Goldstone modes in the emergent gauge fields of a frustrated magnet

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 101 (2020) 24413

JT Chalker, SJ Garratt

© 2020 American Physical Society. We consider magnon excitations in the spin-glass phase of geometrically frustrated antiferromagnets with weak exchange disorder, focusing on the nearest-neighbor pyrochlore-lattice Heisenberg model at large spin. The low-energy degrees of freedom in this system are represented by three copies of a U(1) emergent gauge field, related by global spin-rotation symmetry. We show that the Goldstone modes associated with spin-glass order are excitations of these gauge fields, and that the standard theory of Goldstone modes in Heisenberg spin glasses (due to Halperin and Saslow) must be modified in this setting.

Yang-Baxter integrable Lindblad equations

SciPost Physics SciPost (2020)

FHL Essler, AA Ziolkowska

We consider Lindblad equations for one dimensional fermionic models and quantum spin chains. By employing a (graded) super-operator formalism we identify a number of Lindblad equations than can be mapped onto non-Hermitian interacting Yang-Baxter integrable models. Employing Bethe Ansatz techniques we show that the late-time dynamics of some of these models is diffusive.

How order melts after quantum quenches

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 101 (2020) 41110

M Collura, FHL Essler

© 2020 American Physical Society. Injecting a sufficiently large energy density into an isolated many-particle system prepared in a state with long-range order will lead to the melting of the order over time. Detailed information about this process can be derived from the quantum mechanical probability distribution of the order parameter. We study this process for the paradigmatic case of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg XXZ chain. We determine the full quantum mechanical distribution function of the staggered subsystem magnetization as a function of time after a quantum quench from the classical Néel state. We establish the existence of an interesting regime at intermediate times that is characterized by a very broad probability distribution. Based on our findings we propose a simple general physical picture of how long-range order melts.

Classical dimers on penrose tilings

Physical Review X American Physical Society 10 (2020) 011005

F Flicker, Parameswaran, SH Simon

Transport in bilayer graphene near charge neutrality: Which scattering mechanisms are important?

Physical Review Letters American Physical Society 124 (2020) 026601

G Wagner, DX Nguyen, S Simon

Active matter in a viscoelastic environment

Physical Review Fluids American Physical Society 5 (2020) 023102

J Yeomans, E Plan, A Doostmohammadi

Active matter systems such as eukaryotic cells and bacteria continuously transform chemical energy to motion. Hence living systems exert active stresses on the complex environments in which they reside. One recurring aspect of this complexity is the viscoelasticity of the medium surrounding living systems: bacteria secrete their own viscoelastic extracellular matrix, and cells constantly deform, proliferate, and self-propel within viscoelastic networks of collagen. It is therefore imperative to understand how active matter modifies, and gets modified by, viscoelastic fluids. Here, we present a two-phase model of active nematic matter that dynamically interacts with a passive viscoelastic polymeric phase and perform numerical simulations in two dimensions to illustrate its applicability. Motivated by recent experiments we first study the suppression of cell division by a viscoelastic medium surrounding the cell. We further show that the self-propulsion of a model keratocyte cell is modified by the polymer relaxation of the surrounding viscoelastic fluid in a non-uniform manner and find that increasing polymer viscosity effectively suppresses the cell motility. Lastly, we explore the hampering impact of the viscoelastic medium on the generic hydrodynamic instabilities of active nematics by simulating the dynamics of an active stripe within a polymeric fluid. The model presented here can provide a framework for investigating more complex dynamics such as the interaction of multicellular growing systems with viscoelastic environments.

Active nematics with anisotropic friction: the decisive role of the flow aligning parameter.

Soft matter (2020)

K Thijssen, JM Yeomans, A Doostmohammadi, L Metselaar

We use continuum simulations to study the impact of anisotropic hydrodynamic friction on the emergent flows of active nematics. We show that, depending on whether the active particles align with or tumble in their collectively self-induced flows, anisotropic friction can result in markedly different patterns of motion. In a flow-aligning regime and at high anisotropic friction, the otherwise chaotic flows are streamlined into flow lanes with alternating directions, reproducing the experimental laning state that has been obtained by interfacing microtubule-motor protein mixtures with smectic liquid crystals. Within a flow-tumbling regime, however, we find that no such laning state is possible. Instead, the synergistic effects of friction anisotropy and flow tumbling can lead to the emergence of bound pairs of topological defects that align at an angle to the easy flow direction and navigate together throughout the domain. In addition to confirming the mechanism behind the laning states observed in experiments, our findings emphasise the role of the flow aligning parameter in the dynamics of active nematics.

Activity Induced Nematic Order in Isotropic Liquid Crystals

Journal of Statistical Physics Springer Science and Business Media LLC (2020)

S Santhosh, MR Nejad, A Doostmohammadi, SP Thampi, JM Yeomans

Energetics of Pfaffian–anti-Pfaffian domains

Physical review B: Condensed matter and materials physics American Physical Society 101 (2020) 041302(R)

MP Zaletel, M Ippoliti, EH Rezayi, S Simon

In several recent works it has been proposed that, due to disorder, the experimentally observed ν = 5/2 quantum Hall state could be microscopically composed of domains of Pfaffian order along with domains of anti-Pfaffian order. We numerically examine the energetics required for forming such domains and conclude that for the parameters appropriate for recent experiments, such domains would not occur.

Self-consistent time-dependent harmonic approximation for the sine-Gordon model out of equilibrium

Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment IOP Publishing 2019 (2019) 084012

Y Van Nieuwkerk, FHL Essler

We derive a self-consistent time-dependent harmonic approximation for the quantum sine-Gordon model out of equilibrium and apply the method to the dynamics of tunnel-coupled one-dimensional Bose gases. We determine the time evolution of experimentally relevant observables and in particular derive results for the probability distribution of subsystem phase fluctuations. We investigate the regime of validity of the approximation by applying it to the simpler case of a nonlinear harmonic oscillator, for which numerically exact results are available. We complement our self-consistent harmonic approximation by exact results at the free fermion point of the sine-Gordon model.

Superconducting order of Sr2RuO4 from a three-dimensional microscopic model

Physical Review Research American Physical Society 1 (2019) 033108

H Roising, S Simon, T Scaffidi, F Flicker, G Lange

Driven quantum dot coupled to a fractional quantum Hall edge

Physical Review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics American Physical Society 100 (2019) 245111

DL Kovrizhin, S Simon, G Wagner, DX Nguyen

Experimental observation of flow fields around active Janus spheres.

Nature communications 10 (2019) 3952-

AI Campbell, SJ Ebbens, P Illien, R Golestanian

The phoretic mechanisms at stake in the propulsion of asymmetric colloids have been the subject of debates during the past years. In particular, the importance of electrokinetic effects on the motility of Pt-PS Janus sphere was recently discussed. Here, we probe the hydrodynamic flow field around a catalytically active colloid using particle tracking velocimetry both in the freely swimming state and when kept stationary with an external force. Our measurements provide information about the fluid velocity in the vicinity of the surface of the colloid, and confirm a mechanism for propulsion that was proposed recently. In addition to offering a unified understanding of the nonequilibrium interfacial transport processes at stake, our results open the way to a thorough description of the hydrodynamic interactions between such active particles and understanding their collective dynamics.

Erratum: Charge Transport in Weyl Semimetals (Physical Review Letters (2012) 108 (046602) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.046602)

Physical Review Letters 123 (2019)

P Hosur, SA Parameswaran, A Vishwanath

© 2019 American Physical Society. This erratum corrects errors in numerical factors in Eqs. (1), (7), and (8), and the overall scale of the dc resistivity plotted in Fig. 2. We recently discovered an algebraic error in Eq. (7), which led to incorrect numerical factors in Eqs. (1) and (8). The correct Eqs. (1), (7) and (8), respectively, are (Formula Presented). An error was also found in the overall scale of pdc = 1/σdc calculated from (1) and plotted in Fig. 2 of the Letter. With these corrections our theory underestimates ?dc of the samples in Ref. [12] of the Letter, which is understandable since the samples are polycrystalline while our theory specializes to single crystals. However, correcting both errors gives excellent agreement with recent experiments on Eu 0.96 Bi 0.04 Ir 2 O 7 [1] for reasonable values of parameters, as shown in Fig. 1. Moreover, Ref. [1] finds pdc ( T ) ∼ 1 / T , as predicted by our theory, only at low temperatures, which is where our theory is best applicable since it contains only Coulomb scattering but ignores phonon scattering. Thus, it is likely that the low-temperature transport in Eu 0.96 Bi 0.04 Ir 2 O 7 is dominated by Coulomb scattering. We thank Surjeet Singh and Prachi Telang for bringing the error in the computation of pdc to our attention (Figure Presented).

Topology and symmetry-protected domain wall conduction in quantum Hall nematics

Physical review B: Condensed matter and materials physics American Physical Society 100 (2019) 165103

K Agarwal, MT Randeria, A Yazdani, SL Sondhi, S Ashok Parameswaran

Controlling collective rotational patterns of magnetic rotors

Nature Communications Springer Nature 10 (2019) 4696

D Matsunaga, JK Hamilton, F Meng, J Yeomans, R Golestanian

Active matter invasion.

Soft matter (2019)

F Kempf, R Mueller, E Frey, JM Yeomans, A Doostmohammadi

Biologically active materials such as bacterial biofilms and eukaryotic cells thrive in confined micro-spaces. Here, we show through numerical simulations that confinement can serve as a mechanical guidance to achieve distinct modes of collective invasion when combined with growth dynamics and the intrinsic activity of biological materials. We assess the dynamics of the growing interface and classify these collective modes of invasion based on the activity of the constituent particles of the growing matter. While at small and moderate activities the active material grows as a coherent unit, we find that blobs of active material collectively detach from the cohort above a well-defined activity threshold. We further characterise the mechanical mechanisms underlying the crossovers between different modes of invasion and quantify their impact on the overall invasion speed.

Topology and Morphology of Self-Deforming Active Shells.

Physical review letters 123 (2019) 208001-208001

L Metselaar, JM Yeomans, A Doostmohammadi

We present a generic framework for modeling three-dimensional deformable shells of active matter that captures the orientational dynamics of the active particles and hydrodynamic interactions on the shell and with the surrounding environment. We find that the cross talk between the self-induced flows of active particles and dynamic reshaping of the shell can result in conformations that are tunable by varying the form and magnitude of active stresses. We further demonstrate and explain how self-induced topological defects in the active layer can direct the morphodynamics of the shell. These findings are relevant to understanding morphological changes during organ development and the design of bioinspired materials that are capable of self-organization.

Signatures of information scrambling in the dynamics of the entanglement spectrum

Physical review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics American Physical Sociey (2019)

T Rakovsky, S Gopalakrishnan, S Ashok Parameswaran, F Pollmann

We examine the time evolution of the entanglement spectrum of a small subsystem of a nonintegrable spin chain following a quench from a product state. We identify signatures in this entanglement spectrum of the distinct dynamical velocities (related to entanglement and operator spreading) that control thermalization. We show that the onset of level repulsion in the entanglement spectrum occurs on different timescales depending on the “entanglement energy”, and that this dependence reflects the shape of the operator front. Level repulsion spreads across the entire entanglement spectrum on a timescale that is parametrically shorter than that for full thermalization of the subsystem. This timescale is also close to when the mutual information between individual spins at the ends of the subsystem reaches its maximum. We provide an analytical understanding of this phenomenon and show supporting numerical data for both random unitary circuits and a microscopic Hamiltonian.

Spectral statistics and many-body quantum chaos with conserved charge

Phys. Rev. Lett. 123 (2019) 210603-210603

AJ Friedman, A Chan, AD Luca, JT Chalker

We investigate spectral statistics in spatially extended, chaotic many-body quantum systems with a conserved charge. We compute the spectral form factor $K(t)$ analytically for a minimal Floquet circuit model that has a $U(1)$ symmetry encoded via auxiliary spin-$1/2$ degrees of freedom. Averaging over an ensemble of realizations, we relate $K(t)$ to a partition function for the spins, given by a Trotterization of the spin-$1/2$ Heisenberg ferromagnet. Using Bethe Ansatz techniques, we extract the 'Thouless time' $t^{\vphantom{*}}_{\rm Th}$ demarcating the extent of random matrix behavior, and find scaling behavior governed by diffusion for $K(t)$ at $t\lesssim t^{\vphantom{*}}_{\rm Th}$. We also report numerical results for $K(t)$ in a generic Floquet spin model, which are consistent with these analytic predictions.