# Publications associated with Predictability of Weather and Climate

## Discretization of the Bloch sphere, fractal invariant sets and Bell's theorem.

Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences The Royal Society **476** (2020) 20190350

An arbitrarily dense discretization of the Bloch sphere of complex Hilbert states is constructed, where points correspond to bit strings of fixed finite length. Number-theoretic properties of trigonometric functions (not part of the quantum-theoretic canon) are used to show that this constructive discretized representation incorporates many of the defining characteristics of quantum systems: completementarity, uncertainty relationships and (with a simple Cartesian product of discretized spheres) entanglement. Unlike Meyer's earlier discretization of the Bloch Sphere, there are no orthonormal triples, hence the Kocken-Specker theorem is not nullified. A physical interpretation of points on the discretized Bloch sphere is given in terms of ensembles of trajectories on a dynamically invariant fractal set in state space, where states of physical reality correspond to points on the invariant set. This deterministic construction provides a new way to understand the violation of the Bell inequality without violating statistical independence or factorization, where these conditions are defined solely from states on the invariant set. In this finite representation, there is an upper limit to the number of qubits that can be entangled, a property with potential experimental consequences.

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