTERS 4 (2019) 299-305

L Schade, AD Wright, RD Johnson, M Dollmann, B Wenger, PK Nayak, D Prabhakaran, LM Herz, R Nicholas, HJ Snaith, PG Radaelli


Role of defects in determining the magnetic ground state of ytterbium titanate.

Nature communications 10 (2019) 637-

DF Bowman, E Cemal, T Lehner, AR Wildes, L Mangin-Thro, GJ Nilsen, MJ Gutmann, DJ Voneshen, D Prabhakaran, AT Boothroyd, DG Porter, C Castelnovo, K Refson, JP Goff

Pyrochlore systems are ideally suited to the exploration of geometrical frustration in three dimensions, and their rich phenomenology encompasses topological order and fractional excitations. Classical spin ices provide the first context in which it is possible to control emergent magnetic monopoles, and anisotropic exchange leads to even richer behaviour associated with large quantum fluctuations. Whether the magnetic ground state of Yb2Ti2O7 is a quantum spin liquid or a ferromagnetic phase induced by a Higgs transition appears to be sample dependent. Here we have determined the role of structural defects on the magnetic ground state via the diffuse scattering of neutrons. We find that oxygen vacancies stabilise the spin liquid phase and the stuffing of Ti sites by Yb suppresses it. Samples in which the oxygen vacancies have been eliminated by annealing in oxygen exhibit a transition to a ferromagnetic phase, and this is the true magnetic ground state.


Spin-charge-lattice coupling in quasi-one-dimensional Ising spin chain CoNb2O6.

Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal 31 (2019) 195802-

M Nandi, D Prabhakaran, P Mandal

Magnetization, magnetostriction and dielectric constant measurements are performed on single crystals of quasi-one-dimensional Ising spin chain CoNb2O6 at temperatures below and above the antiferromagnetic phase transition. Field-induced magnetic transitions are clearly reflected in magnetodielectric and magnetostriction data. Sharp anomalies are observed around the critical fields of antiferromagnetic to ferrimagnetic and ferrimagnetic to saturated-paramagnetic transition in both magnetodielectric and magnetostriction experiments. Detailed analysis of temperature and field dependence of dielectric constant and magnetostriction suggests that spins are coupled with lattice as well as charges in CoNb2O6. Below the antiferromagnetic transition temperature, the overall resemblance in anomalies, observed in various physical parameters such as magnetization, dielectric constant, magnetostriction and magnetic entropy change gives a deeper insight about the influence of spin configuration on these parameters in CoNb2O6.


Evidence for a vestigial nematic state in the cuprate pseudogap phase.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116 (2019) 13249-13254

S Mukhopadhyay, R Sharma, CK Kim, SD Edkins, MH Hamidian, H Eisaki, S-I Uchida, E-A Kim, MJ Lawler, AP Mackenzie, JCS Davis, K Fujita

The CuO2 antiferromagnetic insulator is transformed by hole-doping into an exotic quantum fluid usually referred to as the pseudogap (PG) phase. Its defining characteristic is a strong suppression of the electronic density-of-states D(E) for energies |E| < [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the PG energy. Unanticipated broken-symmetry phases have been detected by a wide variety of techniques in the PG regime, most significantly a finite-Q density-wave (DW) state and a Q = 0 nematic (NE) state. Sublattice-phase-resolved imaging of electronic structure allows the doping and energy dependence of these distinct broken-symmetry states to be visualized simultaneously. Using this approach, we show that even though their reported ordering temperatures T DW and T NE are unrelated to each other, both the DW and NE states always exhibit their maximum spectral intensity at the same energy, and using independent measurements that this is the PG energy [Formula: see text] Moreover, no new energy-gap opening coincides with the appearance of the DW state (which should theoretically open an energy gap on the Fermi surface), while the observed PG opening coincides with the appearance of the NE state (which should theoretically be incapable of opening a Fermi-surface gap). We demonstrate how this perplexing phenomenology of thermal transitions and energy-gap opening at the breaking of two highly distinct symmetries may be understood as the natural consequence of a vestigial nematic state within the pseudogap phase of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8.


Unveiling Electronic Correlation and the Ferromagnetic Superexchange Mechanism in the van der Waals Crystal CrSiTe_{3}.

Physical review letters 123 (2019) 047203-

J Zhang, X Cai, W Xia, A Liang, J Huang, C Wang, L Yang, H Yuan, Y Chen, S Zhang, Y Guo, Z Liu, G Li

The recent discovery of intrinsic ferromagnetic order in the atomically thin van der Waals crystal CrXTe_{3} (X=Si, Ge) stimulates intensive studies on the nature of low-dimensional magnetism because the presence of long-range magnetic order in two-dimensional systems with continuous symmetry is strictly prohibited by thermal fluctuations. By combining advanced many-body calculations with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we investigate CrSiTe_{3} single crystals and unveil the pivotal role played by the strong electronic correlations at both high- and low-temperature regimes. Above the Curie temperature (T_{c}), Coulomb repulsion (U) drives the system into a charge transfer insulating phase. In contrast, below T_{c} the crystal field arranges the Cr-3d orbitals such that the ferromagnetic superexchange profits, giving rise to the bulk ferromagnetic ground state with which the electronic correlations compete. The excellent agreement between theory and experiment establishes CrSiTe_{3} as a prototype low-dimensional crystal with the cooperation and interplay of electronic correlation and ferromagnetism.


Transverse and longitudinal spin-fluctuations in INVAR Fe0.65Ni0.35.

Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal 31 (2019) 025802-

JR Stewart, SR Giblin, D Honecker, P Fouquet, D Prabhakaran, JW Taylor

The presence of spin-fluctuations deep within the ordered state of ferromagnetic [Formula: see text] alloy [Formula: see text] has long been suspected but seldom directly observed. Inhomogeneities of one type or another have been cited as important in stabilizing [Formula: see text] behaviour-either longitudinal spin-fluctuations associated with the [Formula: see text]-state (local environment) model or transverse magnetisation arising from non-collinear spin structures. In this study we employ small-angle neutron scattering with neutron polarization analysis to distinguish between the two possibilities. Surprisingly we in fact find evidence of dominant but uncorrelated longitudinal spin-fluctuations coexisting with transverse magnetisation which exists in short-range clusters of size ~[Formula: see text]. This finding supports recent first principles calculations of [Formula: see text] in which both longitudinal spin-fluctuations and magnetic short-range order are identified as important ingredients in reproducing the equilibrium [Formula: see text] lattice.


Spin dynamics and field-induced magnetic phase transition in the honeycomb Kitaev magnet α-Li2IrO3

Physical review B: Condensed matter and materials physics American Physical Society (0)

S Choi, S Manni, J Singleton, CV Topping, T Lancaster, SJ Blundell, DT Adroja, V Zapf, P Gegenwart, R Coldea

The layered honeycomb iridate alpha-Li2IrO3 displays an incommensurate magnetic structure with counterrotating moments on nearest-neighbor sites, proposed to be stabilized by strongly-frustrated anisotropic Kitaev interactions between spin-orbit entangled Ir4+ magnetic moments. Here we report powder inelastic neutron scattering measurements that observe sharply dispersive low-energy magnetic excitations centered at the magnetic ordering wavevector, attributed to Goldstone excitations of the incommensurate order, as well as an additional intense mode above a gap Delta~2.3 meV. Zero-field muon-spin relaxation measurements show clear oscillations in the muon polarization below the Neel temperature T_N ~ 15 K with a time-dependent profile consistent with bulk incommensurate long-range magnetism. Pulsed field magnetization measurements observe that only about half the saturation magnetization value is reached at the maximum field of 64 T. A clear anomaly near 25 T indicates a transition to a phase with reduced susceptibility. The transition field has a Zeeman energy comparable to the zero-field gapped mode, suggesting gap suppression as a possible mechanism for the field-induced transition.


Quenched nematic criticality and two superconducting domes in an iron-based superconductor under pressure

Nature Physics Nature Research (2019)

P Reiss, D Graf, AA Haghighirad, W Knafo, L Drigo, M Bristow, AJ Schofield, AI Coldea

The nematic electronic state and its associated critical fluctuations have emerged as a potential candidate for the superconducting pairing in various unconventional superconductors. However, in most materials their coexistence with magnetically ordered phases poses a significant challenge in determining their importance. Here, by combining chemical and hydrostatic physical pressure in FeSe0.89S0.11, we access a nematic quantum phase transition isolated from any other competing magnetic phases. From quantum oscillations in high magnetic fields, we trace the evolution of the Fermi surface and electronic correlations as a function of applied pressure and detect a Lifshitz transition that separates two distinct superconducting regions. One emerges from the nematic phase with a small Fermi surface and strong electronic correlations, while the other one has a large Fermi surface and weak correlations that promotes nesting and stabilization of a magnetically ordered phase at high pressures. The absence of mass divergence at the nematic quantum phase transition suggests that the nematic fluctuations could be quenched by the strong coupling to the lattice or local strain effects. A direct consequence is the weakening of superconductivity at the nematic quantum phase transition in the absence of magnetically driven fluctuations.


The effect of substrate and surface plasmons on symmetry breaking at the substrate interface of the topological insulator Bi2Te3.

Scientific reports 9 (2019) 6147-

M Wiesner, RH Roberts, J-F Lin, D Akinwande, T Hesjedal, LB Duffy, S Wang, Y Song, J Jenczyk, S Jurga, B Mroz

A pressing challenge in engineering devices with topological insulators (TIs) is that electron transport is dominated by the bulk conductance, and so dissipationless surface states account for only a small fraction of the conductance. Enhancing the surface-to-volume ratio is a common method to enhance the relative contribution of such states. In thin films with reduced thickness, the confinement results in symmetry-breaking and is critical for the experimental observation of topologically protected surface states. We employ micro-Raman and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to examine three different mechanisms of symmetry breaking in Bi2Te3 TI thin films: surface plasmon generation, charge transfer, and application of a periodic strain potential. These mechanisms are facilitated by semiconducting and insulating substrates that modify the electronic and mechanical conditions at the sample surface and alter the long-range interactions between Bi2Te3 and the substrate. We confirm the symmetry breaking in Bi2Te3 via the emergence of the Raman-forbidden [Formula: see text] mode. Our results suggest that topological surface states can exist at the Bi2Te3/substrate interface, which is in a good agreement with previous theoretical results predicting the tunability of the vertical location of helical surface states in TI/substrate heterostructures.


Oriented 3D Magnetic Biskyrmions in MnNiGa Bulk Crystals.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) 31 (2019) e1900264-

X Li, S Zhang, H Li, DA Venero, JS White, R Cubitt, Q Huang, J Chen, L He, G van der Laan, W Wang, T Hesjedal, F Wang

A biskyrmion consists of two bound, topologically stable, skyrmion spin textures. These coffee-bean-shaped objects are observed in real space in thin plates using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM). From LTEM imaging alone, it is not clear whether biskyrmions are surface-confined objects, or, analogous to skyrmions in noncentrosymmetric helimagnets, 3D tube-like structures in a bulk sample. Here, the biskyrmion form factor is investigated in single- and polycrystalline-MnNiGa samples using small-angle neutron scattering. It is found that biskyrmions are not long-range ordered, not even in single crystals. Surprisingly all of the disordered biskyrmions have their in-plane symmetry axis aligned along certain directions, governed by the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. This anisotropic nature of biskyrmions may be further exploited to encode information.


Evolution of the low-temperature Fermi surface of superconducting FeSe1−xSx across a nematic phase transition

Nature npj Quantum Materials Springer Nature 4 (2019) 2

AI Coldea, SF Blake, S Kasahara, AA Haghighirad, MD Watson, W Knafo, ES Choi, A McCollam, P Reiss, T Yamashita, M Bruma, SC Speller, Y Matsuda, T Wolf, T Shibauchi, AJ Schofield


Anatomy of Skyrmionic Textures in Magnetic Multilayers.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) 31 (2019) e1807683-

W Li, I Bykova, S Zhang, G Yu, R Tomasello, M Carpentieri, Y Liu, Y Guang, J Gräfe, M Weigand, DM Burn, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal, Z Yan, J Feng, C Wan, J Wei, X Wang, X Zhang, H Xu, C Guo, H Wei, G Finocchio, X Han, G Schütz

Room temperature magnetic skyrmions in magnetic multilayers are considered as information carriers for future spintronic applications. Currently, a detailed understanding of the skyrmion stabilization mechanisms is still lacking in these systems. To gain more insight, it is first and foremost essential to determine the full real-space spin configuration. Here, two advanced X-ray techniques are applied, based on magnetic circular dichroism, to investigate the spin textures of skyrmions in [Ta/CoFeB/MgO]n multilayers. First, by using ptychography, a high-resolution diffraction imaging technique, the 2D out-of-plane spin profile of skyrmions with a spatial resolution of 10 nm is determined. Second, by performing circular dichroism in resonant elastic X-ray scattering, it is demonstrated that the chirality of the magnetic structure undergoes a depth-dependent evolution. This suggests that the skyrmion structure is a complex 3D structure rather than an identical planar texture throughout the layer stack. The analyses of the spin textures confirm the theoretical predictions that the dipole-dipole interactions together with the external magnetic field play an important role in stabilizing sub-100 nm diameter skyrmions and the hybrid structure of the skyrmion domain wall. This combined X-ray-based approach opens the door for in-depth studies of magnetic skyrmion systems, which allows for precise engineering of optimized skyrmion heterostructures.


Phase transitions, broken symmetry and the renormalization group

in The Routledge Handbook of Emergence, (2019) 237-247

SJ Blundell

© 2019 selection and editorial matter, Sophie Gibb, Robin Findlay Hendry, and Tom Lancaster. All rights reserved. The renormalization group should probably be called the renormalization semigroup, but sometimes, contradictory terminology sticks. The renormalization group procedure provides important insights because it shows quantitatively how fine-scale structure is progressively ignored and the physics of critical phenomena depend on these larger-scale, what students might call "structural", features of the theory. The renormalization group breaks big problems down into small ones. Broken symmetry can be seen as a well-studied paradigm of emergent behaviour in the physical world. By breaking symmetry, these phases forfeit the status of being a "stationary state" of the sort beloved of elementary quantum mechanics treatments. Phase transitions are sharp and there is a clear delineation between the ordered and disordered states. The set of symmetry-breaking phase transitions includes as members those between the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic states and those between the superconducting and normal metal states of certain materials.


Temperature dependence of the ferromagnetic response in CrxSb2-xTe3 topological insulator thin films investigated using terahertz spectroscopy and magneto-transport

TERAHERTZ, RF, MILLIMETER, AND SUBMILLIMETER-WAVE TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS XII 10917 (2019) UNSP 109171T

VS Kamboj, A Singh, L Jakob, LB Duffy, N Idros, SP Senanayak, A Ionescu, HE Beere, CHW Barnes, T Hesjedal, DA Ritchie


Expanding the Lorentz concept in magnetism

NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 21 (2019) ARTN 073063

GJ Bowden, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal, RJ Hicken

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