Publications by Subir Sarkar


Search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos with the IceCube 40-string detector

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology 84 (2011)

R Abbasi, Y Abdou, T Abu-Zayyad, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, D Altmann, K Andeen, J Auffenberg, X Bai, M Baker, SW Barwick, R Bay, JL Bazo Alba, K Beattie, JJ Beatty, S Bechet, JK Becker, KH Becker, ML Benabderrahmane, S Benzvi, J Berdermann, P Berghaus, D Berley, E Bernardini, D Bertrand, DZ Besson, D Bindig, M Bissok, E Blaufuss, J Blumenthal, DJ Boersma, C Bohm, D Bose, S Böser, O Botner, AM Brown, S Buitink, KS Caballero-Mora, M Carson, D Chirkin, B Christy, J Clem, F Clevermann, S Cohen, C Colnard, DF Cowen, MV D'Agostino, M Danninger, J Daughhetee, JC Davis, C De Clercq, L Demirörs, T Denger, O Depaepe, F Descamps, P Desiati, G De Vries-Uiterweerd, T Deyoung, JC Díaz-Vélez, M Dierckxsens, J Dreyer, JP Dumm, R Ehrlich, J Eisch, RW Ellsworth, O Engdegård, S Euler, PA Evenson, O Fadiran, AR Fazely, A Fedynitch, J Feintzeig, T Feusels, K Filimonov, C Finley, T Fischer-Wasels, MM Foerster, BD Fox, A Franckowiak, R Franke, TK Gaisser, J Gallagher, L Gerhardt, L Gladstone, T Glüsenkamp, A Goldschmidt, JA Goodman, D Gora, D Grant, T Griesel, A Groß, S Grullon, M Gurtner, C Ha, A Hajismail, A Hallgren, F Halzen, K Han, K Hanson

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a 1km3 detector currently taking data at the South Pole. One of the main strategies used to look for astrophysical neutrinos with IceCube is the search for a diffuse flux of high-energy neutrinos from unresolved sources. A hard energy spectrum of neutrinos from isotropically distributed astrophysical sources could manifest itself as a detectable signal that may be differentiated from the atmospheric neutrino background by spectral measurement. This analysis uses data from the IceCube detector collected in its half completed configuration which operated between April 2008 and May 2009 to search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos. A total of 12877 upward-going candidate neutrino events have been selected for this analysis. No evidence for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos was found in the data set leading to a 90% C.L. upper limit on the normalization of an E -2 astrophysical νμ flux of 8.9×10 -9GeVcm-2s-1sr-1. The analysis is sensitive in the energy range between 35 TeV and 7 PeV. The 12877 candidate neutrino events are consistent with atmospheric muon neutrinos measured from 332 GeV to 84 TeV and no evidence for a prompt component to the atmospheric neutrino spectrum is found. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Searching for soft relativistic jets in core-collapse supernovae with the IceCube optical follow-up program

Astronomy and Astrophysics 539 (2012)

R Abbasi, Y Abdou, T Abu-Zayyad, M Ackermann, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, MM Allen, D Altmann, K Andeen, J Auffenberg, X Bai, M Baker, SW Barwick, R Bay, JL Bazo Alba, K Beattie, JJ Beatty, S Bechet, JK Becker, KH Becker, ML Benabderrahmane, S Benzvi, J Berdermann, P Berghaus, D Berley, E Bernardini, D Bertrand, DZ Besson, D Bindig, M Bissok, E Blaufuss, J Blumenthal, DJ Boersma, C Bohm, D Bose, S Böser, O Botner, AM Brown, S Buitink, KS Caballero-Mora, M Carson, D Chirkin, B Christy, F Clevermann, S Cohen, C Colnard, DF Cowen, AH Cruz Silva, MV D'Agostino, M Danninger, J Daughhetee, JC Davis, C De Clercq, T Degner, L Demirörs, F Descamps, P Desiati, G De Vries-Uiterweerd, T Deyoung, JC Díaz-Vélez, M Dierckxsens, J Dreyer, JP Dumm, M Dunkman, J Eisch, RW Ellsworth, O Engdegård, S Euler, PA Evenson, O Fadiran, AR Fazely, A Fedynitch, J Feintzeig, T Feusels, K Filimonov, C Finley, T Fischer-Wasels, BD Fox, A Franckowiak, R Franke, TK Gaisser, J Gallagher, L Gerhardt, L Gladstone, T Glüsenkamp, A Goldschmidt, JA Goodman, D Góra, D Grant, T Griesel, A Groß, S Grullon, M Gurtner, C Ha, A Haj Ismail, A Hallgren, F Halzen, K Han, K Hanson

Context. Transient neutrino sources such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and supernovae (SNe) are hypothesized to emit bursts of high-energy neutrinos on a time-scale of ≲ 100 s. While GRB neutrinos would be produced in high relativistic jets, core-collapse SNe might host soft-relativistic jets, which become stalled in the outer layers of the progenitor star leading to an efficient production of high-energy neutrinos. Aims. To increase the sensitivity to these neutrinos and identify their sources, a low-threshold optical follow-up program for neutrino multiplets detected with the IceCube observatory has been implemented. Methods. If a neutrino multiplet, i.e. two or more neutrinos from the same direction within 100 s, is found by IceCube a trigger is sent to the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment, ROTSE. The 4 ROTSE telescopes immediately start an observation program of the corresponding region of the sky in order to detect an optical counterpart to the neutrino events. Results. No statistically significant excess in the rate of neutrino multiplets has been observed and furthermore no coincidence with an optical counterpart was found. Conclusions. The search allows, for the first time, to set stringent limits on current models predicting a high-energy neutrino flux from soft relativistic hadronic jets in core-collapse SNe. We conclude that a sub-population of SNe with typical Lorentz boost factor and jet energy of 10 and 3 × 1051 erg, respectively, does not exceed 4.2% at 90% confidence. © 2012 ESO.


Erratum: The lateral trigger probability function for the ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory (Astroparticle Physics (2011) 35 (266-276))

Astroparticle Physics 35 (2012) 681-684

P Abreu, M Aglietta, EJ Ahn, IFM Albuquerque, D Allard, I Allekotte, J Allen, P Allison, J Alvarez Castillo, J Alvarez-Muñiz, M Ambrosio, A Aminaei, L Anchordoqui, S Andringa, T Antičić, A Anzalone, C Aramo, E Arganda, F Arqueros, H Asorey, P Assis, J Aublin, M Ave, M Avenier, G Avila, T Bäcker, M Balzer, KB Barber, AF Barbosa, R Bardenet, SLC Barroso, B Baughman, J Bäuml, JJ Beatty, BR Becker, KH Becker, A Bellétoile, JA Bellido, S Benzvi, C Berat, X Bertou, PL Biermann, P Billoir, F Blanco, M Blanco, C Bleve, H Blümer, M Boháčová, D Boncioli, C Bonifazi, R Bonino, N Borodai, J Brack, P Brogueira, WC Brown, R Bruijn, P Buchholz, A Bueno, RE Burton, KS Caballero-Mora, L Caramete, R Caruso, A Castellina, O Catalano, G Cataldi, L Cazon, R Cester, J Chauvin, SH Cheng, A Chiavassa, JA Chinellato, A Chou, J Chudoba, RW Clay, MR Coluccia, R Conceião, F Contreras, H Cook, MJ Cooper, J Coppens, A Cordier, U Cotti, S Coutu, CE Covault, A Creusot, A Criss, J Cronin, A Curutiu, S Dagoret-Campagne, R Dallier, S Dasso, K Daumiller, BR Dawson, RM De Almeida, M De Domenico, C De Donato, SJ De Jong, G De La Vega, WJM De Mello Junior, JRT De Mello Neto, I De Mitri, V De Souza, KD De Vries, G Decerprit, L Del Peral, O Deligny, H Dembinski, N Dhital, C Di Giulio, JC Diaz, ML Díaz Castro, PN Diep, C Dobrigkeit, W Docters, JC D'Olivo, PN Dong, A Dorofeev, JC Dos Anjos, MT Dova, D D'Urso, I Dutan, J Ebr, R Engel, M Erdmann, CO Escobar, A Etchegoyen, P Facal San Luis, I Fajardo Tapia, H Falcke, G Farrar, AC Fauth, N Fazzini, AP Ferguson, A Ferrero, B Fick, A Filevich, A Filipčič, S Fliescher, CE Fracchiolla, ED Fraenkel, U Fröhlich, B Fuchs, R Gaior, RF Gamarra, S Gambetta, B García, D García Gámez, D Garcia-Pinto, A Gascon, H Gemmeke, K Gesterling, PL Ghia, U Giaccari, M Giller, H Glass, MS Gold, G Golup, F Gomez Albarracin, M Gómez Berisso, P Gonalves, D Gonzalez, JG Gonzalez, B Gookin, D Góra, A Gorgi, P Gouffon, SR Gozzini, E Grashorn, S Grebe, N Griffith, M Grigat, AF Grillo, Y Guardincerri, F Guarino, GP Guedes, A Guzman, JD Hague, P Hansen, D Harari, S Harmsma, JL Harton, A Haungs, T Hebbeker, D Heck, AE Herve, C Hojvat, N Hollon, VC Holmes, P Homola, JR Hörandel, A Horneffer, M Hrabovský, T Huege, A Insolia, F Ionita, A Italiano, C Jarne, S Jiraskova, K Kadija, KH Kampert, P Karhan, P Kasper, B Kégl, B Keilhauer, A Keivani, JL Kelley, E Kemp, RM Kieckhafer, HO Klages, M Kleifges, J Kleinfeller, J Knapp, D-H Koang, K Kotera, N Krohm, O Krömer, D Kruppke-Hansen, F Kuehn, D Kuempel, JK Kulbartz, N Kunka, G La Rosa, C Lachaud, P Lautridou, MSAB Leão, D Lebrun, P Lebrun, MA Leigui De Oliveira, A Lemiere, A Letessier-Selvon, I Lhenry-Yvon, K Link, R López, A Lopez Agüera, K Louedec, J Lozano Bahilo, A Lucero, M Ludwig, H Lyberis, MC MacCarone, C MacOlino, S Maldera, D Mandat, P Mantsch, AG Mariazzi, J Marin, V Marin, IC Maris, HR Marquez Falcon, G Marsella, D Martello, L Martin, H Martinez, O Martínez Bravo, HJ Mathes, J Matthews, JAJ Matthews, G Matthiae, D Maurizio, PO Mazur, G Medina-Tanco, M Melissas, D Melo, E Menichetti, A Menshikov, P Mertsch, C Meurer, S Mićanović, MI Micheletti, W Miller, L Miramonti, S Mollerach, M Monasor, D Monnier Ragaigne, F Montanet, B Morales, C Morello, E Moreno, JC Moreno, C Morris, M Mostafá, CA Moura, S Mueller, MA Muller, G Müller, M Münchmeyer, R Mussa, G Navarra, JL Navarro, S Navas, P Necesal, L Nellen, A Nelles, PT Nhung, L Niemietz, N Nierstenhoefer, D Nitz, D Nosek, L Nožka, M Nyklicek, J Oehlschläger, A Olinto, P Oliva, VM Olmos-Gilbaja, M Ortiz, N Pacheco, D Pakk Selmi-Dei, M Palatka, J Pallotta, N Palmieri, G Parente, E Parizot, A Parra, RD Parsons, S Pastor, T Paul, M Pech, J Pȩkala, R Pelayo, IM Pepe, L Perrone, R Pesce, E Petermann, S Petrera, P Petrinca, A Petrolini, Y Petrov, J Petrovic, C Pfendner, N Phan, R Piegaia, T Pierog, P Pieroni, M Pimenta, V Pirronello, M Platino, VH Ponce, M Pontz, P Privitera, M Prouza, EJ Quel, S Querchfeld, J Rautenberg, O Ravel, D Ravignani, B Revenu, J Ridky, S Riggi, M Risse, P Ristori, H Rivera, V Rizi, J Roberts, C Robledo, W Rodrigues De Carvalho, G Rodriguez, J Rodriguez Martino, J Rodriguez Rojo, I Rodriguez-Cabo, MD Rodríguez-Frías, G Ros, J Rosado, T Rossler, M Roth, B Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, E Roulet, AC Rovero, C Rühle, F Salamida, H Salazar, G Salina, F Sánchez, M Santander, CE Santo, E Santos, EM Santos, F Sarazin, B Sarkar, S Sarkar, R Sato, N Scharf, V Scherini, H Schieler, P Schiffer, A Schmidt, F Schmidt, T Schmidt, O Scholten, H Schoorlemmer, J Schovancova, P Schovánek, F Schröder, S Schulte, D Schuster, SJ Sciutto, M Scuderi, A Segreto, M Settimo, A Shadkam, RC Shellard, I Sidelnik, G Sigl, HH Silva Lopez, A Śmiałkowski, R Šmída, GR Snow, P Sommers, J Sorokin, H Spinka, R Squartini, J Stapleton, J Stasielak, M Stephan, E Strazzeri, A Stutz, F Suarez, T Suomijärvi, AD Supanitsky, T Šuša, MS Sutherland, J Swain, Z Szadkowski, M Szuba, A Tamashiro, A Tapia, M Tartare, O Tacu, CG Tavera Ruiz, R Tcaciuc, D Tegolo, NT Thao, D Thomas, J Tiffenberg, C Timmermans, DK Tiwari, W Tkaczyk, CJ Todero Peixoto, B Tomé, A Tonachini, P Travnicek, DB Tridapalli, G Tristram, E Trovato, M Tueros, R Ulrich, M Unger, M Urban, JF Valdés Galicia, I Valiño, L Valore, AM Van Den Berg, E Varela, B Vargas Cárdenas, JR Vázquez, RA Vázquez, D Veberič, V Verzi, J Vicha, M Videla, L Villaseñor, H Wahlberg, P Wahrlich, O Wainberg, D Warner, AA Watson, M Weber, K Weidenhaupt, A Weindl, S Westerhoff, BJ Whelan, G Wieczorek, L Wiencke, B Wilczyńska, H Wilczyński, M Will, C Williams, T Winchen, L Winders, MG Winnick, M Wommer, B Wundheiler, T Yamamoto, T Yapici, P Younk, G Yuan, A Yushkov, B Zamorano, E Zas, D Zavrtanik, M Zavrtanik, I Zaw, A Zepeda, M Ziolkowski


Time-dependent searches for point sources of neutrinos with the 40-string and 22-string configurations of icecube

Astrophysical Journal 744 (2012)

R Abbasi, Y Abdou, T Abu-Zayyad, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, K Andeen, J Auffenberg, X Bai, M Baker, SW Barwick, R Bay, JL Bazo Alba, K Beattie, JJ Beatty, S Bechet, JK Becker, KH Becker, ML Benabderrahmane, S Benzvi, J Berdermann, P Berghaus, D Berley, E Bernardini, D Bertrand, DZ Besson, D Bindig, M Bissok, E Blaufuss, J Blumenthal, DJ Boersma, C Bohm, D Bose, S Böser, O Botner, J Braun, AM Brown, S Buitink, M Carson, D Chirkin, B Christy, J Clem, F Clevermann, S Cohen, C Colnard, DF Cowen, MV D'Agostino, M Danninger, J Daughhetee, JC Davis, C De Clercq, L Demirörs, T Denger, O Depaepe, F Descamps, P Desiati, G De Vries-Uiterweerd, T Deyoung, JC Díaz-Vélez, M Dierckxsens, J Dreyer, JP Dumm, R Ehrlich, J Eisch, RW Ellsworth, O Engdegrd, S Euler, PA Evenson, O Fadiran, AR Fazely, A Fedynitch, T Feusels, K Filimonov, C Finley, T Fischer-Wasels, MM Foerster, BD Fox, A Franckowiak, R Franke, TK Gaisser, J Gallagher, M Geisler, L Gerhardt, L Gladstone, T Glüsenkamp, A Goldschmidt, JA Goodman, D Grant, T Griesel, A Groß, S Grullon, M Gurtner, C Ha, A Hallgren, F Halzen, K Han, K Hanson, D Heinen, K Helbing, P Herquet

This paper presents four searches for flaring sources of neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope. For the first time, a search is performed over the entire parameter space of energy, direction, and time with sensitivity to neutrino flares lasting between 20 μs and a year duration from astrophysical sources. Searches that integrate over time are less sensitive to flares because they are affected by a larger background of atmospheric neutrinos and muons that can be reduced by the use of additional timing information. Flaring sources considered here, such as active galactic nuclei, soft gamma-ray repeaters, and gamma-ray bursts, are promising candidate neutrino emitters. Two searches are "untriggered" in the sense that they look for any possible flare in the entire sky and from a predefined catalog of sources from which photon flares have been recorded. The other two searches are triggered by multi-wavelength information on flares from blazars and from a soft gamma-ray repeater. One triggered search uses lightcurves from Fermi-LAT which provides continuous monitoring. A second triggered search uses information where the flux states have been measured only for short periods of time near the flares. The untriggered searches use data taken by 40 strings of IceCube between 2008 April 5 and 2009 May 20. The triggered searches also use data taken by the 22-string configuration of IceCube operating between 2007 May 31 and 2008 April 5. The results from all four searches are compatible with a fluctuation of the background.


Search for signatures of magnetically-induced alignment in the arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

Astroparticle Physics 35 (2012) 354-361

P Abreu, M Aglietta, EJ Ahn, IFM Albuquerque, D Allard, I Allekotte, J Allen, P Allison, J Alvarez Castillo, J Alvarez-Muñiz, M Ambrosio, A Aminaei, L Anchordoqui, S Andringa, T Antičić, A Anzalone, C Aramo, E Arganda, F Arqueros, H Asorey, P Assis, J Aublin, M Ave, M Avenier, G Avila, T Bäcker, M Balzer, KB Barber, AF Barbosa, R Bardenet, SLC Barroso, B Baughman, J Bäuml, JJ Beatty, BR Becker, KH Becker, A Bellétoile, JA Bellido, S Benzvi, C Berat, X Bertou, PL Biermann, P Billoir, F Blanco, M Blanco, C Bleve, H Blümer, M Boháčová, D Boncioli, C Bonifazi, R Bonino, N Borodai, J Brack, P Brogueira, WC Brown, R Bruijn, P Buchholz, A Bueno, RE Burton, KS Caballero-Mora, L Caramete, R Caruso, A Castellina, O Catalano, G Cataldi, L Cazon, R Cester, J Chauvin, SH Cheng, A Chiavassa, JA Chinellato, A Chou, J Chudoba, RW Clay, MR Coluccia, R Conceião, F Contreras, H Cook, MJ Cooper, J Coppens, A Cordier, S Coutu, CE Covault, A Creusot, A Criss, J Cronin, A Curutiu, S Dagoret-Campagne, R Dallier, S Dasso, K Daumiller, BR Dawson, RM De Almeida, M De Domenico, C De Donato, SJ De Jong, G De La Vega, WJM De Mello Junior, JRT De Mello Neto, I De Mitri

We present the results of an analysis of data recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory in which we search for groups of directionally-aligned events (or 'multiplets') which exhibit a correlation between arrival direction and the inverse of the energy. These signatures are expected from sets of events coming from the same source after having been deflected by intervening coherent magnetic fields. The observation of several events from the same source would open the possibility to accurately reconstruct the position of the source and also measure the integral of the component of the magnetic field orthogonal to the trajectory of the cosmic rays. We describe the largest multiplets found and compute the probability that they appeared by chance from an isotropic distribution. We find no statistically significant evidence for the presence of multiplets arising from magnetic deflections in the present data. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Observation of anisotropy in the arrival directions of galactic cosmic rays at multiple angular scales with icecube

Astrophysical Journal 740 (2011)

R Abbasi, Y Abdou, T Abu-Zayyad, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, D Altmann, K Andeen, J Auffenberg, X Bai, M Baker, SW Barwick, R Bay, JL Bazo Alba, K Beattie, JJ Beatty, S Bechet, JK Becker, KH Becker, ML Benabderrahmane, S BenZvi, J Berdermann, P Berghaus, D Berley, E Bernardini, D Bertrand, DZ Besson, D Bindig, M Bissok, E Blaufuss, J Blumenthal, DJ Boersma, C Bohm, D Bose, S Böser, O Botner, AM Brown, S Buitink, KS Caballero-Mora, M Carson, D Chirkin, B Christy, J Clem, F Clevermann, S Cohen, C Colnard, DF Cowen, MV D'Agostino, M Danninger, J Daughhetee, JC Davis, C De Clercq, L Demirörs, T Denger, O Depaepe, F Descamps, P Desiati, G De Vries-Uiterweerd, T DeYoung, JC Díaz-Vélez, M Dierckxsens, J Dreyer, JP Dumm, R Ehrlich, J Eisch, RW Ellsworth, O Engdegård, S Euler, PA Evenson, O Fadiran, AR Fazely, A Fedynitch, J Feintzeig, T Feusels, K Filimonov, C Finley, T Fischer-Wasels, MM Foerster, BD Fox, A Franckowiak, R Franke, TK Gaisser, J Gallagher, L Gerhardt, L Gladstone, T Gl̈usenkamp, A Goldschmidt, JA Goodman, D Gora, D Grant, T Griesel, A Groß, S Grullon, M Gurtner, C Ha, A Hajismail, A Hallgren, F Halzen, K Han, K Hanson

Between 2009 May and 2010 May, the IceCube neutrino detector at the South Pole recorded 32 billion muons generated in air showers produced by cosmic rays with a median energy of 20TeV. With a data set of this size, it is possible to probe the southern sky for per-mil anisotropy on all angular scales in the arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays. Applying a power spectrum analysis to the relative intensity map of the cosmic ray flux in the southern hemisphere, we show that the arrival direction distribution is not isotropic, but shows significant structure on several angular scales. In addition to previously reported large-scale structure in the form of a strong dipole and quadrupole, the data show small-scale structure on scales between 15° and 30°. The skymap exhibits several localized regions of significant excess and deficit in cosmic ray intensity. The relative intensity of the smaller-scale structures is about a factor of five weaker than that of the dipole and quadrupole structure. The most significant structure, an excess localized at (right ascension α = 1224 and declination δ = -474), extends over at least 20° in right ascension and has a post-trials significance of 5.3σ. The origin of this anisotropy is still unknown. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Quantifying uncertainties in the high energy neutrino cross-section

Proceedings of the 32nd International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2011 4 (2011) 38-41

A Cooper-Sarkar, P Mertsch, S Sarkar

We compare predictions for high energy neutrino and anti-neutrino deep inelastic scattering cross-sections within the conventional DGLAP formalism of next-to-leading order QCD, using the latest parton distribution functions such as CT10, HERAPDF1.5 and MSTW08 and taking account of PDF uncertainties. From this we derive a benchmark cross-section and uncertainty which is consistent with the results obtained earlier using the ZEUS-S PDFs. We advocate the use of this for analysing data from neutrino telescopes, in order to facilitate comparison between their results.


Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice

Astroparticle Physics 34 (2011) 382-393

R Abbasi, Y Abdou, T Abu-Zayyad, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, K Andeen, J Auffenberg, X Bai, M Baker, SW Barwick, R Bay, JL Bazo Alba, K Beattie, JJ Beatty, S Bechet, JK Becker, KH Becker, ML Benabderrahmane, J Berdermann, P Berghaus, D Berley, E Bernardini, D Bertrand, DZ Besson, M Bissok, E Blaufuss, DJ Boersma, C Bohm, S Böser, O Botner, L Bradley, J Braun, S Buitink, M Carson, D Chirkin, B Christy, J Clem, F Clevermann, S Cohen, C Colnard, DF Cowen, MV D'Agostino, M Danninger, C De Clercq, L Demirörs, O Depaepe, F Descamps, P Desiati, G De Vries-Uiterweerd, T Deyoung, JC Díaz-Vélez, J Dreyer, JP Dumm, MR Duvoort, R Ehrlich, J Eisch, RW Ellsworth, O Engdegrd, S Euler, PA Evenson, O Fadiran, AR Fazely, T Feusels, K Filimonov, C Finley, MM Foerster, BD Fox, A Franckowiak, R Franke, TK Gaisser, J Gallagher, R Ganugapati, M Geisler, L Gerhardt, L Gladstone, T Glüsenkamp, A Goldschmidt, JA Goodman, D Grant, T Griesel, A Groß, S Grullon, RM Gunasingha, M Gurtner, L Gustafsson, C Ha, A Hallgren, F Halzen, K Han, K Hanson, K Helbing, P Herquet, S Hickford, GC Hill, KD Hoffman, A Homeier, K Hoshina, D Hubert, W Huelsnitz

Using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) and a retrievable transmitter deployed in holes drilled for the IceCube experiment, we have measured the attenuation of acoustic signals by South Pole ice at depths between 190 m and 500 m. Three data sets, using different acoustic sources, have been analyzed and give consistent results. The method with the smallest systematic uncertainties yields an amplitude attenuation coefficient α = 3.20 ± 0.57 km-1 between 10 and 30 kHz, considerably larger than previous theoretical estimates. Expressed as an attenuation length, the analyses give a consistent result for λ ≡ 1/α of ∼300 m with 20% uncertainty. No significant depth or frequency dependence has been found. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos in highly inclined events at the Pierre Auger Observatory

PHYSICAL REVIEW D 84 (2011) ARTN 122005

P Abreu, M Aglietta, EJ Ahn, IFM Albuquerque, D Allard, I Allekotte, J Allen, P Allison, J Alvarez Castillo, J Alvarez-Muniz, M Ambrosio, A Aminaei, L Anchordoqui, S Andringa, T Anticic, A Anzalone, C Aramo, E Arganda, F Arqueros, H Asorey, P Assis, J Aublin, M Ave, M Avenier, G Avila, T Baecker, M Balzer, KB Barber, AF Barbosa, R Bardenet, SLC Barroso, B Baughman, J Baeuml, JJ Beatty, BR Becker, KH Becker, A Belletoile, JA Bellido, S BenZvi, C Berat, X Bertou, PL Biermann, P Billoir, F Blanco, M Blanco, C Bleve, H Bluemer, M Bohacova, D Boncioli, C Bonifazi, R Bonino, N Borodai, J Brack, P Brogueira, WC Brown, R Bruijn, P Buchholz, A Bueno, RE Burton, KS Caballero-Mora, L Caramete, R Caruso, A Castellina, O Catalano, G Cataldi, L Cazon, R Cester, J Chauvin, SH Cheng, A Chiavassa, JA Chinellato, A Chou, J Chudoba, RW Clay, MR Coluccia, R Conceicao, F Contreras, H Cook, MJ Cooper, J Coppens, A Cordier, S Coutu, CE Covault, A Creusot, A Criss, J Cronin, A Curutiu, S Dagoret-Campagne, R Dallier, S Dasso, K Daumiller, BR Dawson, RM de Almeida, M De Domenico, C De Donato, SJ de Jong, G De la Vega, WJM de Mello Junior, JRT de Mello Neto, I De Mitri, V de Souza, KD de Vries, G Decerprit, L del Peral, M del Rio, O Deligny, H Dembinski, N Dhital, C Di Giulio, JC Diaz, ML Diaz Castro, PN Diep, C Dobrigkeit, W Docters, JC D'Olivo, PN Dong, A Dorofeev, JC dos Anjos, MT Dova, D D'Urso, I Dutan, J Ebr, R Engel, M Erdmann, CO Escobar, J Espadanal, A Etchegoyen, PF San Luis, I Fajardo Tapia, H Falcke, G Farrar, AC Fauth, N Fazzini, AP Ferguson, A Ferrero, B Fick, A Filevich, A Filipcic, S Fliescher, CE Fracchiolla, ED Fraenkel, U Froehlich, B Fuchs, R Gaior, RF Gamarra, S Gambetta, B Garcia, DG Gamez, D Garcia-Pinto, A Gascon, H Gemmeke, K Gesterling, PL Ghia, U Giaccari, M Giller, H Glass, MS Gold, G Golup, F Gomez Albarracin, M Gomez Berisso, P Goncalves, D Gonzalez, JG Gonzalez, B Gookin, D Gora, A Gorgi, P Gouffon, SR Gozzini, E Grashorn, S Grebe, N Griffith, M Grigat, AF Grillo, Y Guardincerri, F Guarino, GP Guedes, A Guzman, JD Hague, P Hansen, D Harari, S Harmsma, TA Harrison, JL Harton, A Haungs, T Hebbeker, D Heck, AE Herve, C Hojvat, N Hollon, VC Holmes, P Homola, JR Hoerandel, A Horneffer, P Horvath, M Hrabovsky, T Huege, A Insolia, F Ionita, A Italiano, C Jarne, S Jiraskova, M Josebachuili, K Kadija, KH Kampert, P Karhan, P Kasper, B Kegl, B Keilhauer, A Keivani, JL Kelley, E Kemp, RM Kieckhafer, HO Klages, M Kleifges, J Kleinfeller, J Knapp, D-H Koang, K Kotera, N Krohm, O Kroemer, D Kruppke-Hansen, F Kuehn, D Kuempel, JK Kulbartz, N Kunka, G Rosa, C Lachaud, P Lautridou, MSAB Leao, D Lebrun, P Lebrun, MA Leigui de Oliveira, A Lemiere, A Letessier-Selvon, I Lhenry-Yvon, K Link, R Lopez, A Lopez Agueera, K Louedec, J Lozano Bahilo, L Lu, A Lucero, M Ludwig, H Lyberis, MC Maccarone, C Macolino, S Maldera, D Mandat, P Mantsch, AG Mariazzi, J Marin, V Marin, IC Maris, HR Marquez Falcon, G Marsella, D Martello, L Martin, H Martinez, O Martinez Bravo, HJ Mathes, J Matthews, JAJ Matthews, G Matthiae, D Maurizio, PO Mazur, G Medina-Tanco, M Melissas, D Melo, E Menichetti, A Menshikov, P Mertsch, C Meurer, S Micanovic, MI Micheletti, W Miller, L Miramonti, L Molina-Bueno, S Mollerach, M Monasor, DM Ragaigne, F Montanet, B Morales, C Morello, E Moreno, JC Moreno, C Morris, M Mostafa, CA Moura, S Mueller, MA Muller, G Mueller, M Muenchmeyer, R Mussa, G Navarra, JL Navarro, S Navas, P Necesal, L Nellen, A Nelles, J Neuser, D Newton, PT Nhung, L Niemietz, N Nierstenhoefer, D Nitz, D Nosek, L Nozka, M Nyklicek, J Oehlschlaeger, A Olinto, P Oliva, VM Olmos-Gilbaja, M Ortiz, N Pacheco, D Pakk Selmi-Dei, M Palatka, J Pallotta, N Palmieri, G Parente, E Parizot, A Parra, RD Parsons, S Pastor, T Paul, M Pech, J Pekala, R Pelayo, IM Pepe, L Perrone, R Pesce, E Petermann, S Petrera, P Petrinca, A Petrolini, Y Petrov, J Petrovic, C Pfendner, N Phan, R Piegaia, T Pierog, P Pieroni, M Pimenta, V Pirronello, M Platino, VH Ponce, M Pontz, P Privitera, M Prouza, EJ Quel, S Querchfeld, J Rautenberg, O Ravel, D Ravignani, B Revenu, J Ridky, S Riggi, M Risse, P Ristori, H Rivera, V Rizi, J Roberts, C Robledo, W Rodrigues de Carvalho, G Rodriguez, J Rodriguez Martino, J Rodriguez Rojo, I Rodriguez-Cabo, MD Rodriguez-Frias, G Ros, J Rosado, T Rossler, M Roth, B Rouille-d'Orfeuil, E Roulet, AC Rovero, C Ruehle, F Salamida, H Salazar, FS Greus, G Salina, F Sanchez, CE Santo, E Santos, EM Santos, F Sarazin, B Sarkar, S Sarkar, R Sato, N Scharf, V Scherini, H Schieler, P Schiffer, A Schmidt, F Schmidt, O Scholten, H Schoorlemmer, J Schovancova, P Schovanek, F Schroeder, S Schulte, D Schuster, SJ Sciutto, M Scuderi, A Segreto, M Settimo, A Shadkam, RC Shellard, I Sidelnik, G Sigl, HH Silva Lopez, A Smialkowski, R Smida, GR Snow, P Sommers, J Sorokin, H Spinka, R Squartini, S Stanic, J Stapleton, J Stasielak, M Stephan, E Strazzeri, A Stutz, F Suarez, T Suomijaervi, AD Supanitsky, T Susa, MS Sutherland, J Swain, Z Szadkowski, M Szuba, A Tamashiro, A Tapia, M Tartare, O Tascau, CG Tavera Ruiz, R Tcaciuc, D Tegolo, NT Thao, D Thomas, J Tiffenberg, C Timmermans, DK Tiwari, W Tkaczyk, CJ Todero Peixoto, B Tome, A Tonachini, P Travnicek, DB Tridapalli, G Tristram, E Trovato, M Tueros, R Ulrich, M Unger, M Urban, JF Valdes Galicia, I Valino, L Valore, AM van den Berg, E Varela, B Vargas Cardenas, JR Vazquez, RA Vazquez, D Veberic, V Verzi, J Vicha, M Videla, L Villasenor, H Wahlberg, P Wahrlich, O Wainberg, D Walz, D Warner, AA Watson, M Weber, K Weidenhaupt, A Weindl, S Westerhoff, BJ Whelan, G Wieczorek, L Wiencke, B Wilczynska, H Wilczynski, M Will, C Williams, T Winchen, MG Winnick, M Wommer, B Wundheiler, T Yamamoto, T Yapici, P Younk, G Yuan, A Yushkov, B Zamorano, E Zas, D Zavrtanik, M Zavrtanik, I Zaw, A Zepeda, M Zimbres Silva, M Ziolkowski, PA Collaboration


Fermi gamma-ray "bubbles" from stochastic acceleration of electrons.

Phys Rev Lett 107 (2011) 091101-

P Mertsch, S Sarkar

Gamma-ray data from Fermi Large Area Telescope reveal a bilobular structure extending up to ∼50° above and below the Galactic Center. It has been argued that the gamma rays arise from hadronic interactions of high-energy cosmic rays which are advected out by a strong wind, or from inverse-Compton scattering of relativistic electrons accelerated at plasma shocks present in the bubbles. We explore the alternative possibility that the relativistic electrons are undergoing stochastic 2nd-order Fermi acceleration by plasma wave turbulence through the entire volume of the bubbles. The observed gamma-ray spectral shape is then explained naturally by the resulting hard electron spectrum modulated by inverse-Compton energy losses. Rather than a constant volume emissivity as in other models, we predict a nearly constant surface brightness, and reproduce the observed sharp edges of the bubbles.


The exposure of the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

Astroparticle Physics 34 (2011) 368-381

P Abreu, M Aglietta, EJ Ahn, D Allard, I Allekotte, J Allen, J Alvarez Castillo, J Alvarez-Muñiz, M Ambrosio, A Aminaei, L Anchordoqui, S Andringa, T Antičić, A Anzalone, C Aramo, E Arganda, K Arisaka, F Arqueros, H Asorey, P Assis, J Aublin, M Ave, M Avenier, G Avila, T Bäcker, D Badagnani, M Balzer, KB Barber, AF Barbosa, R Bardenet, SLC Barroso, B Baughman, JJ Beatty, BR Becker, KH Becker, A Bellétoile, JA Bellido, S Benzvi, C Berat, T Bergmann, X Bertou, PL Biermann, P Billoir, F Blanco, M Blanco, C Bleve, H Blümer, M Boháčová, D Boncioli, C Bonifazi, R Bonino, N Borodai, J Brack, P Brogueira, WC Brown, R Bruijn, P Buchholz, A Bueno, RE Burton, NG Busca, KS Caballero-Mora, L Caramete, R Caruso, A Castellina, O Catalano, G Cataldi, L Cazon, R Cester, J Chauvin, A Chiavassa, JA Chinellato, A Chou, J Chudoba, RW Clay, E Colombo, MR Coluccia, R Conceião, F Contreras, H Cook, MJ Cooper, J Coppens, A Cordier, U Cotti, S Coutu, CE Covault, A Creusot, A Criss, J Cronin, A Curutiu, S Dagoret-Campagne, R Dallier, S Dasso, K Daumiller, BR Dawson, RM De Almeida, M De Domenico, C De Donato, SJ De Jong, G De La Vega, WJM De Mello Junior

The Pierre Auger Observatory is a detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It consists of a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level and a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The "hybrid" detection mode combines the information from the two subsystems. We describe the determination of the hybrid exposure for events observed by the fluorescence telescopes in coincidence with at least one water-Cherenkov detector of the surface array. A detailed knowledge of the time dependence of the detection operations is crucial for an accurate evaluation of the exposure. We discuss the relevance of monitoring data collected during operations, such as the status of the fluorescence detector, background light and atmospheric conditions, that are used in both simulation and reconstruction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


The effect of the geomagnetic field on cosmic ray energy estimates and large scale anisotropy searches on data from the Pierre Auger Observatory

Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 2011 (2011)

P Abreu, M Aglietta, EJ Ahn, IFM Albuquerque, D Allard, I Allekotte, J Allen, P Allison, J Alvarez Castillo, J Alvarez-Muñiz, M Ambrosio, A Aminaei, L Anchordoqui, S Andringa, T Antičić, A Anzalone, C Aramo, E Arganda, F Arqueros, H Asorey, P Assis, J Aublin, M Ave, M Avenier, G Avila, T Bäcker, M Balzer, KB Barber, AF Barbosa, R Bardenet, SLC Barroso, B Baughman, J Bäuml, JJ Beatty, BR Becker, KH Becker, A Bellétoile, JA Bellido, S BenZvi, C Berat, X Bertou, PL Biermann, P Billoir, F Blanco, M Blanco, C Bleve, H Blümer, M Boháčová, D Boncioli, C Bonifazi, R Bonino, N Borodai, J Brack, P Brogueira, WC Brown, R Bruijn, P Buchholz, A Bueno, RE Burton, KS Caballero-Mora, L Caramete, R Caruso, A Castellina, O Catalano, G Cataldi, L Cazon, R Cester, J Chauvin, SH Cheng, A Chiavassa, JA Chinellato, A Chou, J Chudoba, RW Clay, MR Coluccia, R Conceiçào, F Contreras, H Cook, MJ Cooper, J Coppens, A Cordier, S Coutu, CE Covault, A Creusot, A Criss, J Cronin, A Curutiu, S Dagoret-Campagne, R Dallier, S Dasso, K Daumiller, BR Dawson, RM De Almeida, M De Domenico

We present a comprehensive study of the influence of the geomagnetic field on the energy estimation of extensive air showers with a zenith angle smaller than 60°, detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The geomagnetic field induces an azimuthal modulation of the estimated energy of cosmic rays up to the ∼ 2% level at large zenith angles. We present a method to account for this modulation of the reconstructed energy. We analyse the effect of the modulation on large scale anisotropy searches in the arrival direction distributions of cosmic rays. At a given energy, the geomagnetic effect is shown to induce a pseudo-dipolar pattern at the percent level in the declination distribution that needs to be accounted for. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.


Anisotropies and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

Proceedings of the 32nd International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2011 2 (2011) 137-140

P Abreu, M Aglietta, EJ Ahn, IFM Albuquerque, D Allard, I Allekotte, J Allen, P Allison, J Alvarez Castillo, J Alvarez-Muñiz, M Ambrosio, A Aminaei, L Anchordoqui, S Andringa, T Anticic, A Anzalone, C Aramo, E Arganda, F Arqueros, H Asorey, P Assis, J Aublin, M Ave, M Avenier, G Avila, T Bäcker, M Balzer, KB Barber, AF Barbosa, R Bardenet, SLC Barroso, B Baughman, J Bäuml, JJ Beatty, BR Becker, KH Becker, A Bellétoile, JA Bellido, S BenZvi, C Berat, X Bertou, PL Biermann, P Billoir, F Blanco, M Blanco, C Bleve, H Blümer, M Bohácová, D Boncioli, C Bonifazi, R Bonino, N Borodai, J Brack, P Brogueira, WC Brown, R Bruijn, P Buchholz, A Bueno, RE Burton, KS Caballero-Mora, L Caramete, R Caruso, A Castellina, O Catalano, G Cataldi, L Cazon, R Cester, J Chauvin, SH Cheng, A Chiavassa, JA Chinellato, A Chou, J Chudoba, RW Clay, MR Coluccia, R Conceição, F Contreras, H Cook, MJ Cooper, J Coppens, A Cordier, U Cotti, S Coutu, CE Covault, A Creusot, A Criss, J Cronin, A Curutiu, S Dagoret-Campagne, R Dallier, S Dasso, K Daumiller, BR Dawson, RM De Almeida, M De Domenico, C De Donato, SJ De Jong, G De La Vega, WJM De Mello, JRT De Mello Neto

© 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA. The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > Eth = 5.5×1019 eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E > Eth are heavy nuclei with charge Z, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at energies E/Z. We here report the lack of anisotropies in these directions at energies above Eth/Z (for illustrative values of Z = 6, 13, 26). If the anisotropies above Eth are due to nuclei with charge Z, and under reasonable assumptions about the acceleration process, these observations imply stringent constraints on the allowed proton fraction at the lower energies.


The Lateral Trigger Probability function for the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

Astroparticle Physics 35 (2011) 266-276

TPA Collaboration, P Abreu, M Aglietta, EJ Ahn, IFM Albuquerque, D Allard, I Allekotte, J Allen, P Allison, JA Castillo, J Alvarez-Muñiz, M Ambrosio, A Aminaei, L Anchordoqui, S Andringa, T Antičić, A Anzalone, C Aramo, E Arganda, F Arqueros, H Asorey, P Assis, J Aublin, M Ave, M Avenier, G Avila, T Bäcker, M Balzer, KB Barber, AF Barbosa, R Bardenet, SLC Barroso, B Baughman, J Bäuml, JJ Beatty, BR Becker, KH Becker, A Bellétoile, JA Bellido, S BenZvi, C Berat, X Bertou, PL Biermann, P Billoir, F Blanco, M Blanco, C Bleve, H Blümer, M Boháčová, D Boncioli, C Bonifazi, R Bonino, N Borodai, J Brack, P Brogueira, WC Brown, R Bruijn, P Buchholz, A Bueno, RE Burton, KS Caballero-Mora, L Caramete, R Caruso, A Castellina, O Catalano, G Cataldi, L Cazon, R Cester, J Chauvin, SH Cheng, A Chiavassa, JA Chinellato, A Chou, J Chudoba, RW Clay, MR Coluccia, R Conceição, F Contreras, H Cook, MJ Cooper, J Coppens, A Cordier, S Coutu, CE Covault, A Creusot, A Criss, J Cronin, A Curutiu, S Dagoret-Campagne, R Dallier, S Dasso, K Daumiller, BR Dawson, RMD Almeida, MD Domenico, CD Donato, SJD Jong, GDL Vega, WJMDM Junior, JRTDM Neto, ID Mitri, VD Souza, KDD Vries, G Decerprit, LD Peral, MD Río, O Deligny, H Dembinski, N Dhital, CD Giulio, JC Diaz, MLD Castro, PN Diep, C Dobrigkeit, W Docters, JC D'Olivo, PN Dong, A Dorofeev, JCD Anjos, MT Dova, D D'Urso, I Dutan, J Ebr, R Engel, M Erdmann, CO Escobar, J Espadanal, A Etchegoyen, PFS Luis, IF Tapia, H Falcke, G Farrar, AC Fauth, N Fazzini, AP Ferguson, A Ferrero, B Fick, A Filevich, A Filipčič, S Fliescher, CE Fracchiolla, ED Fraenkel, U Fröhlich, B Fuchs, R Gaior, RF Gamarra, S Gambetta, B García, DG Gámez, D Garcia-Pinto, A Gascon, H Gemmeke, K Gesterling, PL Ghia, U Giaccari, M Giller, H Glass, MS Gold, G Golup, FG Albarracin, MG Berisso, P Gonçalves, D Gonzalez, JG Gonzalez, B Gookin, D Góra, A Gorgi, P Gouffon, SR Gozzini, E Grashorn, S Grebe, N Griffith, M Grigat, AF Grillo, Y Guardincerri, F Guarino, GP Guedes, A Guzman, JD Hague, P Hansen, D Harari, S Harmsma, JL Harton, A Haungs, T Hebbeker, D Heck, AE Herve, C Hojvat, N Hollon, VC Holmes, P Homola, JR Hörandel, A Horneffer, M Hrabovský, T Huege, A Insolia, F Ionita, A Italiano, C Jarne, S Jiraskova, M Josebachuili, K Kadija, KH Kampert, P Karhan, P Kasper, B Kégl, B Keilhauer, A Keivani, JL Kelley, E Kemp, RM Kieckhafer, HO Klages, M Kleifges, J Kleinfeller, J Knapp, D-H Koang, K Kotera, N Krohm, O Krömer, D Kruppke-Hansen, F Kuehn, D Kuempel, JK Kulbartz, N Kunka, GL Rosa, C Lachaud, P Lautridou, MSAB Leão, D Lebrun, P Lebrun, MALD Oliveira, A Lemiere, A Letessier-Selvon, I Lhenry-Yvon, K Link, R López, AL Agüera, K Louedec, JL Bahilo, L Lu, A Lucero, M Ludwig, H Lyberis, MC Maccarone, C Macolino, S Maldera, D Mandat, P Mantsch, AG Mariazzi, J Marin, V Marin, IC Maris, HRM Falcon, G Marsella, D Martello, L Martin, H Martinez, OM Bravo, HJ Mathes, J Matthews, JAJ Matthews, G Matthiae, D Maurizio, PO Mazur, G Medina-Tanco, M Melissas, D Melo, E Menichetti, A Menshikov, P Mertsch, C Meurer, S Mićanović, MI Micheletti, W Miller, L Miramonti, L Molina-Bueno, S Mollerach, M Monasor, DM Ragaigne, F Montanet, B Morales, C Morello, E Moreno, JC Moreno, C Morris, M Mostafá, CA Moura, S Mueller, MA Muller, G Müller, M Münchmeyer, R Mussa, G Navarra, JL Navarro, S Navas, P Necesal, L Nellen, A Nelles, J Neuser, PT Nhung, L Niemietz, N Nierstenhoefer, D Nitz, D Nosek, L Nožka, M Nyklicek, J Oehlschläger, A Olinto, P Oliva, VM Olmos-Gilbaja, M Ortiz, N Pacheco, DP Selmi-Dei, M Palatka, J Pallotta, N Palmieri, G Parente, E Parizot, A Parra, RD Parsons, S Pastor, T Paul, M Pech, J Pękala, R Pelayo, IM Pepe, L Perrone, R Pesce, E Petermann, S Petrera, P Petrinca, A Petrolini, Y Petrov, J Petrovic, C Pfendner, N Phan, R Piegaia, T Pierog, P Pieroni, M Pimenta, V Pirronello, M Platino, VH Ponce, M Pontz, P Privitera, M Prouza, EJ Quel, S Querchfeld, J Rautenberg, O Ravel, D Ravignani, B Revenu, J Ridky, S Riggi, M Risse, P Ristori, H Rivera, V Rizi, J Roberts, C Robledo, WRD Carvalho, G Rodriguez, JR Martino, JR Rojo, I Rodriguez-Cabo, MD Rodríguez-Frías, G Ros, J Rosado, T Rossler, M Roth, B Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, E Roulet, AC Rovero, C Rühle, F Salamida, H Salazar, G Salina, F Sánchez, CE Santo, E Santos, EM Santos, F Sarazin, B Sarkar, S Sarkar, R Sato, N Scharf, V Scherini, H Schieler, P Schiffer, A Schmidt, F Schmidt, O Scholten, H Schoorlemmer, J Schovancova, P Schovánek, F Schröder, S Schulte, D Schuster, SJ Sciutto, M Scuderi, A Segreto, M Settimo, A Shadkam, RC Shellard, I Sidelnik, G Sigl, HHS Lopez, A Śmiałkowski, R Šmída, GR Snow, P Sommers, J Sorokin, H Spinka, R Squartini, S Stanic, J Stapleton, J Stasielak, M Stephan, E Strazzeri, A Stutz, F Suarez, T Suomijärvi, AD Supanitsky, T Šuša, MS Sutherland, J Swain, Z Szadkowski, M Szuba, A Tamashiro, A Tapia, M Tartare, O Taşcău, CGT Ruiz, R Tcaciuc, D Tegolo, NT Thao, D Thomas, J Tiffenberg, C Timmermans, DK Tiwari, W Tkaczyk, CJT Peixoto, B Tomé, A Tonachini, P Travnicek, DB Tridapalli, G Tristram, E Trovato, M Tueros, R Ulrich, M Unger, M Urban, JFV Galicia, I Valiño, L Valore, AMVD Berg, E Varela, BV Cárdenas, JR Vázquez, RA Vázquez, D Veberič, V Verzi, J Vicha, M Videla, L Villaseñor, H Wahlberg, P Wahrlich, O Wainberg, D Warner, AA Watson, M Weber, K Weidenhaupt, A Weindl, S Westerhoff, BJ Whelan, G Wieczorek, L Wiencke, B Wilczyńska, H Wilczyński, M Will, C Williams, T Winchen, MG Winnick, M Wommer, B Wundheiler, T Yamamoto, T Yapici, P Younk, G Yuan, A Yushkov, B Zamorano, E Zas, D Zavrtanik, M Zavrtanik, I Zaw, A Zepeda, MZ Silva, M Ziolkowski

In this paper we introduce the concept of Lateral Trigger Probability (LTP) function, i.e., the probability for an extensive air shower (EAS) to trigger an individual detector of a ground based array as a function of distance to the shower axis, taking into account energy, mass and direction of the primary cosmic ray. We apply this concept to the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consisting of a 1.5 km spaced grid of about 1600 water Cherenkov stations. Using Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-high energy showers the LTP functions are derived for energies in the range between 10^{17} and 10^{19} eV and zenith angles up to 65 degs. A parametrization combining a step function with an exponential is found to reproduce them very well in the considered range of energies and zenith angles. The LTP functions can also be obtained from data using events simultaneously observed by the fluorescence and the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory (hybrid events). We validate the Monte-Carlo results showing how LTP functions from data are in good agreement with simulations.


Search for first harmonic modulation in the right ascension distribution of cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

Astroparticle Physics 34 (2011) 627-639

P Abreu, M Aglietta, EJ Ahn, IFM Albuquerque, D Allard, I Allekotte, J Allen, P Allison, J Alvarez Castillo, J Alvarez-Muñiz, M Ambrosio, A Aminaei, L Anchordoqui, S Andringa, T Antičić, C Aramo, E Arganda, F Arqueros, H Asorey, P Assis, J Aublin, M Ave, M Avenier, G Avila, T Bäcker, M Balzer, KB Barber, AF Barbosa, R Bardenet, SLC Barroso, B Baughman, JJ Beatty, BR Becker, KH Becker, JA Bellido, S Benzvi, C Berat, X Bertou, PL Biermann, P Billoir, F Blanco, M Blanco, C Bleve, H Blümer, M Boháčová, D Boncioli, C Bonifazi, R Bonino, N Borodai, J Brack, P Brogueira, WC Brown, R Bruijn, P Buchholz, A Bueno, RE Burton, KS Caballero-Mora, L Caramete, R Caruso, A Castellina, G Cataldi, L Cazon, R Cester, J Chauvin, A Chiavassa, JA Chinellato, A Chou, J Chudoba, RW Clay, MR Coluccia, R Conceião, F Contreras, H Cook, MJ Cooper, J Coppens, A Cordier, U Cotti, S Coutu, CE Covault, A Creusot, A Criss, J Cronin, A Curutiu, S Dagoret-Campagne, R Dallier, S Dasso, K Daumiller, BR Dawson, RM De Almeida, M De Domenico, C De Donato, SJ De Jong, G De La Vega, WJM De Mello, JRT De Mello Neto, I De Mitri, V De Souza, KD De Vries, G Decerprit, L Del Peral

We present the results of searches for dipolar-type anisotropies in different energy ranges above 2.5 × 1017 eV with the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory, reporting on both the phase and the amplitude measurements of the first harmonic modulation in the right-ascension distribution. Upper limits on the amplitudes are obtained, which provide the most stringent bounds at present, being below 2% at 99% C.L. for EeV energies. We also compare our results to those of previous experiments as well as with some theoretical expectations. © 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Limits on neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts with the 40 string IceCube detector.

Phys Rev Lett 106 (2011) 141101-

R Abbasi, Y Abdou, T Abu-Zayyad, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, K Andeen, J Auffenberg, X Bai, M Baker, SW Barwick, R Bay, JL Bazo Alba, K Beattie, JJ Beatty, S Bechet, JK Becker, K-H Becker, ML Benabderrahmane, S BenZvi, J Berdermann, P Berghaus, D Berley, E Bernardini, D Bertrand, DZ Besson, D Bindig, M Bissok, E Blaufuss, J Blumenthal, DJ Boersma, C Bohm, D Bose, S Böser, O Botner, J Braun, AM Brown, S Buitink, M Carson, D Chirkin, B Christy, J Clem, F Clevermann, S Cohen, C Colnard, DF Cowen, MV D'Agostino, M Danninger, J Daughhetee, JC Davis, C De Clercq, L Demirörs, O Depaepe, F Descamps, P Desiati, G de Vries-Uiterweerd, T DeYoung, JC Díaz-Vélez, M Dierckxsens, J Dreyer, JP Dumm, R Ehrlich, J Eisch, RW Ellsworth, O Engdegård, S Euler, PA Evenson, O Fadiran, AR Fazely, A Fedynitch, T Feusels, K Filimonov, C Finley, T Fischer-Wasels, MM Foerster, BD Fox, A Franckowiak, R Franke, TK Gaisser, J Gallagher, M Geisler, L Gerhardt, L Gladstone, T Glüsenkamp, A Goldschmidt, JA Goodman, D Grant, T Griesel, A Gross, S Grullon, M Gurtner, C Ha, A Hallgren, F Halzen, K Han, K Hanson, D Heinen, K Helbing, P Herquet, S Hickford, GC Hill, KD Hoffman, A Homeier, K Hoshina, D Hubert, W Huelsnitz, J-P Hülss, PO Hulth, K Hultqvist, S Hussain, A Ishihara, J Jacobsen, GS Japaridze, H Johansson, JM Joseph, K-H Kampert, A Kappes, T Karg, A Karle, JL Kelley, N Kemming, P Kenny, J Kiryluk, F Kislat, SR Klein, J-H Köhne, G Kohnen, H Kolanoski, L Köpke, S Kopper, DJ Koskinen, M Kowalski, T Kowarik, M Krasberg, T Krings, G Kroll, K Kuehn, T Kuwabara, M Labare, S Lafebre, K Laihem, H Landsman, MJ Larson, R Lauer, R Lehmann, J Lünemann, J Madsen, P Majumdar, A Marotta, R Maruyama, K Mase, HS Matis, K Meagher, M Merck, P Mészáros, T Meures, E Middell, N Milke, J Miller, T Montaruli, R Morse, SM Movit, R Nahnhauer, JW Nam, U Naumann, P Niessen, DR Nygren, S Odrowski, A Olivas, M Olivo, A O'Murchadha, M Ono, S Panknin, L Paul, C Pérez de los Heros, J Petrovic, A Piegsa, D Pieloth, R Porrata, J Posselt, PB Price, M Prikockis, GT Przybylski, K Rawlins, P Redl, E Resconi, W Rhode, M Ribordy, A Rizzo, JP Rodrigues, P Roth, F Rothmaier, C Rott, T Ruhe, D Rutledge, B Ruzybayev, D Ryckbosch, H-G Sander, M Santander, S Sarkar, K Schatto, T Schmidt, A Schoenwald, A Schukraft, A Schultes, O Schulz, M Schunck, D Seckel, B Semburg, SH Seo, Y Sestayo, S Seunarine, A Silvestri, A Slipak, GM Spiczak, C Spiering, M Stamatikos, T Stanev, G Stephens, T Stezelberger, RG Stokstad, S Stoyanov, EA Strahler, T Straszheim, GW Sullivan, Q Swillens, H Taavola, I Taboada, A Tamburro, O Tarasova, A Tepe, S Ter-Antonyan, S Tilav, PA Toale, S Toscano, D Tosi, D Turčan, N van Eijndhoven, J Vandenbroucke, A Van Overloop, J van Santen, M Vehring, M Voge, B Voigt, C Walck, T Waldenmaier, M Wallraff, M Walter, C Weaver, C Wendt, S Westerhoff, N Whitehorn, K Wiebe, CH Wiebusch, DR Williams, R Wischnewski, H Wissing, M Wolf, K Woschnagg, C Xu, XW Xu, G Yodh, S Yoshida, P Zarzhitsky, IceCube Collaboration

IceCube has become the first neutrino telescope with a sensitivity below the TeV neutrino flux predicted from gamma-ray bursts if gamma-ray bursts are responsible for the observed cosmic-ray flux above 10(18)  eV. Two separate analyses using the half-complete IceCube detector, one a dedicated search for neutrinos from pγ interactions in the prompt phase of the gamma-ray burst fireball and the other a generic search for any neutrino emission from these sources over a wide range of energies and emission times, produced no evidence for neutrino emission, excluding prevailing models at 90% confidence.


Advanced functionality for radio analysis in the Offline software framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (2011)

P Abreu, M Aglietta, EJ Ahn, IFM Albuquerque, D Allard, I Allekotte, J Allen, P Allison, J Alvarez Castillo, J Alvarez-Muñiz, M Ambrosio, A Aminaei, L Anchordoqui, S Andringa, T Antičić, C Aramo, E Arganda, F Arqueros, H Asorey, P Assis, J Aublin, M Ave, M Avenier, G Avila, T Bäcker, M Balzer, KB Barber, AF Barbosa, R Bardenet, SLC Barroso, B Baughman, JJ Beatty, BR Becker, KH Becker, JA Bellido, S BenZvi, C Berat, X Bertou, PL Biermann, P Billoir, F Blanco, M Blanco, C Bleve, H Blümer, M Boháčová, D Boncioli, C Bonifazi, R Bonino, N Borodai, J Brack, P Brogueira, WC Brown, R Bruijn, P Buchholz, A Bueno, RE Burton, KS Caballero-Mora, L Caramete, R Caruso, A Castellina, G Cataldi, L Cazon, R Cester, J Chauvin, A Chiavassa, JA Chinellato, A Chou, J Chudoba, RW Clay, MR Coluccia, R Conceição, F Contreras, H Cook, MJ Cooper, J Coppens, A Cordier, U Cotti, S Coutu, CE Covault, A Creusot, A Criss, J Cronin, A Curutiu, S Dagoret-Campagne, R Dallier, S Dasso, K Daumiller, BR Dawson, RM de Almeida, M De Domenico, C De Donato, SJ de Jong, G De La Vega, WJM de Mello Junior, JRT de Mello Neto, I De Mitri, V de Souza, KD de Vries, G Decerprit, L del Peral, O Deligny, H Dembinski, A Denkiewicz, C Di Giulio, JC Diaz, ML Díaz Castro, PN Diep, C Dobrigkeit, JC D'Olivo, PN Dong, A Dorofeev, JC dos Anjos, MT Dova, D D'Urso, I Dutan, J Ebr, R Engel, M Erdmann, CO Escobar, A Etchegoyen, P Facal San Luis, H Falcke, G Farrar, AC Fauth, N Fazzini, AP Ferguson, A Ferrero, B Fick, A Filevich, A Filipčič, S Fliescher, CE Fracchiolla, ED Fraenkel, U Fröhlich, B Fuchs, RF Gamarra, S Gambetta, B García, D García Gámez, D Garcia-Pinto, A Gascon, H Gemmeke, K Gesterling, PL Ghia, U Giaccari, M Giller, H Glass, MS Gold, G Golup, F Gomez Albarracin, M Gómez Berisso, P Gonçalves, D Gonzalez, JG Gonzalez, B Gookin, D Góra, A Gorgi, P Gouffon, SR Gozzini, E Grashorn, S Grebe, N Griffith, M Grigat, AF Grillo, Y Guardincerri, F Guarino, GP Guedes, JD Hague, P Hansen, D Harari, S Harmsma, JL Harton, A Haungs, T Hebbeker, D Heck, AE Herve, C Hojvat, VC Holmes, P Homola, JR Hörandel, A Horneffer, M Hrabovský, T Huege, A Insolia, F Ionita, A Italiano, S Jiraskova, K Kadija, KH Kampert, P Karhan, T Karova, P Kasper, B Kégl, B Keilhauer, A Keivani, JL Kelley, E Kemp, RM Kieckhafer, HO Klages, M Kleifges, J Kleinfeller, J Knapp, D-H Koang, K Kotera, N Krohm, O Krömer, D Kruppke-Hansen, F Kuehn, D Kuempel, JK Kulbartz, N Kunka, G La Rosa, C Lachaud, P Lautridou, MSAB Leão, D Lebrun, P Lebrun, MA Leigui de Oliveira, A Lemiere, A Letessier-Selvon, I Lhenry-Yvon, K Link, R López, A Lopez Agüera, K Louedec, J Lozano Bahilo, A Lucero, M Ludwig, H Lyberis, C Macolino, S Maldera, D Mandat, P Mantsch, AG Mariazzi, V Marin, IC Maris, HR Marquez Falcon, G Marsella, D Martello, L Martin, O Martínez Bravo, HJ Mathes, J Matthews, JAJ Matthews, G Matthiae, D Maurizio, PO Mazur, G Medina-Tanco, M Melissas, D Melo, E Menichetti, A Menshikov, P Mertsch, C Meurer, S Mićanović, MI Micheletti, W Miller, L Miramonti, S Mollerach, M Monasor, D Monnier Ragaigne, F Montanet, B Morales, C Morello, E Moreno, JC Moreno, C Morris, M Mostafá, CA Moura, S Mueller, MA Muller, G Müller, M Münchmeyer, R Mussa, G Navarra, JL Navarro, S Navas, P Necesal, L Nellen, A Nelles, PT Nhung, N Nierstenhoefer, D Nitz, D Nosek, L Nožka, M Nyklicek, J Oehlschläger, A Olinto, P Oliva, VM Olmos-Gilbaja, M Ortiz, N Pacheco, D Pakk Selmi-Dei, M Palatka, J Pallotta, N Palmieri, G Parente, E Parizot, A Parra, J Parrisius, RD Parsons, S Pastor, T Paul, M Pech, J Pe kala, R Pelayo, IM Pepe, L Perrone, R Pesce, E Petermann, S Petrera, P Petrinca, A Petrolini, Y Petrov, J Petrovic, C Pfendner, N Phan, R Piegaia, T Pierog, P Pieroni, M Pimenta, V Pirronello, M Platino, VH Ponce, M Pontz, P Privitera, M Prouza, EJ Quel, J Rautenberg, O Ravel, D Ravignani, B Revenu, J Ridky, M Risse, P Ristori, H Rivera, C Riviére, V Rizi, C Robledo, W Rodrigues de Carvalho, G Rodriguez, J Rodriguez Martino, J Rodriguez Rojo, I Rodriguez-Cabo, MD Rodríguez-Frías, G Ros, J Rosado, T Rossler, M Roth, B Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, E Roulet, AC Rovero, C Rühle, F Salamida, H Salazar, G Salina, F Sánchez, M Santander, CE Santo, E Santos, EM Santos, F Sarazin, S Sarkar, R Sato, N Scharf, V Scherini, H Schieler, P Schiffer, A Schmidt, F Schmidt, T Schmidt, O Scholten, H Schoorlemmer, J Schovancova, P Schovánek, F Schroeder, S Schulte, D Schuster, SJ Sciutto, M Scuderi, A Segreto, D Semikoz, M Settimo, A Shadkam, RC Shellard, I Sidelnik, G Sigl, A ŚmiaŁkowski, R Šmída, GR Snow, P Sommers, J Sorokin, H Spinka, R Squartini, J Stapleton, J Stasielak, M Stephan, A Stutz, F Suarez, T Suomijärvi, AD Supanitsky, T Šuša, MS Sutherland, J Swain, Z Szadkowski, M Szuba, A Tamashiro, A Tapia, O Taşcǎu, R Tcaciuc, D Tegolo, NT Thao, D Thomas, J Tiffenberg, C Timmermans, DK Tiwari, W Tkaczyk, CJ Todero Peixoto, B Tomé, A Tonachini, P Travnicek, DB Tridapalli, G Tristram, E Trovato, M Tueros, R Ulrich, M Unger, M Urban, JF Valdés Galicia, I Valiño, L Valore, AM van den Berg, B Vargas Cárdenas, JR Vázquez, RA Vázquez, D Veberič, V Verzi, M Videla, L Villaseñor, H Wahlberg, P Wahrlich, O Wainberg, D Warner, AA Watson, M Weber, K Weidenhaupt, A Weindl, S Westerhoff, BJ Whelan, G Wieczorek, L Wiencke, B Wilczyńska, H Wilczyński, M Will, C Williams, T Winchen, L Winders, MG Winnick, M Wommer, B Wundheiler, T Yamamoto, P Younk, G Yuan, B Zamorano, E Zas, D Zavrtanik, M Zavrtanik, I Zaw, A Zepeda, M Ziolkowski


Search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos in highly inclined events at the Pierre Auger Observatory

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology 84 (2011)

P Abreu, M Aglietta, EJ Ahn, IFM Albuquerque, D Allard, I Allekotte, J Allen, P Allison, J Alvarez Castillo, J Alvarez-Muñiz, M Ambrosio, A Aminaei, L Anchordoqui, S Andringa, T Antičić, A Anzalone, C Aramo, E Arganda, F Arqueros, H Asorey, P Assis, J Aublin, M Ave, M Avenier, G Avila, T Bäcker, M Balzer, KB Barber, AF Barbosa, R Bardenet, SLC Barroso, B Baughman, J Bäuml, JJ Beatty, BR Becker, KH Becker, A Bellétoile, JA Bellido, S Benzvi, C Berat, X Bertou, PL Biermann, P Billoir, F Blanco, M Blanco, C Bleve, H Blümer, M Boháčová, D Boncioli, C Bonifazi, R Bonino, N Borodai, J Brack, P Brogueira, WC Brown, R Bruijn, P Buchholz, A Bueno, RE Burton, KS Caballero-Mora, L Caramete, R Caruso, A Castellina, O Catalano, G Cataldi, L Cazon, R Cester, J Chauvin, SH Cheng, A Chiavassa, JA Chinellato, A Chou, J Chudoba, RW Clay, MR Coluccia, R Conceição, F Contreras, H Cook, MJ Cooper, J Coppens, A Cordier, S Coutu, CE Covault, A Creusot, A Criss, J Cronin, A Curutiu, S Dagoret-Campagne, R Dallier, S Dasso, K Daumiller, BR Dawson, RM De Almeida, M De Domenico, C De Donato, SJ De Jong, G De La Vega, WJM De Mello Junior, JRT De Mello Neto, I De Mitri

The Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to neutrinos of all flavors above 0.1 EeV. These interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere giving rise to extensive air showers. When interacting deeply in the atmosphere at nearly horizontal incidence, neutrinos can be distinguished from regular hadronic cosmic rays by the broad time structure of their shower signals in the water-Cherenkov detectors. In this paper we present for the first time an analysis based on down-going neutrinos. We describe the search procedure, the possible sources of background, the method to compute the exposure and the associated systematic uncertainties. No candidate neutrinos have been found in data collected from 1 January 2004 to 31 May 2010. Assuming an E-2 differential energy spectrum the limit on the single-flavor neutrino is E2dN/dE<1.74×10-7GeVcm -2s-1sr-1 at 90% C.L. in the energy range 1×1017eV<E<1×1020eV. © 2011 American Physical Society.


First search for atmospheric and extraterrestrial neutrino-induced cascades with the IceCube detector

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology 84 (2011)

R Abbasi, Y Abdou, T Abu-Zayyad, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, K Andeen, J Auffenberg, X Bai, M Baker, SW Barwick, R Bay, JL Bazo Alba, K Beattie, JJ Beatty, S Bechet, JK Becker, KH Becker, ML Benabderrahmane, S Benzvi, J Berdermann, P Berghaus, D Berley, E Bernardini, D Bertrand, DZ Besson, D Bindig, M Bissok, E Blaufuss, J Blumenthal, DJ Boersma, C Bohm, D Bose, S Böser, O Botner, J Braun, AM Brown, S Buitink, M Carson, D Chirkin, B Christy, J Clem, F Clevermann, S Cohen, C Colnard, DF Cowen, MV D'Agostino, M Danninger, J Daughhetee, JC Davis, C De Clercq, L Demirörs, O Depaepe, F Descamps, P Desiati, G De Vries-Uiterweerd, T Deyoung, JC Díaz-Vélez, M Dierckxsens, J Dreyer, JP Dumm, R Ehrlich, J Eisch, RW Ellsworth, O Engdegård, S Euler, PA Evenson, O Fadiran, AR Fazely, A Fedynitch, T Feusels, K Filimonov, C Finley, T Fischer-Wasels, MM Foerster, BD Fox, A Franckowiak, R Franke, TK Gaisser, J Gallagher, M Geisler, L Gerhardt, L Gladstone, T Glüsenkamp, A Goldschmidt, JA Goodman, D Grant, T Griesel, A Groß, S Grullon, M Gurtner, C Ha, A Hallgren, F Halzen, K Han, K Hanson, D Heinen, K Helbing, P Herquet, S Hickford

We report on the first search for atmospheric and for diffuse astrophysical neutrino-induced showers (cascades) in the IceCube detector using 257 days of data collected in the year 2007-2008 with 22 strings active. A total of 14 events with energies above 16TeV remained after event selections in the diffuse analysis, with an expected total background contribution of 8.3±3.6. At 90% confidence we set an upper limit of E2Φ90%CL<3. 6×10-7GeV•cm-2•s-1•sr -1 on the diffuse flux of neutrinos of all flavors in the energy range between 24TeV and 6.6PeV assuming that ΦE-2 and the flavor composition of the νeνμντ flux is 111 at the Earth. The atmospheric neutrino analysis was optimized for lower energies. A total of 12 events were observed with energies above 5TeV. The observed number of events is consistent with the expected background, within the uncertainties. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Constraints on the extremely-high energy cosmic neutrino flux with the IceCube 2008-2009 data (vol 83, 092003, 2011)

PHYSICAL REVIEW D 84 (2011) ARTN 079902

R Abbasi, Y Abdou, T Abu-Zayyad, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, K Andeen, J Auffenberg, X Bai, M Baker, SW Barwick, R Bay, JLB Alba, K Beattie, JJ Beatty, S Bechet, JK Becker, K-H Becker, ML Benabderrahmane, S BenZvi, J Berdermann, P Berghaus, D Berley, E Bernardini, D Bertrand, DZ Besson, D Bindig, M Bissok, E Blaufuss, J Blumenthal, DJ Boersma, C Bohm, D Bose, S Boeser, O Botner, J Braun, AM Brown, S Buitink, M Carson, D Chirkin, B Christy, J Clem, F Clevermann, S Cohen, C Colnard, DF Cowen, MV D'Agostino, M Danninger, J Daughhetee, JC Davis, C De Clercq, L Demiroers, T Denger, O Depaepe, F Descamps, P Desiati, G de Vries-Uiterweerd, T DeYoung, JC Diaz-Velez, M Dierckxsens, J Dreyer, JP Dumm, R Ehrlich, J Eisch, RW Ellsworth, O Engdegard, S Euler, PA Evenson, O Fadiran, AR Fazely, A Fedynitch, T Feusels, K Filimonov, C Finley, T Fischer-Wasels, MM Foerster, BD Fox, A Franckowiak, R Franke, TK Gaisser, J Gallagher, M Geisler, L Gerhardt, L Gladstone, T Gluesenkamp, A Goldschmidt, JA Goodman, D Gora, D Grant, T Griesel, A Gross, S Grullon, M Gurtner, C Ha, A Hallgren, F Halzen, K Han, K Hanson, D Heinen, K Helbing, P Herquet, S Hickford, GC Hill, KD Hoffman, A Homeier, K Hoshina, D Hubert, W Huelsnitz, J-P Huelss, PO Hulth, K Hultqvist, S Hussain, A Ishihara, J Jacobsen, GS Japaridze, H Johansson, JM Joseph, K-H Kampert, A Kappes, T Karg, A Karle, JL Kelley, P Kenny, J Kiryluk, F Kislat, SR Klein, J-H Koehne, G Kohnen, H Kolanoski, L Koepke, S Kopper, DJ Koskinen, M Kowalski, T Kowarik, M Krasberg, T Krings, G Kroll, T Kuwabara, M Labare, S Lafebre, K Laihem, H Landsman, MJ Larson, R Lauer, J Luenemann, J Madsen, P Majumdar, A Marotta, R Maruyama, K Mase, HS Matis, K Meagher, M Merck, P Meszaros, T Meures, E Middell, N Milke, J Miller, T Montaruli, R Morse, SM Movit, R Nahnhauer, JW Nam, U Naumann, P Niessen, DR Nygren, S Odrowski, A Olivas, M Olivo, A O'Murchadha, M Ono, S Panknin, L Paul, CP de los Heros, J Petrovic, A Piegsa, D Pieloth, R Porrata, J Posselt, PB Price, GT Przybylski, K Rawlins, P Redl, E Resconi, W Rhode, M Ribordy, A Rizzo, JP Rodrigues, P Roth, F Rothmaier, C Rott, T Ruhe, D Rutledge, B Ruzybayev, D Ryckbosch, H-G Sander, M Santander, S Sarkar, K Schatto, T Schmidt, A Schoenwald, A Schukraft, A Schultes, O Schulz, M Schunck, D Seckel, B Semburg, SH Seo, Y Sestayo, S Seunarine, A Silvestri, A Slipak, GM Spiczak, C Spiering, M Stamatikos, T Stanev, G Stephens, T Stezelberger, RG Stokstad, A Stoessl, S Stoyanov, EA Strahler, T Straszheim, M Stuer, GW Sullivan, Q Swillens, H Taavola, I Taboada, A Tamburro, A Tepe, S Ter-Antonyan, S Tilav, PA Toale, S Toscano, D Tosi, D Turcan, N van Eijndhoven, J Vandenbroucke, A Van Overloop, J van Santen, M Vehring, M Voge, C Walck, T Waldenmaier, M Wallraff, M Walter, C Weaver, C Wendt, S Westerhoff, N Whitehorn, K Wiebe, CH Wiebusch, DR Williams, R Wischnewski, H Wissing, M Wolf, TR Wood, K Woschnagg, C Xu, XW Xu, G Yodh, S Yoshida, P Zarzhitsky, I Collaboration

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