# Publications by Jirina Stone

## Quark-Meson-Coupling (QMC) model for finite nuclei, nuclear matter and beyond

PROGRESS IN PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS **100** (2018) 262-297

## Superheavy Nuclei in the Quark-Meson-Coupling Model

EPJ Web of Conferences **163** (2017)

© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017. We present a selection of the first results obtained in a comprehensive calculation of ground state properties of even-even superheavy nuclei in the region of 96 < Z < 136 and 118 < N < 320 from the Quark-Meson-Coupling model (QMC). Ground state binding energies, the neutron and proton number dependence of quadrupole deformations and Qαvalues are reported for even-even nuclei with 100 < Z < 136 and compared with available experimental data and predictions of macro-microscopic models. Predictions of properties of nuclei, including Qαvalues, relevant for planning future experiments are presented.

## Proton and neutron density distributions at supranormal density in low- and medium-energy heavy-ion collisions

Physical Review C **96** (2017)

© 2017 American Physical Society. Background: The distribution of protons and neutrons in the matter created in heavy-ion collisions is one of the main points of interest for the collision physics, especially at supranormal densities. These distributions are the basis for predictions of the density dependence of the symmetry energy and the density range that can be achieved in a given colliding system. We report results of the first systematic simulation of proton and neutron density distributions in central heavy-ion collisions within the beam energy range of Ebeam≤800MeV/nucl. The symmetric Ca40+Ca40, Ca48+Ca48, Sn100+Sn100, and Sn120+Sn120 and asymmetric Ca40+Ca48 and Sn100+Sn120 systems were chosen for the simulations. Purpose: We simulate development of proton and neutron densities and asymmetries as a function of initial state, beam energy, and system size in the selected collisions in order to guide further experiments pursuing the density dependence of the symmetry energy. Methods: The Boltzmann-Uhlenbeck-Uehling (pBUU) transport model with four empirical models for the density dependence of the symmetry energy was employed. Results of simulations using pure Vlasov dynamics were added for completeness. In addition, the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) model, with the SV-bas Skyrme interaction, was used to model the heavy-ion collisions at Ebeam≤40MeV/nucl. Maximum proton and neutron densities ρpmax and ρnmax, reached in the course of a collision, were determined from the time evolution of ρp and ρn. Results: The highest total densities predicted at Ebeam=800MeV/nucl. were of the order of ∼2.5ρ0 (ρ0=0.16fm-3) for both Sn and Ca systems. They were found to be only weakly dependent on the initial conditions, beam energy, system size, and a model of the symmetry energy. The proton-neutron asymmetry δ=(ρnmax-ρpmax)/(ρnmax+ρpmax) at maximum density does depend, though, on these parameters. The highest value of δ found in all systems and at all investigated beam energies was ∼0.17. Conclusions: We find that the initial state, beam energy, system size, and a symmetry energy model affect very little the maximum proton and neutron densities, but have a subtle impact on the proton-neutron asymmetry. Most importantly, the variations in the proton-neutron asymmetry at maximum densities are related at most at 50% level to the details in the symmetry energy at supranormal density. The reminder is due to the details in the symmetry energy at subnormal densities and proton and neutron distributions in the initial state. This result brings to the forefront the need for a proper initialization of the nuclei in the simulation, but also brings up the question of microscopy, such as shell effects, that affect initial proton and neutron densities, but cannot be consistently incorporated into semiclassical transport models.

## The on-line low temperature nuclear orientation facility NICOLE

Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics **44** (2017)

© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd. We review major experiments and results obtained by the on-line low temperature nuclear orientation method at the NICOLE facility at ISOLDE, CERN since the year 2000 and highlight their general physical impact. This versatile facility, providing a large degree of controlled nuclear polarization, was used for a long-standing study of magnetic moments at shell closures in the region Z =28, N =28-50 but also for dedicated studies in the deformed region around A ∼180. Another physics program was conducted to test symmetry in the weak sector and constrain weak coupling beyond V-A. Those two programs were supported by careful measurements of the involved solid state physics parameters to attain the full sensitivity of the technique and provide interesting interdisciplinary results. Future plans for this facility include the challenging idea of measuring the beta-gamma-neutron angular distributions from polarized beta delayed neutron emitters, further test of fundamental symmetries and obtaining nuclear structure data used in medical applications. The facility will also continue to contribute to both the nuclear structure and fundamental symmetry test programs.

## Braking index of isolated pulsars. II. A novel two-dipole model of pulsar magnetism

Physical Review D **94** (2016)

© 2016 American Physical Society. The magnetic dipole radiation model is currently the best approach we have to explain pulsar radiation. However, a most characteristic parameter of the observed radiation, the braking index nobs, shows deviations for all the eight best studied isolated pulsars, from the simple model prediction ndip=3. The index depends upon the rotational frequency and its first and second time derivatives but also on the assumption that the magnetic dipole moment and inclination angle and the moment of inertia of the pulsar are constant in time. In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. D 91, 063007 (2015)], we showed conclusively that changes in the moment of inertia with frequency alone cannot explain the observed braking indices. Possible observational evidence for the magnetic dipole moment migrating away from the rotational axis at a rate α∼0.6° per 100 years over the lifetime of the Crab pulsar has been recently suggested by Lyne et al. In this paper, we explore the magnetic dipole radiation model with constant moment of inertia and magnetic dipole moment but variable inclination angle α. We first discuss the effect of the variation of α on the observed braking indices and show they all can be understood. However, no explanation for the origin of the change in α is provided. After discussion of the possible source(s) of magnetism in pulsars, we propose a simple mechanism for the change in α based on a toy model in which the magnetic structure in pulsars consists of two interacting dipoles. We show that such a system can explain the Crab observation and the measured braking indices.

## Neutron stars interiors: Theory and reality

European Physical Journal A **52** (2016)

© 2016, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. There are many fascinating processes in the universe which we observe in more detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in a core-collapse supernova explosion, one of the most violent events in the universe. As a result, the densest objects in the universe, neutron stars and/or black holes, are created. The physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. Unfortunately, available data do not provide adequate constraints for many theoretical models of dense matter. One of the most open areas of research is the composition of matter in the cores of neutron stars. Unambiguous fingerprints for the appearance and evolution of particular components, such as strange baryons and mesons, with increasing density, have not been identified. In particular, the hadron-quark phase transition remains a subject of intensive research. In this contribution we briefly survey the most promising observational and theoretical directions leading to progress in understanding high density matter in neutron stars. A possible way forward in modeling high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC). This model makes connection between hadronic structure and the underlying quark make-up. It offers a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear force and treats high-density matter, containing the full baryon octet, in terms of four uniquely defined parameters adjusted to properties of symmetric nuclear matter at saturation.

## Finite Nuclei in the Quark-Meson Coupling Model.

Physical review letters **116** (2016) 092501-

We report the first use of the effective quark-meson coupling (QMC) energy density functional (EDF), derived from a quark model of hadron structure, to study a broad range of ground state properties of even-even nuclei across the periodic table in the nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock+BCS framework. The novelty of the QMC model is that the nuclear medium effects are treated through modification of the internal structure of the nucleon. The density dependence is microscopically derived and the spin-orbit term arises naturally. The QMC EDF depends on a single set of four adjustable parameters having a clear physics basis. When applied to diverse ground state data the QMC EDF already produces, in its present simple form, overall agreement with experiment of a quality comparable to a representative Skyrme EDF. There exist, however, multiple Skyrme parameter sets, frequently tailored to describe selected nuclear phenomena. The QMC EDF set of fewer parameters, derived in this work, is not open to such variation, chosen set being applied, without adjustment, to both the properties of finite nuclei and nuclear matter.

## Braking index of isolated pulsars

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology **91** (2015)

© 2015 American Physical Society. Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities Ω, and their time derivatives that show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. Although the exact mechanism of the spin-down is a question of detailed debate, the commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body. Other processes, including the emission of gravitational radiation, and of relativistic particles (pulsar wind), are also being considered. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar with a constant moment of inertia is assumed proportional to a model dependent power of Ω. This relation leads to the power law Ω=-KΩn where n is called the braking index. The MDR model predicts n exactly equal to 3. Selected observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of n, individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1<n<2.8, which is consistently less than the predictions of the MDR model. In spite of an extensive investigation of various modifications of the MDR model, no satisfactory explanation of observation has been found yet. The aim of this work is to determine the deviation of the value of n from the canonical n=3 for a star with a frequency dependent moment of inertia in the region of frequencies from zero (static spherical star) to the Kepler velocity (onset of mass shedding by a rotating deformed star), in the macroscopic MDR model. For the first time, we use microscopic realistic equations of state (EoS) of the star to determine its behavior and structure. In addition, we examine the effects of the baryonic mass MB of the star, and possible core superfluidity, on the value of the braking index within the MDR model. Four microscopic equations of state are employed as input to two different computational codes that solve Einstein's equations numerically, either exactly or using the perturbative Hartle-Thorne method, to calculate the moment of inertia and other macroscopic properties of rotating neutron stars. The calculations are performed for fixed values of MB (as masses of isolated pulsars are not known) ranging from 1.0-2.2M?, and fixed magnetic dipole moment and inclination angle between the rotational and magnetic field axes. The results are used to solve for the value of the braking index as a function of frequency, and find the effect of the choice of the EoS, MB. The density profile of a star with a given MB is calculated to determine the transition between the crust and the core and used in estimation of the effect of core superfluidity on the braking index. Our results show conclusively that, within the model used in this work, any significant deviation of the braking index away from the value n=3 occurs at frequencies higher than about ten times the frequency of the slow rotating isolated pulsars most accurately measured to date. The rate of change of n with frequency is related to the softness of the EoS and the MB of the star as this controls the degree of departure from sphericity. Change in the moment of inertia in the MDR model alone, even with the more realistic features considered here, cannot explain the observational data on the braking index and other mechanisms have to be sought.

## Calibration of Recoil-In-Vacuum attenuations from first principles: comparison with recent experimental data on Fe isotopes

HYPERFINE INTERACTIONS **231** (2015) 169-174

## High-density matter: Current status and future challenges

EPJ Web of Conferences **95** (2015)

© Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2015. There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC). This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

## Calibration of Recoil-In-Vacuum attenuations from first principles: comparison with recent experimental data on Fe isotopes

Hyperfine Interactions **230** (2015) 169-174

© 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Precession of aligned nuclear spin systems in ions recoiling from the target into vacuum (RIV) with consequent attenuation of angular distributions of emitted radiation is, in principle, a versatile method for measurement of g-factors of nuclear excited states of lifetimes in the pico-second range (Stone et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 94, 192501, 2005 and Stuchbery and Stone, Phys. Rev. C, 76, 034307, 2007). Calibration of the observed attenuations has been achieved in favourable cases through comparison with measurements on states having previously known g-factors and lifetimes. The general lack of suitable states with known g-factors has limited application of the RIV method. This paper concerns the present status of efforts to describe the states of excited ions recoiling into vacuum in detail so that the average interaction can be estimated with useful precision from a-priori theory. The calculations use the GRASP2K package (Froese-Fischer et al. 1997 and Jonsson, Comp. Phys. Comm., 177, 597, 2007 & 184, 2197, 2013) to obtain, for each recoiling ion change state, the individual possible electronic states, their configurations, lifetimes and hyperfine interactions. It is assumed that all possible ionic states are produced, up to a chosen excitation energy. This energy is selected to approximate the energy at which all states have lifetimes far shorter than the nuclear state of interest. It is further assumed that the ionic state total electron angular momenta are randomly oriented in space. The first estimates of the average attenuation of emission distributions, as a function of the product g τ of the nuclear state g-factor and mean lifetime, used an averaged precession frequency obtained neglecting transitions between electronic states. Improved calculations, which include such transitions, are described.

## Quark-meson coupling model, nuclear matter constraints, and neutron star properties

PHYSICAL REVIEW C **89** (2014) ARTN 065801

## Incompressibility in finite nuclei and nuclear matter

PHYSICAL REVIEW C **89** (2014) ARTN 044316

## A new spin-oriented nuclei facility: POLAREX

INPC 2013 - INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR PHYSICS CONFERENCE, VOL. 1 **66** (2014)

## Magnetic properties of Hf-177 and Hf-180 in the strong-coupling deformed model

PHYSICAL REVIEW C **89** (2014) ARTN 044309

## Phase transitions in core-collapse supernova matter at sub-saturation densities

Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics **90** (2014)

© 2014 American Physical Society. Phase transitions in hot, dense matter in the collapsing cores of massive stars have an important impact on the core-collapse supernova mechanism as they absorb heat, disrupt homology, and so weaken the developing shock. We perform a three-dimensional, finite temperature Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) study of inhomogeneous nuclear matter to determine the critical density and temperature for the phase transition between the pasta phase and homogeneous matter and its properties. We employ four different parametrizations of the Skyrme nuclear energy-density functional, SkM∗, SLy4, NRAPR, and SQMC700, which span a range of saturation-density symmetry energy behaviors constrained by a variety of nuclear experimental probes. For each of these interactions we calculate free energy, pressure, entropy, and chemical potentials in the range of particle number densities where the nuclear pasta phases are expected to exist, 0.02-0.12fm-3, temperatures 2-8 MeV, and a proton fraction of 0.3. We find unambiguous evidence for a first-order phase transition to uniform matter, unsoftened by the presence of the pasta phases. No conclusive signs of a first-order phase transition between the pasta phases is observed, and it is argued that the thermodynamic quantities vary continuously right up to the first-order phase transition to uniform matter. We compare our results with thermodynamic spinodals calculated using the same Skyrme parametrizations, finding that the effect of short-range Coulomb correlations and quantum shell effects included in our model leads to the pasta phases existing at densities up to 0.01fm-3 above the spinodal boundaries, thus increasing the transition density to uniform matter by the same amount. The transition density is otherwise shown to be insensitive to the symmetry energy at saturation density within the range constrained by the concordance of a variety of experimental constraints, and can be taken to be a well determined quantity.

## Relativistic mean-field hadronic models under nuclear matter constraints

Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics **90** (2014)

© 2014 American Physical Society. Background: The microscopic composition and properties of infinite hadronic matter at a wide range of densities and temperatures have been subjects of intense investigation for decades. The equation of state (EoS) relating pressure, energy density, and temperature at a given particle number density is essential for modeling compact astrophysical objects such as neutron stars, core-collapse supernovae, and related phenomena, including the creation of chemical elements in the universe. The EoS depends not only on the particles present in the matter, but, more importantly, also on the forces acting among them. Because a realistic and quantitative description of infinite hadronic matter and nuclei from first principles in not available at present, a large variety of phenomenological models has been developed in the past several decades, but the scarcity of experimental and observational data does not allow a unique determination of the adjustable parameters. Purpose: It is essential for further development of the field to determine the most realistic parameter sets and to use them consistently. Recently, a set of constraints on properties of nuclear matter was formed and the performance of 240 nonrelativistic Skyrme parametrizations was assessed [M. Dutra, Phys. Rev. C 85, 035201 (2012)10.1103/PhysRevC.85.035201] in describing nuclear matter up to about three times nuclear saturation density. In the present work we examine 263 relativistic-mean-field (RMF) models in a comparable approach. These models have been widely used because of several important aspects not always present in nonrelativistic models, such as intrinsic Lorentz covariance, automatic inclusion of spin, appropriate saturation mechanism for nuclear matter, causality, and, therefore, no problems related to superluminal speed of sound in medium. Method: Three different sets of constraints related to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter, symmetry energy, and its derivatives were used. The first set (SET1) was the same as used in assessing the Skyrme parametrizations. The second and third sets (SET2a and SET2b) were more suitable for analysis of RMF and included, up-to-date theoretical, experimental and empirical information. Results: The sets of updated constraints (SET2a and SET2b) differed somewhat in the level of restriction but still yielded only 4 and 3 approved RMF models, respectively. A similarly small number of approved Skyrme parametrizations were found in the previous study with Skyrme models. An interesting feature of our analysis has been that the results change dramatically if the constraint on the volume part of the isospin incompressibility (Kτ,v) is eliminated. In this case, we have 35 approved models in SET2a and 30 in SET2b. Conclusions: Our work provides a new insight into application of RMF models to properties of nuclear matter and brings into focus their problematic proliferation. The assessment performed in this work should be used in future applications of RMF models. Moreover, the most extensive set of refined constraints (including nuclear matter and finite-nuclei-related properties) should be used in future determinations of new parameter sets to provide models that can be used with more confidence in a wide range of applications. Pointing to reasons for the many failures, even of the frequently used models, should lead to their improvement and to the identification of possible missing physics not included in present energy density functionals.

## Dense neutron star matter

AIP Conference Proceedings **1594** (2014) 406-413

The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been a subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has lead to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. However, there remains great uncertainty in these models, which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high-density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfill basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

## High density matter

EPJ Web of Conferences **63** (2013)

The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been the subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has led to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. There remains great uncertainty in these models which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfil basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. In this contribution latest developments in construction of the Equation of State (EoS) of high-density matter at zero and finite temperature assuming different composition of matter will be discussed. Critical comparison of model EoS with available experimental data from heavy ion collisions and observations on neutron stars, including gravitational mass, radii and cooling patterns and data on X-ray burst sources and low mass X-ray binaries are made. Fundamental differences between the EoS of low-density, high temperature matter, such as is created in heavy ion collisions and of high-density, low temperature compact objects is discussed. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2013.

## Equation of State of Dense Matter and Consequences for Neutron Stars

HEAVY ION ACCELERATOR SYMPOSIUM 2013 **63** (2013)