Publications associated with Atmospheric Processes


Does ENSO regularity increase in a warming climate?

Journal of Climate American Meteorological Society (0) JCLI-D-19-0545.1

J Berner, HM Christensen, PD Sardeshmukh

<jats:p> The impact of a warming climate on El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is investigated in large ensemble simulations of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). These simulations are forced by historical emissions for the past and the RCP8.5-scenario emissions for future projections. The simulated variance of the Nino-3.4 ENSO index increases from 1.4<jats:sup>◦</jats:sup>C<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> in 1921-1980 to 1.9<jats:sup>◦</jats:sup>C<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> in 1981-2040 and 2.2<jats:sup>◦</jats:sup>C<jats:sup>2</jats:sup> in 2041-2100. The autocorrelation timescale of the index also increases, consistent with a narrowing of its spectral peak in the 3- to 7-yr ENSO band, raising the possibility of greater seasonal to interannual predictability in the future. Low-order linear inverse models (LIMs) fitted separately to the three 60-yr periods capture the CESM1 increase in ENSO variance and regularity. Remarkably, most of the increase can be attributed to the increase in the 23-month damping timescale of a single damped oscillatoryENSO eigenmode of these LIMs by 5 months in 1981-2040 and 6 months in 2041-2100. These apparently robust projected increases may however be compromised by CESM1 biases in ENSO amplitude and damping timescale. A LIM fitted to the 1921-1980 observations has an ENSO eigenmode with a much shorter 8-month damping timescale, similar to that of several other eigenmodes. When the mode’s damping timescale is increased by 5 and 6 months in this observational LIM, a much smaller increase of ENSO variance is obtained than in the CESM1 projections. This may be because ENSO is not as dominated by a single ENSO eigenmode in reality as it is in the CESM1. </jats:p>


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