Publications associated with Photovoltaics

Metal halide perovskites for energy applications

Nature Energy Nature Publishing Group 1 (2016)

W Zhang, GE Eperon, H Snaith

Exploring prospective materials for energy production and storage is one of the biggest challenges of this century. Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy resources, due to its wide availability and low environmental impact. Metal halide perovskites have emerged as a class of semiconductor materials with unique properties, including tunable bandgap, high absorption coefficient, broad absorption spectrum, high charge carrier mobility and long charge diffusion lengths, which enable a broad range of photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. Since the first embodiment of perovskite solar cells showing a power conversion efficiency of 3.8%, the device performance has been boosted up to a certified 22.1% within a few years. In this Perspective, we discuss differing forms of perovskite materials produced via various deposition procedures. We focus on their energy-related applications and discuss current challenges and possible solutions, with the aim of stimulating potential new applications. Metal halide perovskites with the general formula ABX3 (where A is a cation, B is a divalent metal ion and X is a halide) are a class of semiconductors that have the potential to deliver cheaper and more efficient photovoltaics than silicon-based technology. Over the past five years, metal halide perovskites have attracted tremendous research effort, due to their unique optical and electronic properties. To date, they have been applied to fields including photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes and solar-to-fuel energy conversion devices. In particular, the rapid advancement in photovoltaic efficiency has been accompanied by a deeper understanding of the fundamental properties of the materials and operational mechanisms of devices. Furthermore, recent progress with both nanocrystal and macroscopic single-crystal growth and characterization, calls for a rationalization of the different forms of perovskite semiconductors beyond the widely used polycrystalline thin films.

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