# Publications associated with Predictability of Weather and Climate

## Embeddedness of timelike maximal surfaces in (1+2)-Minkowski Space

Annales Henri Poincaré Springer **21** (2020) 3035-3068

We prove that if ϕ: R2→ R1 + 2 is a smooth, proper, timelike immersion with vanishing mean curvature, then necessarily ϕ is an embedding, and every compact subset of ϕ(R2) is a smooth graph. It follows that if one evolves any smooth, self-intersecting spacelike curve (or any planar spacelike curve whose unit tangent vector spans a closed semi-circle) so as to trace a timelike surface of vanishing mean curvature in R1 + 2, then the evolving surface will either fail to remain timelike, or it will fail to remain smooth. We show that, even allowing for null points, such a Cauchy evolution will be C2 inextendible beyond some singular time. In addition we study the continuity of the unit tangent for the evolution of a self-intersecting curve in isothermal gauge, which defines a well-known evolution beyond singular time.

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