Publications


Meat consumption, health, and the environment.

Science (New York, N.Y.) 361 (2018)

HCJ Godfray, P Aveyard, T Garnett, JW Hall, TJ Key, J Lorimer, RT Pierrehumbert, P Scarborough, M Springmann, SA Jebb

Both the global average per capita consumption of meat and the total amount of meat consumed are rising, driven by increasing average individual incomes and by population growth. The consumption of different types of meat and meat products has substantial effects on people's health, and livestock production can have major negative effects on the environment. Here, we explore the evidence base for these assertions and the options policy-makers have should they wish to intervene to affect population meat consumption. We highlight where more research is required and the great importance of integrating insights from the natural and social sciences.


An experimental investigation of blocking by partial barriers in a rotating baroclinic annulus

Geophysical and Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics (2017) 1-33

SD Marshall, PL Read

© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group We present a series of experimental investigations in which a differentially-heated annulus was used to investigate the effects of topography on rotating, stratified flows with similarities to the Earth’s atmospheric or oceanic circulation. In particular, we compare and investigate blocking effects via partial mechanical barriers to previous experiments by the authors utilising azimuthally-periodic topography. The mechanical obstacle used was an isolated ridge, forming a partial barrier, employed to study the difference between partially blocked and fully unblocked flow. The topography was found to lead to the formation of bottom-trapped waves, as well as impacting the circulation at a level much higher than the top of the ridge. This produced a unique flow structure when the drifting flow and the topography interacted in the form of an “interference” regime at low Taylor number, but forming an erratic “irregular” regime at higher Taylor number. The results also showed evidence of resonant wave-triads, similar to those noted with periodic wavenumber-3 topography by Marshall and Read (Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn., 2015, 109), though the component wavenumbers of the wave-triads and their impact on the flow were found to depend on the topography in question. With periodic topography, wave-triads were found to occur between both the baroclinic and barotropic components of the zonal wavenumber-3 mode and the wavenumber-6 baroclinic component, whereas with the partial barrier two nonlinear resonant wave-triads were noted, each sharing a common wavenumber-1 mode.


A Chorus of the WindsOn Saturn!

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-PLANETS 123 (2018) 1007-1011

PL Read


The Influence of a Substellar Continent on the Climate of a Tidally Locked Exoplanet

The Astrophysical Journal 854 (2018) 171-171

NT Lewis, FH Lambert, IA Boutle, NJ Mayne, J Manners, DM Acreman


Isca, v1.0: a framework for the global modelling of the atmospheres of Earth and other planets at varying levels of complexity

GEOSCIENTIFIC MODEL DEVELOPMENT 11 (2018) 843-859

GK Vallis, G Colyer, R Geen, E Gerber, M Jucker, P Maher, A Paterson, M Pietschnig, J Penn, SI Thomson


Exploring the Atmosphere of Neoproterozoic Earth: The Effect of O-2 on Haze Formation and Composition

ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 858 (2018) ARTN 119

SM Horst, C He, MS Ugelow, AM Jellinek, RT Pierrehumbert, MA Tolbert


Global or Local Pure Condensible Atmospheres: Importance of Horizontal Latent Heat Transport

ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 867 (2018) ARTN 54

F Ding, RT Pierrehumbert


A chemical survey of exoplanets with ARIEL

EXPERIMENTAL ASTRONOMY 46 (2018) 135-209

G Tinetti, P Drossart, P Eccleston, P Hartogh, A Heske, J Leconte, G Micela, M Ollivier, G Pilbratt, L Puig, D Turrini, B Vandenbussche, P Wolkenberg, J-P Beaulieu, LA Buchave, M Ferus, M Griffin, M Guedel, K Justtanont, P-O Lagage, P Machado, G Malaguti, M Min, HU Norgaard-Nielsen, M Rataj, T Ray, I Ribas, M Swain, R Szabo, S Werner, J Barstow, M Burleigh, J Cho, VC du Foresto, A Coustenis, L Decin, T Encrenaz, M Galand, M Gillon, R Helled, J Carlos Morales, AG Munoz, A Moneti, I Pagano, E Pascale, G Piccioni, D Pinfield, S Sarkar, F Selsis, J Tennyson, A Triaud, O Venot, I Waldmann, D Waltham, G Wright, J Amiaux, J-L Augueres, M Berthe, N Bezawada, G Bishop, N Bowles, D Coffey, J Colome, M Crook, P-E Crouzet, V Da Peppo, IE Sanz, M Focardi, M Frericks, T Hunt, R Kohley, K Middleton, G Morgante, R Ottensamer, E Pace, C Pearson, R Stamper, K Symonds, M Rengel, E Renotte, P Ade, L Affer, C Alard, N Allard, F Altieri, Y Andre, C Arena, I Argyriou, A Aylward, C Baccani, G Bakos, M Banaszkiewicz, M Barlow, V Batista, G Bellucci, S Benatti, P Bernardi, B Bezard, M Blecka, E Bolmont, B Bonfond, R Bonito, AS Bonomo, JR Brucato, AS Brun, I Bryson, W Bujwan, S Casewell, B Charnay, CC Pestellini, G Chen, A Ciaravella, R Claudi, R Cledassou, M Damasso, M Damiano, C Danielski, P Deroo, AM Di Giorgio, C Dominik, V Doublier, S Doyle, R Doyon, B Drummond, B Duong, S Eales, B Edwards, M Farina, E Flaccomio, L Fletcher, F Forget, S Fossey, M Fraenz, Y Fujii, A Garcia-Piquer, W Gear, H Geoffray, JC Gerard, L Gesa, H Gomez, R Graczyk, C Griffith, D Grodent, MG Guarcello, J Gustin, K Hamano, P Hargrave, Y Hello, K Heng, E Herrero, A Hornstrup, B Hubert, S Ida, M Ikoma, N Iro, P Irwin, C Jarchow, J Jaubert, H Jones, Q Julien, S Kameda, F Kerschbaum, P Kervella, T Koskinen, M Krijger, N Krupp, M Lafarga, F Landini, E Lellouch, G Leto, A Luntzer, T Rank-Luftinger, A Maggio, J Maldonado, J-P Maillard, U Mall, J-B Marquette, S Mathis, P Maxted, T Matsuo, A Medvedev, Y Miguel, V Minier, G Morello, A Mura, N Narita, V Nascimbeni, N Nguyen Tong, V Noce, F Oliva, E Palle, P Palmer, M Pancrazzi, A Papageorgiou, V Parmentier, M Perger, A Petralia, S Pezzuto, R Pierrehumbert, I Pillitteri, G Piotto, G Pisano, L Prisinzano, A Radioti, J-M Reess, L Rezac, M Rocchetto, A Rosich, N Sanna, A Santerne, G Savini, G Scandariato, B Sicardy, C Sierra, G Sindoni, K Skup, I Snellen, M Sobiecki, L Soret, A Sozzetti, A Stiepen, A Strugarek, J Taylor, W Taylor, L Terenzi, M Tessenyi, A Tsiaras, C Tucker, D Valencia, G Vasisht, A Vazan, F Vilardell, S Vinatier, S Viti, R Waters, P Wawer, A Wawrzaszek, A Whitworth, YL Yung, SN Yurchenko, MR Zapatero Osorio, R Zellem, T Zingales, F Zwart


Wave-mean Flow Interactions in the Atmospheric Circulation of Tidally Locked Planets

ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 869 (2018) ARTN 65

M Hammond, RT Pierrehumbert


A hexagon in Saturn's northern stratosphere surrounding the emerging summertime polar vortex.

Nature communications 9 (2018) 3564-

LN Fletcher, GS Orton, JA Sinclair, S Guerlet, PL Read, A Antuñano, RK Achterberg, FM Flasar, PGJ Irwin, GL Bjoraker, J Hurley, BE Hesman, M Segura, N Gorius, A Mamoutkine, SB Calcutt

Saturn's polar stratosphere exhibits the seasonal growth and dissipation of broad, warm vortices poleward of ~75° latitude, which are strongest in the summer and absent in winter. The longevity of the exploration of the Saturn system by Cassini allows the use of infrared spectroscopy to trace the formation of the North Polar Stratospheric Vortex (NPSV), a region of enhanced temperatures and elevated hydrocarbon abundances at millibar pressures. We constrain the timescales of stratospheric vortex formation and dissipation in both hemispheres. Although the NPSV formed during late northern spring, by the end of Cassini's reconnaissance (shortly after northern summer solstice), it still did not display the contrasts in temperature and composition that were evident at the south pole during southern summer. The newly formed NPSV was bounded by a strengthening stratospheric thermal gradient near 78°N. The emergent boundary was hexagonal, suggesting that the Rossby wave responsible for Saturn's long-lived polar hexagon-which was previously expected to be trapped in the troposphere-can influence the stratospheric temperatures some 300 km above Saturn's clouds.


Ice-shelf damming in the glacial Arctic Ocean: dynamical regimes of a basin-covering kilometre-thick ice shelf

CRYOSPHERE 11 (2017) 1745-1765

J Nilsson, M Jakobsson, C Borstad, N Kirchner, G Bjork, RT Pierrehumbert, C Stranne


A rotating annulus driven by localized convective forcing: a new atmosphere-like experiment

EXPERIMENTS IN FLUIDS 58 (2017) ARTN 75

H Scolan, PL Read


Was Planet 9 captured in the Sun’s natal star-forming region?

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters Oxford University Press (OUP) 472 (2017) L75-L79

RJ Parker, T Lichtenberg, SP Quanz


Phase synchronization of baroclinic waves in a differentially heated rotating annulus experiment subject to periodic forcing with a variable duty cycle.

Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.) 27 (2017) 127001-

PL Read, X Morice-Atkinson, EJ Allen, AA Castrejón-Pita

A series of laboratory experiments in a thermally driven, rotating fluid annulus are presented that investigate the onset and characteristics of phase synchronization and frequency entrainment between the intrinsic, chaotic, oscillatory amplitude modulation of travelling baroclinic waves and a periodic modulation of the (axisymmetric) thermal boundary conditions, subject to time-dependent coupling. The time-dependence is in the form of a prescribed duty cycle in which the periodic forcing of the boundary conditions is applied for only a fraction δ of each oscillation. For the rest of the oscillation, the boundary conditions are held fixed. Two profiles of forcing were investigated that capture different parts of the sinusoidal variation and δ was varied over the range 0.1≤δ≤1. Reducing δ was found to act in a similar way to a reduction in a constant coupling coefficient in reducing the width of the interval in forcing frequency or period over which complete synchronization was observed (the "Arnol'd tongue") with respect to the detuning, although for the strongest pulse-like forcing profile some degree of synchronization was discernible even at δ=0.1. Complete phase synchronization was obtained within the Arnol'd tongue itself, although the strength of the amplitude modulation of the baroclinic wave was not significantly affected. These experiments demonstrate a possible mechanism for intraseasonal and/or interannual "teleconnections" within the climate system of the Earth and other planets that does not rely on Rossby wave propagation across the planet along great circles.


Ertel potential vorticity versus Bernoulli streamfunction on Mars

QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY 143 (2017) 37-52

TE Dowling, ME Bradley, J Du, SR Lewis, PL Read


The global circulation

in The Atmosphere and Climate of Mars, (2017) 229-294

JR Barnes, RM Haberle, RJ Wilson, SR Lewis, JR Murphy, PL Read


Observational evidence against strongly stabilizing tropical cloud feedbacks

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 44 (2017) 1503-1510

IN Williams, RT Pierrehumbert


Linking the Climate and Thermal Phase Curve of 55 Cancri e

ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 849 (2017) ARTN 152

M Hammond, RT Pierrehumbert


Collisionality scaling of the electron heat flux in ETG turbulence

PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION 59 (2017) ARTN 055002

GJ Colyer, AA Schekochihin, FI Parra, CM Roach, MA Barnes, Y-C Ghim, W Dorland


Reconstructing Climate from Glaciers

ANNUAL REVIEW OF EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES, VOL 45 45 (2017) 649-680

AN Mackintosh, BM Anderson, RT Pierrehumbert

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