# Publications

## Robust entangling gate for polar molecules using magnetic and microwave fields

PHYSICAL REVIEW A **101** (2020) ARTN 062308

## Spontaneous rotation of ferrimagnetism driven by antiferromagnetic spin canting

Physical Review Letters American Physical Society **124** (2020) 127201

Spin-reorientation phase transitions that involve the rotation of a crystal's magnetization have been well characterized in distorted-perovskite oxides such as orthoferrites. In these systems spin reorientation occurs due to competing rare-earth and transition metal anisotropies coupled via f-d exchange. Here, we demonstrate an alternative paradigm for spin reorientation in distorted perovskites. We show that the R_{2}CuMnMn_{4}O_{12} (R=Y or Dy) triple A-site columnar-ordered quadruple perovskites have three ordered magnetic phases and up to two spin-reorientation phase transitions. Unlike the spin-reorientation phenomena in other distorted perovskites, these transitions are independent of rare-earth magnetism, but are instead driven by an instability towards antiferromagnetic spin canting likely originating in frustrated Heisenberg exchange interactions, and the competition between Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya and single-ion anisotropies.

## Modeling Enclosures for Large-Scale Superconducting Quantum Circuits

PHYSICAL REVIEW APPLIED **14** (2020) ARTN 024061

## Photo-molecular high temperature superconductivity

Physical Review X American Physical Society **10** (2020) 031028

The properties of organic conductors are often tuned by the application of chemical or external pressure, which change orbital overlaps and electronic bandwidths while leaving the molecular building blocks virtually unperturbed. Here, we show that, unlike any other method, light can be used to manipulate the local electronic properties at the molecular sites, giving rise to new emergent properties. Targeted molecular excitations in the charge-transfer salt κ−(BEDT−TTF)2 Cu[N(CN)2] Br induce a colossal increase in carrier mobility and the opening of a superconducting optical gap. Both features track the density of quasiparticles of the equilibrium metal and can be observed up to a characteristic coherence temperature T∗≃50K, far higher than the equilibrium transition temperature TC=12.5K. Notably, the large optical gap achieved by photoexcitation is not observed in the equilibrium superconductor, pointing to a light-induced state that is different from that obtained by cooling. First-principles calculations and model Hamiltonian dynamics predict a transient state with long-range pairing correlations, providing a possible physical scenario for photomolecular superconductivity.

## Experimental Self-Characterization of Quantum Measurements.

Physical review letters **124** (2020) 040402-

The accurate and reliable description of measurement devices is a central problem in both observing uniquely nonclassical behaviors and realizing quantum technologies from powerful computing to precision metrology. To date quantum tomography is the prevalent tool to characterize quantum detectors. However, such a characterization relies on accurately characterized probe states, rendering reliability of the characterization lost in circular argument. Here we report a self-characterization method of quantum measurements based on reconstructing the response range-the entirety of attainable measurement outcomes, eliminating the reliance on known states. We characterize two representative measurements implemented with photonic setups and obtain fidelities above 99.99% with the conventional tomographic reconstructions. This initiates range-based techniques in characterizing quantum systems and foreshadows novel device-independent protocols of quantum information applications.

## Rescaling interactions for quantum control

Physical Review Applied American Physical Society **13** (2020) 034002

A powerful control method in experimental quantum computing is the use of spin echoes, employed to select a desired term in the system’s internal Hamiltonian, while refocusing others. Here, we address a more general problem, describing a method to not only turn on and off particular interactions but also to rescale their strengths so that we can generate any desired effective internal Hamiltonian. We propose an algorithm based on linear programming for achieving time-optimal rescaling solutions in fully coupled systems of tens of qubits, which can be modified to obtain near-time-optimal solutions for rescaling systems with hundreds of qubits.

## Witnesses of non-classicality for simulated hybrid quantum systems

Journal of Physics Communications IOP Publishing **4** (2020) 025013

The task of testing whether quantum theory applies to all physical systems and all scales requires considering situations where a quantum probe interacts with another system that need not obey quantum theory in full. Important examples include the cases where a quantum mass probes the gravitational field, for which a unique quantum theory of gravity does not yet exist, or a quantum field, such as light, interacts with a macroscopic system, such as a biological molecule, which may or may not obey unitary quantum theory. In this context a class of experiments has recently been proposed, where the non-classicality of a physical system that need not obey quantum theory (the gravitational field) can be tested indirectly by detecting whether or not the system is capable of entangling two quantum probes. Here we illustrate some of the subtleties of the argument, to do with the role of locality of interactions and of non-classicality, and perform proof-of-principle experiments illustrating the logic of the proposals, using a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance quantum computational platform with four qubits.

## A robust entangling gate for polar molecules using magnetic and microwave fields

Physical Review A American Physical Society **101** (2020) 062308

Polar molecules are an emerging platform for quantum technologies based on their long-range electric dipole–dipole interactions, which open new possibilities for quantum information processing and the quantum simulation of strongly correlated systems. Here, we use magnetic and microwave fields to design a fast entangling gate with > 0.999 fidelity and which is robust with respect to fluctuations in the trapping and control fields and to small thermal excitations. These results establish the feasibility to build a scalable quantum processor with a broad range of molecular species in optical-lattice and optical-tweezers setups.

## Cost-function embedding and dataset encoding for machine learning with parametrized quantum circuits

PHYSICAL REVIEW A **101** (2020) ARTN 052309

## Efficient Hamiltonian programming in qubit arrays with nearest-neighbor couplings

Physical Review A American Physical Society (APS) **102** (2020) 32405

We consider the problem of selectively controlling couplings in a practical quantum processor with always-on interactions that are diagonal in the computational basis, using sequences of local NOT gates. This methodology is well-known in NMR implementations, but previous approaches do not scale efficiently for the general fully-connected Hamiltonian, where the complexity of finding time-optimal solutions makes them only practical up to a few tens of qubits. Given the rapid growth in the number of qubits in cutting-edge quantum processors, it is of interest to investigate the applicability of this control scheme to much larger scale systems with realistic restrictions on connectivity. Here we present an efficient scheme to find near time-optimal solutions that can be applied to engineered qubit arrays with local connectivity for any number of qubits, indicating the potential for practical quantum computing in such systems.

## Real-world data of high-grade lymphoma patients treated with CD19 CAR-T in the UK

BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY **189** (2020) 30-31

## Rescaling Interactions for Quantum Control

PHYSICAL REVIEW APPLIED **13** (2020) ARTN 034002

## Modular quantum computation in a trapped ion system

Nature Communications Springer Nature **10** (2019) ARTN 4692

Modern computation relies crucially on modular architectures, breaking a complex algorithm into self-contained subroutines. A client can then call upon a remote server to implement parts of the computation independently via an application programming interface (API). Present APIs relay only classical information. Here we implement a quantum API that enables a client to estimate the absolute value of the trace of a server-provided unitary operation [Formula: see text]. We demonstrate that the algorithm functions correctly irrespective of what unitary [Formula: see text] the server implements or how the server specifically realizes [Formula: see text]. Our experiment involves pioneering techniques to coherently swap qubits encoded within the motional states of a trapped [Formula: see text] ion, controlled on its hyperfine state. This constitutes the first demonstration of modular computation in the quantum regime, providing a step towards scalable, parallelization of quantum computation.

## Mott polaritons in cavity-coupled quantum materials

New Journal of Physics IOP Publishing **21** (2019) 073066

We show that strong electron-electron interactions in quantum materials can give rise to electronic transitions that couple strongly to cavity fields, and collective enhancement of these interactions can result in ultrastrong effective coupling strengths. As a paradigmatic example we consider a Fermi-Hubbard model coupled to a single-mode cavity and find that resonant electron-cavity interactions result in the formation of a quasi-continuum of polariton branches. The vacuum Rabi splitting of the two outermost branches is collectively enhanced and scales with USD g_{\text{eff}}\propto\sqrt{2L} USD, where USD L USD is the number of electronic sites, and the maximal achievable value for USD g_{\text{eff}} USD is determined by the volume of the unit cell of the crystal. We find that USD g_{\text{eff}} USD for existing quantum materials can by far exceed the width of the first excited Hubbard band. This effect can be experimentally observed via measurements of the optical conductivity and does not require ultrastrong coupling on the single-electron level. Quantum correlations in the electronic ground state as well as the microscopic nature of the light-matter interaction enhance the collective light-matter interaction compared to an ensemble of independent two-level atoms interacting with a cavity mode.

## Emergence of correlated proton tunnelling in water ice.

Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences **475** (2019) 20180867-20180867

Several experimental and theoretical studies report instances of concerted or correlated multiple proton tunnelling in solid phases of water. Here, we construct a pseudo-spin model for the quantum motion of protons in a hexameric H2O ring and extend it to open system dynamics that takes environmental effects into account in the form of O-H stretch vibrations. We approach the problem of correlations in tunnelling using quantum information theory in a departure from previous studies. Our formalism enables us to quantify the coherent proton mobility around the hexagonal ring by one of the principal measures of coherence, the l 1 norm of coherence. The nature of the pairwise pseudo-spin correlations underlying the overall mobility is further investigated within this formalism. We show that the classical correlations of the individual quantum tunnelling events in long-time limit is sufficient to capture the behaviour of coherent proton mobility observed in low-temperature experiments. We conclude that long-range intra-ring interactions do not appear to be a necessary condition for correlated proton tunnelling in water ice.

## Phase diffusion and the small-noise approximation in linear amplifiers: Limitations and beyond

QUANTUM **3** (2019)

## Coherent spin manipulation of individual atoms on a surface

Science American Association for the Advancement of Science **366** (2019) 509-512

Achieving time-domain control of quantum states with atomic-scale spatial resolution in nanostructures is a long-term goal in quantum nanoscience and spintronics. Here, we demonstrate coherent spin rotations of individual atoms on a surface at the nanosecond time scale, using an all-electric scheme in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). By modulating the atomically confined magnetic interaction between the STM tip and surface atoms, we drive quantum Rabi oscillations between spin-up and spin-down states in as little as ~20 nanoseconds. Ramsey fringes and spin echo signals allow us to understand and improve quantum coherence. We further demonstrate coherent operations on engineered atomic dimers. The coherent control of spins arranged with atomic precision provides a solid-state platform for quantum-state engineering and simulation of many-body systems.

## Uncertainty equality with quantum memory and its experimental verification

NPJ QUANTUM INFORMATION **5** (2019) ARTN 39

## Causal Limit on Quantum Communication.

Physical review letters **123** (2019) 150502-

The capacity of a channel is known to be equivalent to the highest rate at which it can generate entanglement. Analogous to entanglement, the notion of a causality measure characterizes the temporal aspect of quantum correlations. Despite holding an equally fundamental role in physics, temporal quantum correlations have yet to find their operational significance in quantum communication. Here we uncover a connection between quantum causality and channel capacity. We show the amount of temporal correlations between two ends of the noisy quantum channel, as quantified by a causality measure, implies a general upper bound on its channel capacity. The expression of this new bound is simpler to evaluate than most previously known bounds. We demonstrate the utility of this bound by applying it to a class of shifted depolarizing channels, which results in improvement over previously known bounds for this class of channels.

## Out of equilibrium thermodynamics of quantum harmonic chains

JOURNAL OF STATISTICAL MECHANICS-THEORY AND EXPERIMENT **2019** (2019) ARTN 104014