Observations of pressure anisotropy effects within semi-collisional magnetized plasma bubbles

Nature Communications Nature 12 (2021) 334

E Tubman, A Joglekar, A Bott, M Borghesi, B Coleman, G Cooper, C Danson, P Durey, J Foster, P Graham, G Gregori, E Gumbrell, M Hill, T Hodge, S Kar, R Kingham, M Read, C Ridgers, J Skidmore, C Spindloe, A Thomas, P Treadwell, S Wilson, L Willingale, N Woolsey

Magnetized plasma interactions are ubiquitous in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. Various physical effects have been shown to be important within colliding plasma flows influenced by opposing magnetic fields, however, experimental verification of the mechanisms within the interaction region has remained elusive. Here we discuss a laser-plasma experiment whereby experimental results verify that Biermann battery generated magnetic fields are advected by Nernst flows and anisotropic pressure effects dominate these flows in a reconnection region. These fields are mapped using time-resolved proton probing in multiple directions. Various experimental, modelling and analytical techniques demonstrate the importance of anisotropic pressure in semi-collisional, high-β plasmas, causing a reduction in the magnitude of the reconnecting fields when compared to resistive processes. Anisotropic pressure dynamics are crucial in collisionless plasmas, but are often neglected in collisional plasmas. We show pressure anisotropy to be essential in maintaining the interaction layer, redistributing magnetic fields even for semi-collisional, high energy density physics (HEDP) regimes.

Predicting the observability of population III stars with ELT-HARMONI via the helium 1640 Å emission line

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press (OUP) 501 (2021) 5517-5537

K Grisdale, N Thatte, J Devriendt, M Pereira-Santaella, A Slyz, T Kimm, Y Dubois, SK Yi

<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title> <jats:p>Population III (Pop. III) stars, as of yet, have not been detected, however as we move into the era of extremely large telescopes this is likely to change. One likely tracer for Pop. III stars is the He iiλ1640 emission line, which will be detectable by the HARMONI spectrograph on the European Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) over a broad range of redshifts (2 ≤ z ≤ 14). By post-processing galaxies from the cosmological, AMR-hydrodynamical simulation newhorizon with theoretical spectral energy distributions (SED) for Pop. III stars and radiative transfer (i.e. the Yggdrasil Models and cloudy look-up tables, respectively) we are able to compute the flux of He iiλ1640 for individual galaxies. From mock 10 h observations of these galaxies we show that HARMONI will be able to detect Pop. III stars in galaxies up to z ∼ 10 provided Pop. III stars have a top heavy initial mass function (IMF). Furthermore, we find that should Pop. III stars instead have an IMF similar to those of the Pop. I stars, the He iiλ1640 line would only be observable for galaxies with Pop. III stellar masses in excess of $10^{7}\, {\rm M}_\odot$, average stellar age $\lt 1\, {\rm Myr}$ at z = 4. Finally, we are able to determine the minimal intrinsic flux required for HARMONI to detect Pop. III stars in a galaxy up to z = 10.</jats:p>

Spatially offset black holes in the Horizon-AGN simulation and comparison to observations


DJ Bartlett, H Desmond, J Devriendt, PG Ferreira, A Slyz

© 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. We study the displacements between the centres of galaxies and their supermassive black holes (BHs) in the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Horizon-AGN, and in a variety of observations from the literature. The BHs in Horizon-AGN feel a subgrid dynamical friction force, sourced by the surrounding gas, which prevents recoiling BHs being ejected from the galaxy. We find that (i) the fraction of spatially offset BHs increases with cosmic time, (ii) BHs live on prograde orbits in the plane of the galaxy with an orbital radius that decays with time but stalls near z = 0, and (iii) the magnitudes of offsets from the galaxy centres are substantially larger in the simulation than in observations. We attribute the stalling of the infall and excessive offset magnitudes to the fact that dynamical friction from stars and dark matter is not modelled in the simulation, and hence provide a way to improve the BH dynamics of future simulations.

The role of mergers and interactions in driving the evolution of dwarf galaxies over cosmic time


G Martin, R Jackson, S Kaviraj, H Choi, J Devriendt, Y Dubois, T Kimm, K Kraljic, S Peirani, C Pichon, M Volonteri, S Yi

© 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. Dwarf galaxies (M∗ < 109 M·) are key drivers of mass assembly in high-mass galaxies, but relatively little is understood about the assembly of dwarf galaxies themselves. Using the NewHorizon cosmological simulation (∼40 pc spatial resolution), we investigate how mergers and fly-bys drive the mass assembly and structural evolution of around 1000 field and group dwarfs up to z = 0.5. We find that, while dwarf galaxies often exhibit disturbed morphologies (5 and 20 per cent are disturbed at z = 1 and z = 3 respectively), only a small proportion of the morphological disturbances seen in dwarf galaxies are driven by mergers at any redshift (for 109 M·, mergers drive under 20 per cent morphological disturbances). They are instead primarily the result of interactions that do not end in a merger (e.g. fly-bys). Given the large fraction of apparently morphologically disturbed dwarf galaxies which are not, in fact, merging, this finding is particularly important to future studies identifying dwarf mergers and post-mergers morphologically at intermediate and high redshifts. Dwarfs typically undergo one major and one minor merger between z = 5 and z = 0.5, accounting for 10 per cent of their total stellar mass. Mergers can also drive moderate star formation enhancements at lower redshifts (3 or 4 times at z = 1), but this accounts for only a few per cent of stellar mass in the dwarf regime given their infrequency. Non-merger interactions drive significantly smaller star formation enhancements (around two times), but their preponderance relative to mergers means they account for around 10 per cent of stellar mass formed in the dwarf regime.

Cosmological simulations of the same spiral galaxy: the impact of baryonic physics


A Nunez-Castineyra, E Nezri, J Devriendt, R Teyssier

© 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. The interplay of star formation (SF) and supernova (SN) feedback in galaxy formation is a key element for understanding galaxy evolution. Since these processes occur at small scales, it is necessary to have sub-grid models that recover their evolution and environmental effects at the scales reached by cosmological simulations. In this work, we present the results of the Mochima simulation, where we simulate the same spiral galaxy inhabiting a Milky Way (MW) size halo in a cosmological environment changing the sub-grid models for SN feedback and SF. We test combinations of the Schmidt law and a multifreefall based SF with delayed cooling feedback or mechanical feedback. We reach a resolution of 35 pc in a zoom-in box of 36 Mpc. For this, we use the code RAMSES with the implementation of gas turbulence in time and trace the local hydrodynamical features of the star-forming gas. Finally, we compare the galaxies at redshift 0 with global and interstellar medium observations in the MW and local spiral galaxies. The simulations show successful comparisons with observations. Nevertheless, diverse galactic morphologies are obtained from different numerical implementations. We highlight the importance of detailed modelling of the SF and feedback processes, especially for simulations with a resolution that start to reach scales relevant for molecular cloud physics. Future improvements could alleviate the degeneracies exhibited in our simulated galaxies under different sub-grid models.

Turbulent impurity transport simulations in Wendelstein 7-X plasmas

Journal of Plasma Physics (2021)

JM Garcia-Regaña, M Barnes, I Calvo, FI Parra, JA Alcuson, R Davies, A Gonzalez-Jerez, A Mollen, E Sanchez, JL Velasco, A Zocco

Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press. A study of turbulent impurity transport by means of quasilinear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations is presented for Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). The calculations have been carried out with the recently developed gyrokinetic code stella. Different impurity species are considered in the presence of various types of background instabilities: ion temperature gradient (ITG), trapped electron mode (TEM) and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes for the quasilinear part of the work; ITG and TEM for the nonlinear results. While the quasilinear approach allows one to draw qualitative conclusions about the sign or relative importance of the various contributions to the flux, the nonlinear simulations quantitatively determine the size of the turbulent flux and check the extent to which the quasilinear conclusions hold. Although the bulk of the nonlinear simulations are performed at trace impurity concentration, nonlinear simulations are also carried out at realistic effective charge values, in order to know to what degree the conclusions based on the simulations performed for trace impurities can be extrapolated to realistic impurity concentrations. The presented results conclude that the turbulent radial impurity transport in W7-X is mainly dominated by ordinary diffusion, which is close to that measured during the recent W7-X experimental campaigns. It is also confirmed that thermodiffusion adds a weak inward flux contribution and that, in the absence of impurity temperature and density gradients, ITG- and TEM-driven turbulence push the impurities inwards and outwards, respectively.

Sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array to a dark matter signal from the Galactic centre

Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics IOP Publishing 2021 (2021) 057-057

A Acharyya, I Agudo, A Aguirre-Santaella, R Alfaro, J Alfaro, C Alispach, R Aloisio, E Angüner, C Aramo, T Armstrong, V Barbosa Martins, M Barkov, D Bastieri, G Beck, J Becker Tjus, W Benbow, E Bernardini, A Berti, B Bertucci, V Beshley, B Biasuzzi, A Biland, F Bocchino, L Bonneau Arbeletche, G Cotter

© 2021 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd on behalf of Sissa Medialab. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. We provide an updated assessment of the power of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) to search for thermally produced dark matter at the TeV scale, via the associated gamma-ray signal from pair-annihilating dark matter particles in the region around the Galactic centre. We find that CTA will open a new window of discovery potential, significantly extending the range of robustly testable models given a standard cuspy profile of the dark matter density distribution. Importantly, even for a cored profile, the projected sensitivity of CTA will be sufficient to probe various well-motivated models of thermally produced dark matter at the TeV scale. This is due to CTA's unprecedented sensitivity, angular and energy resolutions, and the planned observational strategy. The survey of the inner Galaxy will cover a much larger region than corresponding previous observational campaigns with imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. CTA will map with unprecedented precision the large-scale diffuse emission in high-energy gamma rays, constituting a background for dark matter searches for which we adopt state-of-the-art models based on current data. Throughout our analysis, we use up-to-date event reconstruction Monte Carlo tools developed by the CTA consortium, and pay special attention to quantifying the level of instrumental systematic uncertainties, as well as background template systematic errors, required to probe thermally produced dark matter at these energies.

Prospects for high gain inertial fusion energy: an introduction to the second edition

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences The Royal Society 379 (2020) 20200028

P Norreys, C Ridgers, K Lancaster, M Koepke, G Tynan

Part II of this special edition contains the remaining eleven papers arising from a Hooke discussion meeting held in March 2020 devoted to exploring the current status of inertial confinement fusion research worldwide and its application to electrical power generation in the future, via the development of an international inertial fusion energy programme. It builds upon increased coordination within Europe over the past decade by researchers supported by the EUROFusion Enabling Research grants, as well as collaborations that have arisen naturally with some of America’s and Asia’s leading researchers’ both in the universities and national laboratories. The articles are devoted to informing an update to the European roadmap for an inertial fusion energy demonstration reactor, building upon the commonalities between the magnetic and inertial fusion communities’ approaches to fusion energy. A number of studies devoted to understanding the physics barriers to ignition on current facilities are then presented. The special issue concludes with four state of-the-art articles describing recent significant advances in fast ignition inertial fusion research.

One-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of low convergence ratio direct-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences The Royal Society 379 (2020) 20200224

R Paddock, H Martin, R Ruskov, R Scott, W Garbett, B Haines, A Zylstra, R Aboushelbaya, M Mayr, B Spiers, R Wang, P Norreys

Indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments with convergence ratios below 17 have been previously shown to be less susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities, making this regime highly interesting for fusion science. Additional limitations imposed on the implosion velocity, in-flight aspect ratio and applied laser power aim to further reduce instability growth, resulting in a new regime where performance can be well represented by one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic simulations. A simulation campaign was performed using the 1D radiation-hydrodynamics code HYADES to investigate the performance that could be achieved using direct drive implosions of liquid layer capsules, over a range of relevant energies. Results include potential gains of 0.19 on LMJ-scale systems and 0.75 on NIF-scale systems, and a reactor-level gain of 54 for an 8.5 MJ implosion. While the use of 1D simulations limits the accuracy of these results, they indicate a sufficiently high level of performance to warrant further investigations and verification of this new low-instability regime. This potentially suggests an attractive new approach to fusion energy.

Collisionless shock acceleration in the corona of an inertial confinement fusion pellet with possible application to ion fast ignition.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences 379 (2021) 20200039-

E Boella, R Bingham, RA Cairns, P Norreys, R Trines, R Scott, M Vranic, N Shukla, LO Silva

Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are used to explore collisionless shock acceleration in the corona plasma surrounding the compressed core of an inertial confinement fusion pellet. We show that an intense laser pulse interacting with the long scale-length plasma corona is able to launch a collisionless shock around the critical density. The nonlinear wave travels up-ramp through the plasma reflecting and accelerating the background ions. Our results suggest that protons with characteristics suitable for ion fast ignition may be achieved in this way. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Prospects for high gain inertial fusion energy (part 2)'.

Whole-beam self-focusing in fusion-relevant plasma

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences Royal Society 379 (2020) 20200159

B Spiers, M Hill, C Brown, L Ceurvorst, N Ratan, A Savin, P Allan, E Floyd, J Fyrth, L Hobbs, S James, J Luis, M Ramsay, N Sircombe, J Skidmore, R Aboushelbaya, M Mayr, R Paddock, R Wang, P Norreys

Fast ignition inertial confinement fusion requires the production of a low-density channel in plasma with density scale-lengths of several hundred microns. The channel assists in the propagation of an ultra-intense laser pulse used to generate fast electrons which form a hot spot on the side of pre-compressed fusion fuel. We present a systematic characterisation of an expanding laser-produced plasma using optical interferometry, benchmarked against three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Magnetic fields associated with channel formation are probed using proton radiography, and compared to magnetic field structures generated in fullscale particle-in-cell simulations. We present observations of long lived, straight channels produced by the Habara-Kodama-Tanaka (HKT) wholebeam self-focusing mechanism, overcoming a critical barrier on the path to realising fast ignition.

Preparations for a European R&D roadmap for an inertial fusion demo reactor

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences The Royal Society 379 (2020) 20200005

P Norreys, L Ceurvorst, J Sadler, B Spiers, M Mayr, N Ratan, A Savin, K Glize, R Trines, B Bingham, M Hill, N Sircombe, P Allan, L Hobbs, S James, J Skidmore, J Fyrth, J Luis, E Floyd, C Brown, B Haines, R Olson, S Yi, A Zylstra, R Peterson

A European consortium of 15 laboratories across nine nations have worked together under the EUROFusion Enabling Research grants for the past decade with three principle objectives. These are: (a) investigating obstacles to ignition on megaJoule-class laser facilities; (b) investigating novel alternative approaches to ignition, including basic studies for fast ignition (both electron and ion-driven), auxiliary heating, shock ignition, etc.; and (c) developing technologies that will be required in the future for a fusion reactor. A brief overview of these activities, presented here, along with new calculations relates the concept of auxiliary heating of inertial fusion targets, and provides possible future directions of research and development for the updated European Roadmap that is due at the end of 2020.

Tidally induced stellar oscillations: converting modelled oscillations excited by hot Jupiters into observables

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press (OUP) (2021)

A Bunting, C TERQUEM

High-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering at the high energy density scientific instrument at the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

Review of Scientific Instruments American Institute of Physics 92 (2021) 013101

V Cerantola, A Comley, J Eggert, L Fletcher, G Geloni, D Gericke, S Glenzer, S Göde, J Hastings, O Humphries, A Jenei, O Karnbach, Z Konopkova, R Loetzsch, B Marx-Glowna, E McBride, D McGonegle, B Ofori-Okai, C Palmer, C Plückthun, R Redmer, C Strohm, T Tschentscher, K Appel, G Gregori

We introduce a setup to measure high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering at the High Energy Density scientific instrument at the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL). The setup uses the Si (533) reflection in a channel-cut monochromator and three spherical diced analyzer crystals in near-backscattering geometry to reach a high spectral resolution. An energy resolution of 44 meV is demonstrated for the experimental setup, close to the theoretically achievable minimum resolution. The analyzer crystals and detector are mounted on a curved-rail system, allowing quick and reliable changes in scattering angle without breaking vacuum. The entire setup is designed for operation at 10 Hz, the same repetition rate as the high-power lasers available at the instrument and the fundamental repetition rate of the European XFEL. Among other measurements, it is envisioned that this setup will allow studies of the dynamics of highly transient laser generated states of matter.

Acute heart failure treatment: a light at the end of the tunnel?

European Journal of Heart Failure (2021)

G Cotter, BA Davison, C Edwards, K Takagi, A Cohen-Solal, A Mebazaa

The Additive Prognostic Value of Serial Plasma Interleukin-6 Levels over Changes in Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Patients with Acute Heart Failure

Journal of Cardiac Failure (2021)

G Markousis-Mavrogenis, J Tromp, RJ Mentz, CM O'Connor, M Metra, P Ponikowski, JR Teerlink, G Cotter, B Davison, JGF Cleland, MM Givertz, DJ van Veldhuisen, HL Hillege, AA Voors, P van der Meer

© 2021 The Authors Background: Elevated plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations are frequently observed in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). However, the predictive value of serial IL-6 measurements beyond brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) remains poorly characterized. Methods and Results: This was a retrospective analysis of the PROTECT cohort (2033 patients with AHF). Plasma IL-6 and BNP levels were determined on days 1, 2, 7 and 14 after admission for AHF in 1591 (78.3%), 1462 (71.9%), 1445 (71.1%) and 1451 (71.4%) patients, respectively. The primary endpoint was 180-day all-cause mortality. The median day-1 IL-6 concentration was 11.1 pg/mL (IQR: 6.6, 20.9) and decreased to 10.1 pg/mL (IQR: 5.6-18.5) at day-7. Higher cross-sectional IL-6 concentrations at all time-points predicted the primary endpoint, independent of a risk model for this cohort and changes in BNP. Each doubling of IL-6 between day-1 and day-7 predicted the primary endpoint independent of baseline IL-6 concentrations, the risk model, baseline BNP and changes in BNP [HR (95% CI): 1.18 (1.07-1.30), p=0.0013]. Collectively, 214 (17%) patients experienced at least a doubling of their IL-6 concentrations between day-1 and day-7. Conclusions: We demonstrate that the temporal evolution patterns of IL-6 in patients with AHF have additive prognostic value independent of changes in BNP.

Is acute heart failure a distinctive disorder? An analysis from BIOSTAT-CHF.

Eur J Heart Fail (2020)

BA Davison, S Senger, IE Sama, GG Koch, A Mebazaa, K Dickstein, NJ Samani, M Metra, SD Anker, JG Cleland, LL Ng, IR Mordi, F Zannad, GS Filippatos, HL Hillege, P Ponikowski, DJ van Veldhuisen, CC Lang, P van der Meer, J Núñez, A Bayés-Genís, C Edwards, AA Voors, G Cotter

AIMS: This retrospective analysis sought to identify markers that might distinguish between acute heart failure (HF) and worsening HF in chronic outpatients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The BIOSTAT-CHF index cohort included 2516 patients with new or worsening HF symptoms: 1694 enrolled as inpatients (acute HF) and 822 as outpatients (worsening HF in chronic outpatients). A validation cohort included 935 inpatients and 803 outpatients. Multivariable models were developed in the index cohort using clinical characteristics, routine laboratory values, and proteomics data to examine which factors predict adverse outcomes in both conditions and to determine which factors differ between acute HF and worsening HF in chronic outpatients, validated in the validation cohort. Patients with acute HF had substantially higher morbidity and mortality (6-month mortality was 12.3% for acute HF and 4.7% for worsening HF in chronic outpatients). Multivariable models predicting 180-day mortality and 180-day HF readmission differed substantially between acute HF and worsening HF in chronic outpatients. Carbohydrate antigen 125 was the strongest single biomarker to distinguish acute HF from worsening HF in chronic outpatients, but only yielded a C-index of 0.71. A model including multiple biomarkers and clinical variables achieved a high degree of discrimination with a C-index of 0.913 in the index cohort and 0.901 in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies different characteristics and predictors of outcome in acute HF patients as compared to outpatients with chronic HF developing worsening HF. The markers identified may be useful in better diagnosing acute HF and may become targets for treatment development.

Dual Effects of Ram Pressure on Star Formation in Multiphase Disk Galaxies with Strong Stellar Feedback


J Lee, T Kimm, H Katz, J Rosdahl, J Devriendt, A Slyz

© 2020. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. We investigate the impact of ram pressure stripping due to the intracluster medium (ICM) on star-forming disk galaxies with a multiphase interstellar medium maintained by strong stellar feedback. We carry out radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of an isolated disk galaxy embedded in a 1011 M o˙ dark matter halo with various ICM winds mimicking the cluster outskirts (moderate) and the central environment (strong). We find that both star formation quenching and triggering occur in ram pressure-stripped galaxies, depending on the strength of the winds. H i and H2 in the outer galactic disk are significantly stripped in the presence of moderate winds, whereas turbulent pressure provides support against ram pressure in the central region, where star formation is active. Moderate ICM winds facilitate gas collapse, increasing the total star formation rates by ∼40% when the wind is oriented face-on or by ∼80% when it is edge-on. In contrast, strong winds rapidly blow away neutral and molecular hydrogen gas from the galaxy, suppressing star formation by a factor of 2 within ∼200 Myr. Dense gas clumps with n H ⪆ 10 M o˙ pc-2 are easily identified in extraplanar regions, but no significant young stellar populations are found in such clumps. In our attempts to enhance radiative cooling by adopting a colder ICM of T = 106 K, only a few additional stars are formed in the tail region, even if the amount of newly cooled gas increases by an order of magnitude.

An extreme particle accelerator in the Galactic plane: HESS J1826-130


H Abdalla, R Adam, F Aharonian, FA Benkhali, EO Anguner, C Arcaro, C Armand, T Armstrong, H Ashkar, M Backes, V Baghmanyan, VB Martins, A Barnacka, M Barnard, Y Becherini, D Berge, K Bernlohr, B Bi, M Bottcher, C Boisson, J Bolmont, MDB de Lavergne, P Bordas, M Breuhaus, F Brun, P Brun, M Bryan, M Buchele, T Bulik, T Bylund, S Caroff, A Carosi, S Casanova, T Chand, S Chandra, A Chen, G Cotter, M Curylo, JD Mbarubucyeye, ID Davids, J Davies, C Deil, J Devin, P deWilt, L Dirson, A Djannati-Atai, A Dmytriiev, A Donath, V Doroshenko, C Duffy, J Dyks, K Egberts, F Eichhorn, S Einecke, G Emery, J-P Ernenwein, K Feijen, S Fegan, A Fiasson, GF de Clairfontaine, G Fontaine, S Funk, M Fussling, S Gabici, YA Gallant, G Giavitto, L Giunti, D Glawion, JF Glicenstein, D Gottschall, M-H Grondin, J Hahn, M Haupt, G Hermann, JA Hinton, W Hofmann, C Hoischen, TL Holch, M Holler, M Horbe, D Horns, D Huber, M Jamrozy, D Jankowsky, F Jankowsky, A Jardin-Blicq, V Joshi, I Jung-Richardt, E Kasai, MA Kastendieck, K Katarzynski, U Katz, D Khangulyan, B Khelifi, S Klepser, W Kluzniak, N Komin, R Konno, K Kosack, D Kostunin, M Kreter, G Lamanna, A Lemiere, M Lemoine-Goumard, J-P Lenain, C Levy, T Lohse, I Lypova, J Mackey, J Majumdar, D Malyshev, D Malyshev, V Marandon, P Marchegiani, A Marcowith, A Mares, G Marti-Devesa, R Marx, G Maurin, PJ Meintjes, M Meyer, A Mitchell, R Moderski, M Mohamed, L Mohrmann, A Montanari, C Moore, P Morris, E Moulin, J Muller, T Murach, K Nakashima, A Nayerhoda, M de Naurois, H Ndiyavala, F Niederwanger, J Niemiec, L Oakes, P O'Brien, H Odaka, S Ohm, L Olivera-Nieto, EDO Wilhelmi, M Ostrowski, I Oya, M Panter, S Panny, RD Parsons, G Peron, B Peyaud, Q Piel, S Pita, V Poireau, AP Noel, DA Prokhorov, H Prokoph, G Puhlhofer, M Punch, A Quirrenbach, S Raab, R Rauth, P Reichherzer, A Reimer, O Reimer, Q Remy, M Renaud, F Rieger, L Rinchiuso, C Romoli, G Rowell, B Rudak, E Ruiz-Velasco, V Sahakian, S Sailer, DA Sanchez, A Santangelo, M Sasaki, M Scalici, F Schussler, HM Schutte, U Schwanke, S Schwemmer, M Seglar-Arroyo, M Senniappan, AS Seyffert, N Shafi, K Shiningayamwe, R Simoni, A Sinha, H Sol, A Specovius, S Spencer, M Spir-Jacob, L Stawarz, L Sun, R Steenkamp, C Stegmann, S Steinmassl, C Steppa, T Takahashi, T Tavernier, AM Taylor, R Terrier, D Tiziani, M Tluczykont, L Tomankova, C Trichard, M Tsirou, R Tuffs, Y Uchiyama, DJ van der Walt, C van Eldik, C van Rensburg, B van Soelen, G Vasileiadis, J Veh, C Venter, P Vincent, J Vink, HJ Volk, T Vuillaume, Z Wadiasingh, SJ Wagner, J Watson, F Werner, R White, A Wierzcholska, YW Wong, A Yusafzai, M Zacharias, R Zanin, D Zargaryan, AA Zdziarski, A Zech, SJ Zhu, A Ziegler, J Zorn, S Zouari, N Zywucka, HESS Collaboration

First demonstration of ARC-accelerated proton beams at the National Ignition Facility (vol 26, 043110, 2019)

PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 27 (2020) ARTN 129901

D Mariscal, T Ma, SC Wilks, AJ Kemp, GJ Williams, P Michel, H Chen, PK Patel, BA Remington, M Bowers, L Pelz, MR Hermann, W Hsing, D Martinez, R Sigurdsson, M Prantil, A Conder, J Lawson, M Hamamoto, P Di Nicola, C Widmayer, D Hoemoelle, R Lowe-Webb, S Herriot, W Williams, D Alessi, D Kalantar, R Zacharias, C Haefner, N Thompson, T Zobrist, D Lord, N Hash, A Pak, N Lemos, M Tabak, C McGuffey, J Kim, FN Beg, MS Wei, P Norreys, A Morace, N Iwata, Y Sentoku, D Neely, GG Scott, K Flippo, M Gatu-Johnson, B Lahmann