Time evolution of transient plasma states from nanowire arrays irradiated at relativistic intensities

Communications Physics Nature Research (part of Springer Nature) (0)

SM Vinko, O Humphries

An investigation of the L-shell X-ray conversion efficiency for laser-irradiated tin foils

Plasma Science and Technology IOP Publishing (0)

D Bailie, C Hyland, R Singh, S White, G Sarri, F Keenan, D Riley, S Rose, E Hill, F Wang, D Yuan, G Zhao, H Wei, B Han, B Zhu, J Zhu, P Yang

Stochastic transport of high-energy particles through a turbulent plasma


LE Chen, AFA Bott, P Tzeferacos, A Rigby, A Bell, C Graziani, J Katz, M Koenig, CK Li, R Petrasso, H-S Park, JS Ross, D Ryu, D Ryutov, TG White, B Reville, J Matthews, J Meinecke, F Miniati, EG Zweibel, S Sarkar, AA Schekochihin, DQ Lamb, DH Froula, G Gregori

The interplay between charged particles and turbulent magnetic fields is crucial to understanding how cosmic rays propagate through space. A key parameter which controls this interplay is the ratio of the particle gyroradius to the correlation length of the magnetic turbulence. For the vast majority of cosmic rays detected at the Earth, this parameter is small, and the particles are well confined by the Galactic magnetic field. But for cosmic rays more energetic than about 30 EeV, this parameter is large. These highest energy particles are not confined to the Milky Way and are presumed to be extragalactic in origin. Identifying their sources requires understanding how they are deflected by the intergalactic magnetic field, which appears to be weak, turbulent with an unknown correlation length, and possibly spatially intermittent. This is particularly relevant given the recent detection by the Pierre Auger Observatory of a significant dipole anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays of energy above 8 EeV. Here we report measurements of energetic-particle propagation through a random magnetic field in a laser-produced plasma. We characterize the diffusive transport of these particles and recover experimentally pitch-angle scattering measurements and extrapolate to find their mean free path and the associated diffusion coefficient, which show scaling-relations consistent with theoretical studies. This experiment validates these theoretical tools for analyzing the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays through the intergalactic medium.

Single-Shot Multi-keV X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Using an Ultrashort Laser-Wakefield Accelerator Source

Physical Review Letters American Physical Society (APS) 123 (0) 254801

B Kettle, E Gerstmayr, MJV Streeter, F Albert, RA Baggott, N Bourgeois, JM Cole, S Dann, K Falk, I Gallardo González, AE Hussein, N Lemos, NC Lopes, O Lundh, Y Ma, SJ Rose, C Spindloe, DR Symes, M Šmíd, AGR Thomas, R Watt, SPD Mangles

Fast Non-Adiabatic Dynamics of Many-Body Quantum Systems

Science Advances Springer Verlag (0)

B Larder, D Gericke, S Richardson, P Mabey, T White, G Gregori

Modeling many-body quantum systems with strong interactions is one of the core challenges of modern physics. A range of methods has been developed to approach this task, each with its own idiosyncrasies, approximations, and realm of applicability. Perhaps the most successful and ubiquitous of these approaches is density functional theory (DFT). Its Kohn-Sham formulation has been the basis for many fundamental physical insights, and it has been successfully applied to fields as diverse as quantum chemistry, condensed matter and dense plasmas. Despite the progress made by DFT and related schemes, however, there remain many problems that are intractable for existing methods. In particular, many approaches face a huge computational barrier when modeling large numbers of coupled electrons and ions at finite temperature. Here, we address this shortfall with a new approach to modeling many-body quantum systems. Based on the Bohmian trajectories formalism, our new method treats the full particle dynamics with a considerable increase in computational speed. As a result, we are able to perform large-scale simulations of coupled electron-ion systems without employing the adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation.

Modified Friedmann equations via conformal Bohm -- De Broglie gravity

The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics American Astronomical Society (0)

G Gregori, B Reville, B Larder

We use an alternative interpretation of quantum mechanics, based on the Bohmian trajectory approach, and show that the quantum effects can be included in the classical equation of motion via a conformal transformation on the background metric. We apply this method to the Robertson-Walker metric to derive a modified version of Friedmann's equations for a Universe consisting of scalar, spin-zero, massive particles. These modified equations include additional terms that result from the non-local nature of matter and appear as an acceleration in the expansion of the Universe. We see that the same effect may also be present in the case of an inhomogeneous expansion.

Ab-initio simulations and measurements of the free-free opacity in Aluminum

Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics American Physical Society (0)

P Hollebon, O Ciricosta, MP Desjarlais, C Cacho, C Spindloe, E Springate, ICE Turcu, JS Wark, SM Vinko

The free-free opacity in dense systems is a property that both tests our fundamental understanding of correlated many-body systems, and is needed to understand the radiative properties of high energy-density plasmas. Despite its importance, predictive calculations of the free-free opacity remain challenging even in the condensed matter phase for simple metals. Here we show how the free-free opacity can be modelled at finite-temperatures via time-dependent density functional theory, and illustrate the importance of including local field corrections, core polarization and self-energy corrections. Our calculations for ground-state Al are shown to agree well with experimental opacity measurements performed on the Artemis laser facility across a wide range of x-ray to ultraviolet wavelengths. We extend our calculations across the melt to the warm-dense matter regime, and find good agreement with advanced plasma models based on inverse bremsstrahlung at temperatures above 10 eV.

Retrieving fields from proton radiography without source profiles


MUHAMMAD Kasim, AFA Bott, P Tzeferacos, DQ Lamb, G Gregori, SAM Vinko

Proton radiography is a technique in high energy density science to diagnose magnetic and/or electric fields in a plasma by firing a proton beam and detecting its modulated intensity profile on a screen. Current approaches to retrieve the integrated field from the modulated intensity profile require the unmodulated beam intensity profile before the interaction, which is rarely available experimentally due to shot-to-shot variability. In this paper, we present a statistical method to retrieve the integrated field without needing to know the exact source profile. We apply our method to experimental data, showing the robustness of our approach. Our proposed technique allows not only for the retrieval of the path-integrated fields, but also of the statistical properties of the fields.

Vibrational excitation induced by electron beam and cosmic rays in normal and superconductive aluminum bars

ArXiv (0)

M Bassan, B Buonomo, G Cavallari, E Coccia, S D'Antonio, V Fafone, LG Foggetta, C Ligi, A Marini, G Mazzitelli, G Modestino, G Pizzella, L Quintieri, F Ronga, P Valente, SM Vinko

We report new measurements of the acoustic excitation of an Al5056 superconductive bar when hit by an electron beam, in a previously unexplored temperature range, down to 0.35 K. These data, analyzed together with previous results of the RAP experiment obtained for T > 0.54 K, show a vibrational response enhanced by a factor 4.9 with respect to that measured in the normal state. This enhancement explains the anomalous large signals due to cosmic rays previously detected in the NAUTILUS gravitational wave detector.

Experimental study of high energy electron interactions in a superconducting aluminum alloy resonant bar

ArXiv (0)

M Barucci, M Bassan, B Buonomo, G Cavallari, E Coccia, S D'Antonio, V Fafone, C Ligi, L Lolli, A Marini, G Mazzitelli, G Modestino, G Pizzella, L Quintieri, L Risegari, A Rocchi, F Ronga, P Valente, G Ventura, SM Vinko

Peak amplitude measurements of the fundamental mode of oscillation of a suspended aluminum alloy bar hit by an electron beam show that the amplitude is enhanced by a factor ~3.5 when the material is in the superconducting state. This result is consistent with the cosmic ray observations made by the resonant gravitational wave detector NAUTILUS, made of the same alloy, when operated in the superconducting state. A comparison of the experimental data with the predictions of the model describing the underlying physical process is also presented.

XUV Opacity of Aluminum between the Cold-Solid to Warm-Plasma Transition

High Energy Density Physics Elsevier BV (2009)

SM Vinko, G Gregori, B Nagler, TJ Whitcher, MP Desjarlais, RW Lee, P Audebert, JS Wark

We present calculations of the free-free XUV opacity of warm, solid-density aluminum at photon energies between the plasma frequency at 15 eV and the L-edge at 73 eV, using both density functional theory combined with molecular dynamics and a semi-analytical model in the RPA framework with the inclusion of local field corrections. As the temperature is increased from room temperature to 10 eV, with the ion and electron temperatures equal, we calculate an increase in the opacity in the range over which the degree of ionization is constant. The effect is less pronounced if only the electron temperature is allowed to increase. The physical significance of these increases is discussed in terms of intense XUV-laser matter interactions on both femtosecond and picosecond time-scales.

A novel method to measure ion density in ICF experiments using X-ray spectroscopy of cylindrical tracers

Physics of Plasmas AIP Publishing (0)

J Wark

X-ray Spectroscopic Studies of a Solid-Density Germanium Plasma Created by a Free Electron Laser

Applied Sciences MDPI (0)

J Wark

How to control the laser emission in single longitudinal mode

Optica Pura y Aplicada Sociedad Espanola de Optica 48 (0) 141-144

V Gonzalez-Fernandez, E Vasallo, G Perez, K Grutzmacher, LM Fuentes, C Perez, MI de la Rosa

Whole-Beam Self-Focusing in Fusion-Relevant Plasma

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences Royal Society, The (0)

P Norreys, B Spiers, M Hill, C Brown, L Ceurvorst, N Ratan, A Savin, P Allan, E Floyd, J Fyrth, L Hobbs, S James, J Luis, N Ramsay, N SIrcombe, R Aboushelbaya, M Mayr, R Paddock, R Wang

Preparations for a European R&D Roadmap for an Inertial Fusion Demo Reactor

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences Royal Society, The (0)

L Ceurvorst, J Sadler, B Spiers, R Aboushelbaya, M Mayr, R Paddock, A Savin, R Wang, K Glize, R Trines, R Bingham, M Hill, N Sircombe, M Ramsay, P Allan, L Hobbs, S James, J Skidmore, J Fyrth, J Luis, E Floyd, C Brown, B Haines, A Zlystra, R Olson

Preparations for a European R&D Roadmap for an Inertial Fusion Demo Reactor

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences Royal Society, The (0)

P Norreys, L Ceurvorst, J Sadler, B Spiers, R Aboushelbaya, M Mayr, R Paddock, N Ratan, A Savin, K Glize, R Trines, B Bingham, M Hill, N Sircombe, P Allan, L Hobbs, S James, J Skidmore, J Fyrth, J Luis, E Floyd, C Brown, B Haines, R Olson, A Zylstra