Publications by Fred Taylor


Remote sensing of the Earth from space

CONTEMPORARY PHYSICS 37 (1996) 391-405

FW Taylor


Improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder validation: General approach and in-flight radiometric calibration

Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 101 (1996) 9775-9793

CD Rodgers, RJ Wells, RG Grainger, FW Taylor

This paper introduces a series of papers describing the validation of data products from the improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (ISAMS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. ISAMS is a limb-sounding infrared gas-correlation radiometer, measuring thermal emission from a range of constituents. The constituents measured are ozone, water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen pentoxide, nitric acid, carbon monoxide, and aerosol. Atmospheric temperature and composition data were obtained for approximately 180 days between September 26, 1991, and July 29, 1992, with near-global coverage. The instrument and the retrieval process are briefly described, together with aspects of the validation process relevant to all data products, including the radiometric calibration and the analysis of the calibrated radiances to produce data on a standard time-altitude grid. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.


Measurements of methane and nitrous oxide distributions by the improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder: Retrieval and validation

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES 101 (1996) 9843-9871

JJ Remedios, SL Ruth, CD Rodgers, FW Taylor, AE Roche, JC Gille, MR Gunson, JM Russell, J Park, EC Zipf, PW Erdman


Stratospheric nitrous oxide distributions: Comparisons of a CIRA reference model and new observational data

COSPAR INTERNATIONAL REFERENCE ATMOSPHERE (CIRA), PT III 18 (1996) 327-335

JJ Remedios, SL Ruth, FW Taylor, AE Roche, JB Kumer


Validation of temperature measurements from the improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder

Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 101 (1996) 9795-9809

A Dudhia

Atmospheric temperature measurements from the improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (ISAMS) are evaluated. Flown on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), ISAMS obtained 180 days of science data between September 26, 1991 and July 29, 1992. Typically, over 2600 temperature profiles/day were retrieved, spaced every 200 km along the limb-viewing track and nominally extending from 100 to 0.01 mbar (15-80 km). The latitude coverage ranged from 80°S to 80°N, depending on the particular ISAMS/UARS viewing geometry on any day. UARS is in a near-Sun-synchronous orbit, so that while the 15 orbits/d are spaced approximately every 24° longitude around the equator, the sampled local solar time actually changes by 20 min/d. The ISAMS temperature retrieval process is outlined and the various products are described. A detailed error budget for the retrieval is presented and comparisons are made with temperature measurements from other sources. Finally, a table is provided summarizing the best estimates of ISAMS temperature bias and precision. The results suggest a general cold bias of around 1 K in the stratospheric temperatures, with a superimposed 2-3 K warm bias associated with the densest part of the Pinatubo aerosol cloud. The precision of individual profiles is ±2 K throughout the stratosphere but falls off in the mesosphere to about ±10 K at 80 km. The error bars produced by the retrieval appear to be reasonable (although slightly pessimistic) estimates of the precision. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.


Measurements of water vapor distributions by the improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder: Retrieval and validation

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES 101 (1996) 9907-9928

M GossCustard, JJ Remedios, A Lambert, FW Taylor, CD Rodgers, M LopezPuertas, G Zaragoza, MR Gunson, MR Suttie, JE Harries, JM Russell


STRATOSPHERIC AEROSOL EFFECTIVE RADIUS, SURFACE-AREA AND VOLUME ESTIMATED FROM INFRARED MEASUREMENTS

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES 100 (1995) 16507-16518

RG GRAINGER, A LAMBERT, CD RODGERS, FW TAYLOR, T DESHLER


NONLOCAL THERMODYNAMIC-EQUILIBRIUM MODEL FOR H2O 6.3 AND 2.7-MU-M BANDS IN THE MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES 100 (1995) 9131-9147

M LOPEZPUERTAS, G ZARAGOZA, B KERRIDGE, F TAYLOR


Regular and irregular baroclinic waves in a Martian general circulation model: A role for diurnal forcing?

ADV SPACE RES 16 (1995) 3-7

M COLLINS, SR LEWIS, PL READ

The development and evolution of baroclinic transient waves are simulated in a high resolution, general circulation model (GCM) of the Martian atmosphere, including simulations both with and without a representation of the diurnal cycle of solar heating. Simulations with diurnally-averaged insolation are found to develop highly regular baroclinic transients during northern hemisphere autumn, winter and spring seasons, characterized by zonal wavenumber 1 or 2 and periods of 2-6 sols (a sol being a Martian day). With a diurnal cycle, however, transients are found to be significantly more irregular throughout the winter season, sporadically changing their dominant wavenumber and frequency, and resemble more closely data from the Viking Lander time series. These results are discussed with reference to some simple conceptual models in nonlinear dynamics, in terms either of a periodically-perturbed, self-exciting oscillator, or of attractor-merging near a crisis in a periodically perturbed bistable system.


An operational data assimilation scheme for the Martian atmosphere

ADV SPACE RES 16 (1995) 9-13

SR LEWIS, PL READ

A meteorological data assimilation scheme has been developed for Mars, based on techniques used for the current operational scheme at the UK Meteorological Office (UKMO). The scheme has been designed to interface with a range of models of varying complexity, from a simple primitive equations model to a full martian general circulation model with detailed parameterizations of the most important physical processes. The scheme was originally intended to be used primarily for analysis of temperature profiles from the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer (PMIRR) onboard the Mars Observer (MO) spacecraft. It is, however, capable of analysing any asynoptic, randomly-distributed dataset, which may include surface pressure, temperature, velocity or constituent data originating either from other past or future spacecraft missions or from models. It is proposed to use the scheme not only for interpretation of forthcoming data from future spacecraft but also for model inter-comparisons, for hind-casting earlier martian data for model validation and for data impact studies in the planning of new missions. Initial results have demonstrated successful assimilations of trial orbiter and lander data into models with different initial conditions and physics, although a large number of landers might be required if orbiter data were not available. An optimum approach would combine orbiter data with simultaneous measurements from a small number of landers.


The next generation of infrared sounders for stratospheric research

PHYS CHEM EARTH 20 (1995) 63-81

FW Taylor, JJ Barnett


Carbon monoxide in the deep atmosphere of Venus

ADV SPACE RES 16 (1995) 81-88

FW TAYLOR

The cloud structure and minor constituent distributions in the deep atmosphere of Venus observed from the Galileo spacecraft offer fascinating insights into the properties of this little-explored region of the Earth's nearest planetary neighbour. The morphology and spatial variations seen in the main mass of clouds are remarkable, and suggest a powerful and diverse meteorology dominated by convection. Carbon monoxide is significantly more abundant at high northern latitudes than at low latitudes in either hemisphere; the possible reasons for this have important implications for the atmospheric general circulation and possibly for the extent of currently active volcanism. These are explored here using simple models.


SPACE-TIME INTEGRITY OF IMPROVED STRATOSPHERIC AND MESOSPHERIC SOUNDER AND MICROWAVE LIMB SOUNDER TEMPERATURE-FIELDS AT KELVIN WAVE SCALES

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES 100 (1995) 14089-14096

E STONE, J STANFORD, J ZIEMKE, D ALLEN, F TAYLOR, C RODGERS, B LAWRENCE, E FISHBEIN, L ELSON, J WATERS


MISSING CHEMISTRY OF REACTIVE NITROGEN IN THE UPPER STRATOSPHERIC POLAR WINTER

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 22 (1995) 2629-2632

SR KAWA, JB KUMER, AR DOUGLASS, AE ROCHE, SE SMITH, FW TAYLOR, DJ ALLEN


The thermal structure and dynamics of the atmosphere of venus between 70 and 90 km from the galileo-nims spectra

Icarus 114 (1995) 300-309

M Roos-Serote, P Drossart, T Encrenaz, E Lellouch, RW Carlson, KH Baines, FW Taylor, SB Calcutt

An analysis of thermal profiles and dynamics over a wide range of latitudes for the venusian atmosphere between 70 and 90 km is presented based on high spatial resolution infrared spectra of the night side obtained by the near infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) experiment during the Galileo-Venus encounter in February 1990. Using the 4.3-μm CO 2 absorption band, the temperature profile is retrieved in the 75- to 91-km altitude region over a latitudinal range of -59· to + 64·. Compared to earlier observations from the Pioneer Venus mission, the temperature at 91 km is about 10 K higher and between 74 and 83 km about 3.6 K colder. An equator to pole warming at constant pressure levels is found and implications for the zonal wind profiles are drawn under the assumption that the atmosphere is in cyclostrophic balance in the region of 70 to 90 km. The results are in correspondence with direct wind measurements from ground-based observations at 95 km and 105 km altitude. © 1995 Academic Press, Inc.


Global atmospheric chemistry from satellites: Results from UARS/ISAMS

FARADAY DISCUSS (1995) 353-369

FW Taylor, CD Rodgers, JJ Remedios, RG Grainger, A Lambert, M LopezValverde, M GossCustard, J Reburn

Satellites are a relatively new tool for investigating atmospheric chemical processes and their products. The precision and, in particular, the space and time coverage, now being achieved is immensely useful, and often essential, where global-scale phenomena like the variability of the stratospheric ozone layer are under study. The IR remote-sensing method using pressure modulator radiometry has recently been extended to the mapping of trace species. The technique is described, and its capabilities demonstrated with some selected new results from the improved stratospheric and mesopheric sounder (ISAMS) on the upper atmosphere research satellite (UARS). ISAMS was designed to study nitrogen-catalysed ozone chemistry, plus transport and other processes involving water vapour, methane and carbon monoxide, in the middle atmosphere. Its primary products are fields of temperature and composition, including all of the important members of the active nitrogen family, water, methane, carbon monoxide, ozone, aerosols and ice clouds. In the new data, all of these show large variations with time, height and latitude. The results have not yet been fully analysed, but early indications are that they confirm some models based on theoretical predictions and earlier, more limited, data, while in other cases they show that the situation is more complex than had been assumed. Sophisticated studies of the radiative-chemical-dynamical system in the stratosphere using satellite data and computer models are now in progress. In the future, even more advanced sensors now being built will obtain improved spatial resolution in the stratosphere, and map the global budgets of tropospheric trace gases as well.


The ORA occultation radiometer on EURECA. Instrument description and preliminary results

ADV SPACE RES 16 (1995) 33-36

E ARIJS, D NEVEJANS, D FUSSEN, P FREDERICK, E VANRANSBEECK, FW TAYLOR, SB CALCUTT, ST WERRETT, CL HEPPLEWHITE, TM PRITCHARD, I BURCHELL, CD RODGERS

A short description is given of the Occultation Radiometer which has been flown recently on the EURECA carrier. A brief outline of the scientific rationale, instrument characteristics and status of the data reduction is presented.


THE ATMOSPHERES OF THE INNER PLANETS

CURRENT SCIENCE 66 (1994) 512-524

F TAYLOR


STRATOSPHERIC AND MESOSPHERIC OBSERVATIONS WITH ISAMS

ADV SPACE RES 14 (1994) 41-52

FW TAYLOR, J BALLARD, A DUDHIA, M GOSSCUSTARD, BJ KERRIDGE, A LAMBERT, M LOPEZVALVERDE, CD RODGERS, JJ REMEDIOS


PROPERTIES OF NORTHERN-HEMISPHERE POLAR STRATOSPHERIC CLOUDS AND VOLCANIC AEROSOL IN 1991/92 FROM UARS ISAMS SATELLITE MEASUREMENTS

JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 51 (1994) 3019-3026

F TAYLOR, A LAMBERT, R GRAINGER, C RODGERS, J REMEDIOS

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