Publications


General Circulation of Planetary Atmospheres: Insights from Rotating Annulus and Related Experiments

Modeling Atmospheric and Oceanic Flows: Insights from Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations John Wiley & Sons Ltd. (2015) 9-44

PL Read, EP Perez, IM Moroz, RMB Young


An experimental study of multiple zonal jet formation in rotating, thermally driven convective flows on a topographic beta-plane

PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 27 (2015) ARTN 085111

PL Read, TNL Jacoby, PHT Rogberg, RD Wordsworth, YH Yamazaki, K Miki-Yamazaki, RMB Young, J Sommeria, H Didelle, S Viboud


The physics of Martian weather and climate: a review.

Reports on progress in physics. Physical Society (Great Britain) 78 (2015) 125901-

PL Read, SR Lewis, DP Mulholland

The planet Mars hosts an atmosphere that is perhaps the closest in terms of its meteorology and climate to that of the Earth. But Mars differs from Earth in its greater distance from the Sun, its smaller size, its lack of liquid oceans and its thinner atmosphere, composed mainly of CO(2). These factors give Mars a rather different climate to that of the Earth. In this article we review various aspects of the martian climate system from a physicist's viewpoint, focusing on the processes that control the martian environment and comparing these with corresponding processes on Earth. These include the radiative and thermodynamical processes that determine the surface temperature and vertical structure of the atmosphere, the fluid dynamics of its atmospheric motions, and the key cycles of mineral dust and volatile transport. In many ways, the climate of Mars is as complicated and diverse as that of the Earth, with complex nonlinear feedbacks that affect its response to variations in external forcing. Recent work has shown that the martian climate is anything but static, but is almost certainly in a continual state of transient response to slowly varying insolation associated with cyclic variations in its orbit and rotation. We conclude with a discussion of the physical processes underlying these long- term climate variations on Mars, and an overview of some of the most intriguing outstanding problems that should be a focus for future observational and theoretical studies.


The thermally-driven rotating annulus: horizontal velocities in regular and weakly chaotic flow regimes

(2015)

RMB Young, PL Read, W-G Früh, D Smith, SH Risch


The EChO science case

EXPERIMENTAL ASTRONOMY 40 (2015) 329-391

G Tinetti, P Drossart, P Eccleston, P Hartogh, K Isaak, M Linder, C Lovis, G Micela, M Ollivier, L Puig, I Ribas, I Snellen, B Swinyard, F Allard, J Barstow, J Cho, A Coustenis, C Cockell, A Correia, L Decin, R de Kok, P Deroo, T Encrenaz, F Forget, A Glasse, C Griffith, T Guillot, T Koskinen, H Lammer, J Leconte, P Maxted, I Mueller-Wodarg, R Nelson, C North, E Palle, I Pagano, G Piccioni, D Pinfield, F Selsis, A Sozzetti, L Stixrude, J Tennyson, D Turrini, M Zapatero-Osorio, J-P Beaulieu, D Grodent, M Guedel, D Luz, HU Norgaard-Nielsen, T Ray, H Rickman, A Selig, M Swain, M Banaszkiewicz, M Barlow, N Bowles, G Branduardi-Raymont, VC du Foresto, J-C Gerard, L Gizon, A Hornstrup, C Jarchow, F Kerschbaum, G Kovacs, P-O Lagage, T Lim, M Lopez-Morales, G Malaguti, E Pace, E Pascale, B Vandenbussche, G Wright, G Ramos Zapata, A Adriani, R Azzollini, A Balado, I Bryson, R Burston, J Colome, M Crook, A Di Giorgio, M Griffin, R Hoogeveen, R Ottensamer, R Irshad, K Middleton, G Morgante, F Pinsard, M Rataj, J-M Reess, G Savini, J-R Schrader, R Stamper, B Winter, L Abe, M Abreu, N Achilleos, P Ade, V Adybekian, L Affer, C Agnor, M Agundez, C Alard, J Alcala, C Allende Prieto, FJ Alonso Floriano, F Altieri, CA Alvarez Iglesias, P Amado, A Andersen, A Aylward, C Baffa, G Bakos, P Ballerini, M Banaszkiewicz, RJ Barber, D Barrado, EJ Barton, V Batista, G Bellucci, JA Belmonte Aviles, D Berry, B Bezard, D Biondi, M Blecka, I Boisse, B Bonfond, P Borde, P Boerner, H Bouy, L Brown, L Buchhave, J Budaj, A Bulgarelli, M Burleigh, A Cabral, MT Capria, A Cassan, C Cavarroc, C Cecchi-Pestellini, R Cerulli, J Chadney, S Chamberlain, S Charnoz, NC Jessen, A Ciaravella, A Claret, R Claudi, A Coates, R Cole, A Collura, D Cordier, E Covino, C Danielski, M Damasso, HJ Deeg, E Delgado-Mena, C Del Vecchio, O Demangeon, A De Sio, J De Wit, M Dobrijevic, P Doel, C Dominic, E Dorfi, S Eales, C Eiroa, M Espinoza Contreras, M Esposito, V Eymet, N Fabrizio, M Fernandez, B Femena Castella, P Figueira, G Filacchione, L Fletcher, M Focardi, S Fossey, P Fouque, J Frith, M Galand, L Gambicorti, P Gaulme, RJ Garcia Lopez, A Garcia-Piquer, W Gear, J-C Gerard, L Gesa, E Giani, F Gianotti, M Gillon, E Giro, M Giuranna, H Gomez, I Gomez-Leal, J Gonzalez Hernandez, B Gonzalez Merino, R Graczyk, D Grassi, J Guardia, P Guio, J Gustin, P Hargrave, J Haigh, E Hebrard, U Heiter, RL Heredero, E Herrero, F Hersant, D Heyrovsky, M Hollis, B Hubert, R Hueso, G Israelian, N Iro, P Irwin, S Jacquemoud, G Jones, H Jones, K Justtanont, T Kehoe, F Kerschbaum, E Kerins, P Kervella, D Kipping, T Koskinen, N Krupp, O Lahav, B Laken, N Lanza, E Lellouch, G Leto, J Licandro Goldaracena, C Lithgow-Bertelloni, SJ Liu, U Lo Cicero, N Lodieu, P Lognonne, M Lopez-Puertas, MA Lopez-Valverde, IL Rasmussen, A Luntzer, P Machado, C MacTavish, A Maggio, J-P Maillard, W Magnes, J Maldonado, U Mall, J-B Marquette, P Mauskopf, F Massi, A-S Maurin, A Medvedev, C Michaut, P Miles-Paez, M Montalto, P Montanes Rodriguez, M Monteiro, D Montes, H Morais, JC Morales, M Morales-Calderon, G Morello, A Moro Martin, J Moses, A Moya Bedon, F Murgas Alcaino, E Oliva, G Orton, F Palla, M Pancrazzi, E Pantin, V Parmentier, H Parviainen, KY Pena Ramirez, J Peralta, S Perez-Hoyos, R Petrov, S Pezzuto, R Pietrzak, E Pilat-Lohinger, N Piskunov, R Prinja, L Prisinzano, I Polichtchouk, E Poretti, A Radioti, AA Ramos, T Rank-Lueftinger, P Read, K Readorn, R Rebolo Lopez, J Rebordao, M Rengel, L Rezac, M Rocchetto, F Rodler, VJ Sanchez Bejar, AS Lavega, E Sanroma, N Santos, J Sanz Forcada, G Scandariato, F-X Schmider, A Scholz, S Scuderi, J Sethenadh, S Shore, A Showman, B Sicardy, P Sitek, A Smith, L Soret, S Sousa, A Stiepen, M Stolarski, G Strazzulla, HM Tabernero, P Tanga, M Tecsa, J Temple, L Terenzi, M Tessenyi, L Testi, S Thompson, H Thrastarson, BW Tingley, M Trifoglio, J Martin Torres, A Tozzi, D Turrini, R Varley, F Vakili, M de Val-Borro, ML Valdivieso, O Venot, E Villaver, S Vinatier, S Viti, I Waldmann, D Waltham, D Ward-Thompson, R Waters, C Watkins, D Watson, P Wawer, A Wawrzaszek, G White, T Widemann, W Winek, T Wisniowski, R Yelle, Y Yung, SN Yurchenko


Overview of MAST results

NUCLEAR FUSION 55 (2015) ARTN 104008

IT Chapman, J Adamek, RJ Akers, S Allan, L Appel, O Asunta, M Barnes, N Ben Ayed, T Bigelow, W Boeglin, J Bradley, J Bruenner, P Cahyna, M Carr, J Caughman, M Cecconello, C Challis, S Chapman, J Chorley, G Colyer, N Conway, WA Cooper, M Cox, N Crocker, B Crowley, G Cunningham, A Danilov, D Darrow, R Dendy, A Diallo, D Dickinson, S Diem, W Dorland, B Dudson, D Dunai, L Easy, S Elmore, A Field, G Fishpool, M Fox, E Fredrickson, S Freethy, L Garzotti, YC Ghim, K Gibson, J Graves, C Gurl, W Guttenfelder, C Ham, J Harrison, D Harting, E Havlickova, J Hawke, N Hawkes, T Hender, S Henderson, E Highcock, J Hillesheim, B Hnat, J Holgate, J Horacek, J Howard, B Huang, K Imada, O Jones, S Kaye, D Keeling, A Kirk, I Klimek, M Kocan, H Leggate, M Lilley, B Lipschultz, S Lisgo, YQ Liu, B Lloyd, B Lomanowski, I Lupelli, G Maddison, J Mailloux, R Martin, G McArdle, K McClements, B McMillan, A Meakins, H Meyer, C Michael, F Militello, J Milnes, AW Morris, G Motojima, D Muir, E Nardon, V Naulin, G Naylor, A Nielsen, M O'Brien, T O'Gorman, Y Ono, H Oliver, S Pamela, L Pangione, F Parra, A Patel, W Peebles, M Peng, R Perez, S Pinches, L Piron, M Podesta, M Price, M Reinke, Y Ren, C Roach, J Robinson, M Romanelli, V Rozhansky, S Saarelma, S Sangaroon, A Saveliev, R Scannell, A Schekochihin, S Sharapov, R Sharples, V Shevchenko, S Silburn, J Simpson, J Storrs, Y Takase, H Tanabe, H Tanaka, D Taylor, G Taylor, D Thomas, N Thomas-Davies, A Thornton, M Turnyanskiy, M Valovic, R Vann, N Walkden, H Wilson, LV Wyk, T Yamada, S Zoletnik, MAST Team, MASTU Team


Comparison of "warm and wet" and "cold and icy" scenarios for early Mars in a 3-D climate model

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-PLANETS 120 (2015) 1201-1219

RD Wordsworth, L Kerber, RT Pierrehumbert, F Forget, JW Head


Feedback temperature dependence determines the risk of high warming

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 42 (2015) 4973-4980

J Bloch-Johnson, RT Pierrehumbert, DS Abbot


Non-axisymmetric flows in a differential-disk rotating system

JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS 775 (2015) 349-386

T Vo, L Montabone, PL Read, GJ Sheard


Modeling gravitational instabilities in self-gravitating protoplanetary disks with adaptive mesh refinement techniques

Astronomy & Astrophysics EDP Sciences 579 (2015) A32-A32

T Lichtenberg, DRG Schleicher


Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth

National Academies Press, 2015

Committee on Geoengineering Climate, RT Pierrehumbert

Weather modification, which could also be called “weather intervention,” is the intentional alteration of the composition, behavior, or dynamics of the atmosphere occurring over a specified area and time period to accomplish a particular goal ...


Climate Intervention Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration

National Academies Press, 2015

Committee on Geoengineering Climate, RT Pierrehumbert

Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration Committee on Geoengineering Climate: Technical Evaluation and Discussion of Impacts, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life ...


A laboratory study of global-scale wave interactions in baroclinic flow with topography II: vacillations and low-frequency variability

GEOPHYSICAL AND ASTROPHYSICAL FLUID DYNAMICS 109 (2015) 359-390

SH Risch, PL Read


An experimental investigation into topographic resonance in a baroclinic rotating annulus

GEOPHYSICAL AND ASTROPHYSICAL FLUID DYNAMICS 109 (2015) 391-421

SD Marshall, PL Read


An assessment of the impact of local processes on dust lifting in martian climate models

ICARUS 252 (2015) 212-227

DP Mulholland, A Spiga, C Listowski, PL Read


Climate impact of beef: an analysis considering multiple time scales and production methods without use of global warming potentials

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS 10 (2015) ARTN 085002

RT Pierrehumbert, G Eshel


Polar vortices on Earth and Mars: A comparative study of the climatology and variability from reanalyses

Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 141 (2015) 550-562

DM Mitchell, L Montabone, S Thomson, PL Read

© 2015 Royal Meteorological Society. Polar vortices on Mars provide case-studies to aid understanding of geophysical vortex dynamics and may help to resolve long-standing issues regarding polar vortices on Earth. Due to the recent development of the first publicly available Martian reanalysis dataset (MACDA), for the first time we are able to characterise thoroughly the structure and evolution of the Martian polar vortices, and hence perform a systematic comparison with the polar vortices on Earth. The winter atmospheric circulations of the two planets are compared, with a specific focus on the structure and evolution of the polar vortices. The Martian residual meridional overturning circulation is found to be very similar to the stratospheric residual circulation on Earth during winter. While on Earth this residual circulation is very different from the Eulerian circulation, on Mars it is found to be very similar. Unlike on Earth, it is found that the Martian polar vortices are annular, and that the Northern Hemisphere vortex is far stronger than its southern counterpart. While winter hemisphere differences in vortex strength are also reported on Earth, the contrast is not as large. Distinctions between the two planets are also apparent in terms of the climatological vertical structure of the vortices, in that the Martian polar vortices are observed to decrease in size at higher altitudes, whereas on Earth the opposite is observed. Finally, it is found that the Martian vortices are less variable through the winter than on Earth, especially in terms of the vortex geometry. During one particular major regional dust storm on Mars (Martian year 26), an equatorward displacement of the vortex is observed, sharing some qualitative characteristics of sudden stratospheric warmings on Earth.


The solsticial pause on Mars: 2 modelling and investigation of causes

Icarus 264 (2015) 465-477

DP Mulholland, SR Lewis, PL Read, JB Madeleine, F Forget

© 2015 Elsevier Inc. The martian solsticial pause, presented in a companion paper (. Lewis et al., 2016), was investigated further through a series of model runs using the UK version of the LMD/UK Mars Global Climate Model. It was found that the pause could not be adequately reproduced if radiatively active water ice clouds were omitted from the model. When clouds were used, along with a realistic time-dependent dust opacity distribution, a substantial minimum in near-surface transient eddy activity formed around solstice in both hemispheres. The net effect of the clouds in the model is, by altering the thermal structure of the atmosphere, to decrease the vertical shear of the westerly jet near the surface around solstice, and thus reduce baroclinic growth rates. A similar effect was seen under conditions of large dust loading, implying that northern midlatitude eddy activity will tend to become suppressed after a period of intense flushing storm formation around the northern cap edge. Suppression of baroclinic eddy generation by the barotropic component of the flow and via diabatic eddy dissipation were also investigated as possible mechanisms leading to the formation of the solsticial pause but were found not to make major contributions. Zonal variations in topography were found to be important, as their presence results in weakened transient eddies around winter solstice in both hemispheres, through modification of the near-surface flow. The zonal topographic asymmetry appears to be the primary reason for the weakness of eddy activity in the southern hemisphere relative to the northern hemisphere, and the ultimate cause of the solsticial pause in both hemispheres. The meridional topographic gradient was found to exert a much weaker influence on near-surface transient eddies.


Constraints on southern hemisphere tropical climate change during the Little Ice Age and Younger Dryas based on glacier modeling of the Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru

QUATERNARY SCIENCE REVIEWS 125 (2015) 106-116

AGO Malone, RT Pierrehumbert, TV Lowell, MA Kelly, JS Stroup


Polar vortices on Earth and Mars: A comparative study of the climatology and variability from reanalyses.

Quarterly journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. Royal Meteorological Society (Great Britain) 141 (2015) 550-562

DM Mitchell, L Montabone, S Thomson, PL Read

Polar vortices on Mars provide case-studies to aid understanding of geophysical vortex dynamics and may help to resolve long-standing issues regarding polar vortices on Earth. Due to the recent development of the first publicly available Martian reanalysis dataset (MACDA), for the first time we are able to characterise thoroughly the structure and evolution of the Martian polar vortices, and hence perform a systematic comparison with the polar vortices on Earth. The winter atmospheric circulations of the two planets are compared, with a specific focus on the structure and evolution of the polar vortices. The Martian residual meridional overturning circulation is found to be very similar to the stratospheric residual circulation on Earth during winter. While on Earth this residual circulation is very different from the Eulerian circulation, on Mars it is found to be very similar. Unlike on Earth, it is found that the Martian polar vortices are annular, and that the Northern Hemisphere vortex is far stronger than its southern counterpart. While winter hemisphere differences in vortex strength are also reported on Earth, the contrast is not as large. Distinctions between the two planets are also apparent in terms of the climatological vertical structure of the vortices, in that the Martian polar vortices are observed to decrease in size at higher altitudes, whereas on Earth the opposite is observed. Finally, it is found that the Martian vortices are less variable through the winter than on Earth, especially in terms of the vortex geometry. During one particular major regional dust storm on Mars (Martian year 26), an equatorward displacement of the vortex is observed, sharing some qualitative characteristics of sudden stratospheric warmings on Earth.

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