Publications by Fred Taylor

Latitudinal and Longitudinal Behaviour of the Mesospheric OH Nightglow as observed by the ISAMS on UARS.

Journal of Geophysical Research 106 (2001) 8027-8034

FW Taylor, Zaragoza, G, Lopez-Puertas, M

Extraterrestrial biophysics


FW Taylor

Antarctic polar descent and planetary wave activity observed in ISAMS CO from April to July 1992


DR Allen, JL Stanford, N Nakamura, MA Lopez-Valverde, M Lopez-Puertas, FW Taylor, JJ Remedios

Global distribution of CO2 in the upper mesosphere as derived from UARS/ISAMS measurements


G Zaragoza, M Lopez-Puertas, MA Lopez-Valverde, FW Taylor

Correlation between ISAMS and ATMOS measurements of CO in the middle atmosphere

ADV SPACE RES 22 (1999) 1517-1520

MA Lopez-Valverde, M Lopez-Puertas, FW Taylor, MR Gunson

Measurements of IR emissions from CO at 4.6 mu m in the middle atmosphere were recorded for nearly one year, from September 1991 to July 1992 by the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). These have been used to retrieve carbon monoxide abundances and study their distribution and variability in the middle atmosphere. Observations of carbon monoxide in this atmospheric region and from transitions of the same vibrational-rotational band were also carried out, using the solar occultation technique with fine altitude resolution, by the high resolution interferometer ATMOS during the ATLAS-1 mission (late March and early April 1992). Comparisons between these simultaneous emission and absorption experiments have been performed in order to improve and validate both data sets. Some of the first results and conclusions are presented and discussed. (C) 1999 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Jovian atmospheric studies with the Galileo near infrared mapping spectrometer: An update

ADV SPACE RES 23 (1999) 1623-1632

PGJ Irwin, FW Taylor, RW Carlson, KH Baines, A Weir, P Cameron-Smith, S Calcutt, T Encrenaz, P Drossart, M Roos-Serote, E Lellouch

In its first two years of operation since arrival at Jupiter in December 1995, the Near Infrared Mapping spectrometer (NIMS) on the Galileo orbiter spacecraft obtained extensive coverage of the planet, including detailed coverage of the north equatorial belt (NEB) 'hot spot' region and the Great Red Spot. We will present the current state of data analysis including recent results on the abundances and variability of several minor constituents (H2O, CH4, NH3, GeH4, CH3D and PH3) and the cloud structure and morphology. (C) 1999 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Band parameters and k coefficients for self-broadened ammonia in the range 4000-11000 cm(-1)


PGJ Irwin, SB Calcutt, K Sihra, FW Taylor, AL Weir, J Ballard, WB Johnston

Observations of middle atmosphere CO from the UARS ISAMS during the early northern winter 1991/92


DR Allen, JL Stanford, MA Lopez-Valverde, N Nakamura, DJ Lary, AR Douglass, MC Cerniglia, JJ Remedios, FW Taylor

Evidences of non-LTE emission in the ISAMS water vapour channels

ADV SPACE RES 22 (1999) 1513-1516

G Zaragoza, M Lopez-Puertas, A Lambert, JJ Remedios, FW Taylor

An analysis of the day-night enhancements on the 6.9 mu m H2O emission measured by the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) on the Upper Atmospher Research Sounder (UARS) is presented. A characterization of these differences With parameters such as the solar zenith angle (SZA) and kinetic temperature has been done and explained in terms of atmospheric processes by using a non-LTE radiative transfer model. The goal of these continuing studies is to implement these non-LTE effects in the operational retrieval of H2O. (C) 1999 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Stand up for the rights of professors too

NATURE 399 (1999) 195-195

FW Taylor

Towards a reference stratospheric aerosol loading

ADV SPACE RES 21 (1998) 1421-1424

RG Grainger, A Lambert, CD Rodgers, FW Taylor

Stratospheric aerosol loading is reviewed in the context of the parameters necessary to describe stratospheric aerosol in chemical and radiative studies. The large spatial and temporal variability of sulphate aerosol loading makes a single reference atmosphere impractical and it is suggested that the liquid content of sulphate aerosols be used in the construction of future reference atmospheres as this parameter is invariant to temperature changes. The construction of an a posteriori climatology is recommended (C) 1998 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

The solar reflected component in Jupiter's 5-μm spectra from NIMS/Galileo observations

Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets 103 (1998) 23043-23049

P Drossart, M Roos-Serote, T Encrenaz, E Lellouch, KH Baines, RW Carlson, LW Kamp, GS Orton, S Calcutt, P Irwin, FW Taylor, A Weir

A comparison between low-flux dayside and nightside spectra of Jupiter recorded by the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) experiment gives the first accurate estimate of the solar reflected component at 5 μm, in the equatorial zone of Jupiter. A minimum flux level of about 0.6 μW cm -2 sr -1 V/μm is found on the dayside, compared with 0.1 /μW cm -2 sr -1 /μm on the nightside. These fluxes are 100-800 times lower respectively than the bright 5-μm thermal emission in the north equatorial belt (NEB) hot spots. The day/night difference can be interpreted as a solar reflected component from a cloud, presumably the ammonia cloud, with an albedo of the order of 15%, located at a pressure level of 0.79 bar or at higher altitudes (corresponding to cloud temperature of 160 K or lower). Compared to the measurements in hot spots made at other wavelengths from ground-based observations and from NIMS real time spectra, they imply a high cloud opacity in cold regions at atmospheric levels where the cloud optical depth in the hot spots is very low. The residual flux on the nightside arises from (1) a very small cloud transparency giving some access to deeper thermal emission or (2) as high-resolution solid-state imaging (SSI) images of Galileo suggest, to cloud inhomogeneities, with clearer regions of medium brightness temperatures, mixed with dark regions of much lower thermal emission. If the former have the same brightness as a typical hot spot, a filling factor of a few percent is sufficient to explain the observed flux level on the nightside cold regions. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium in H2O 6.9 mu m emission as measured by the improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder


G Zaragoza, M Lopez-Puertas, A Lambert, JJ Remedios, FW Taylor

Cloud structure and atmospheric composition of Jupiter retrieved from Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer real-time spectra

Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets 103 (1998) 23001-23021

PGJ Irwin, AL Weir, SE Smith, FW Taylor, AL Lambert, SB Calcutt, PJ Cameron-Smith, RW Carlson, K Baines, GS Orton, P Drossart, T Encrenaz, M Roos-Serote

The first four complete spectra recorded by the near infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) instrument on the Galileo spacecraft in 1996 have been analyzed. These spectra remain the only ones which have been obtained at maximum resolution over the entire NIMS wavelength range of 0.7 - 5.2 μm. The spectra cover the edge of a "warm" spot at location 5°N, 85°W. We have analyzed the spectra first with reflecting layer models and then with full multiple scattering models using the method of correlated-k. We find that there is strong evidence for three different cloud layers composed of a haze consistent with 0.5-μm radius tholins at 0.2 bar, a cloud of 0.75-lim NH 3 particles at about 0.7 bar, and a two-component NH 4 SH cloud at about 1.4 bars with both 50.0- and 0.45-μm particles, the former being responsible for the main 5-μm cloud opacity. The NH 3 relative humidity above the cloud tops is found to decrease slightly as the 5-μm brightness increases, with a mean value of approximately 14%. We also find that the mean volume mixing ratio of ammonia above the middle (NtL 4 SH) cloud deck is (1.7± 0.1) × 10 -4 and shows a similar, though less discernible decrease with increasing 5-μm brightness. The deep volume mixing ratios of deuterated methane and phosphine are found to be constant and we estimate their mean values to be (4.9± 0.2) × 10 -7 and (7.7 ± 0.2) × 10 -7 , respectively. The fractional scale height of phosphine above the 1 bar level is found to be 27.1± 1.4% and shows a slight decrease with increasing 5-μm brightness. The relative humidity of water vapor is found to be approximately 7%, but while this and all the previous observations are consistent with the assumption that "hot spots" are regions of downwelling, desiccated air, we find that the water vapor relative humidity increases as the 5-μm brightness increases. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

Non local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) atmospheric limb emission at 4.6 mu m - 2. An analysis of the daytime wideband radiances as measured by UARS improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder


M Lopez-Puertas, G Zaragoza, MA Lopez-Valverde, FW Taylor

Atmospheric, oceanic and planetary physics, Oxford University

ASTRONOMY & GEOPHYSICS 39 (1998) 26-26

FW Taylor

The detection of the hydroxyl nightglow layer in the mesosphere by ISAMS/UARS


G Zaragoza, M Lopez-Puertas, MA Lopez-Valverde, FW Taylor

Comment on "Carbon monoxide in Jupiter after comet Shoemaker-Levy 9," by K.S. Noll, D. Gilmore, R.F. Knacke, M. Womak, C.A. Griffith, and G. Orton

ICARUS 133 (1998) 321-321

R Beer, FW Taylor

Titan in the solar system

PLANET SPACE SCI 46 (1998) 1085-+

FW Taylor, A Coustenis

This article presents a synthesis of the properties of Titan as they are understood at the present time and calls attention to some significant mysteries and,apparent contradictions which may be resolved by work in progress and anticipated new data. Its purpose. in the year of the launch of the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan, is to provide a background for interested scientists who are new to the subject, while at the same time bringing out some of the major topics which constitute challenges for those working actively on the various aspects of the problem of understanding Titan. This includes ground-based astronomers and theoreticians as well as the Cassini investigators themselves. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Investigation of Saturn's atmosphere by Cassini

PLANET SPACE SCI 46 (1998) 1315-1324

FW Taylor, SB Calcutt, PGJ Irwin, CA Nixon, PL Read, PJC Smith, TJ Vellacott

This paper considers the rationale for the exploration of Saturn's atmosphere by the Cassini mission, taking account of the key scientific questions posed by the earlier investigation by Voyager, and the capabilities of the instrumentation making up the Cassini payload. While by no means all objectives can be addressed by this particular configuration, in particular without a Saturn entry probe, if everything goes according to plan important progress should be possible on a number of key objectives. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.