Publications by Armin Reichold

The “stabilization of the final focus of the ILC” project

Proceedings of NANOBEAM 2005, 36th ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop (2020) 66-71

D Urner, P Coe, A Reichold

© 2020 Proceedings of NANOBEAM 2005, 36th ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop. All rights reserved. We describe techniques to measure and stabilize the relative motion of two objects with respect to each. The position measurements are based on interferometry. Several potential applications at the ILC are studied.

Measurement of neutron-proton capture in the SNO+ water phase

Physical Review C: Nuclear Physics American Physical Society (2020)

TSNO Collaboration, M Anderson, S Andringa, M Askins, D Auty, N Barros, C Grant, J Grove, A Hallin, D Hallman, S Hans, J Hartnell, P Harvey, W Heintzelman, R Helmer, D Horne, B Hreljac, J Hu, A Hussain, A Inácio, C Jillings, T Kaptanoglu, P Khaghani, J Paton, A Reichold

The SNO+ experiment collected data as a low-threshold water Cherenkov detector from September 2017 to July 2019. Measurements of the 2.2-MeV $\gamma$ produced by neutron capture on hydrogen have been made using an Am-Be calibration source, for which a large fraction of emitted neutrons are produced simultaneously with a 4.4-MeV $\gamma$. Analysis of the delayed coincidence between the 4.4-MeV $\gamma$ and the 2.2-MeV capture $\gamma$ revealed a neutron detection efficiency that is centered around 50% and varies at the level of 1% across the inner region of the detector, which to our knowledge is the highest efficiency achieved among pure water Cherenkov detectors. In addition, the neutron capture time constant was measured and converted to a thermal neutron-proton capture cross section of $336.3^{+1.2}_{-1.5}$ mb.

Measurement of the B-8 solar neutrino flux in SNO plus with very low backgrounds

PHYSICAL REVIEW D 99 (2019) ARTN 012012

M Anderson, S Andringa, S Asahi, M Askins, DJ Auty, N Barros, D Bartlett, F Barao, R Bayes, EW Beier, A Bialek, SD Biller, E Blucher, R Bonventre, M Boulay, E Caden, EJ Callaghan, J Caravaca, D Chauhan, M Chen, O Chkvorets, B Cleveland, C Connors, IT Coulter, MM Depatie, F Di Lodovico, F Duncan, J Dunger, E Falk, V Fischer, E Fletcher, R Ford, N Gagnon, K Gilje, C Grant, J Grove, AL Hallin, D Hallman, S Hans, J Hartnell, WJ Heintzelman, RL Helmer, JL Hernandez-Hernandez, B Hreljac, J Hu, AS Inacio, CJ Jillings, T Kaptanoglu, P Khaghani, JR Klein, R Knapik, LL Kormos, B Krar, C Kraus, CB Krauss, T Kroupova, I Lam, BJ Land, R Lane, A LaTorre, I Lawson, L Lebanowski, EJ Leming, A Li, J Lidgard, B Liggins, Y Liu, V Lozza, M Luo, S Maguire, A Maio, S Manecki, J Maneira, RD Martin, E Marzec, A Mastbaum, N McCauley, AB McDonald, P Mekarski, M Meyer, M Mlejnek, I Morton-Blake, S Nae, M Nirkko, HM O'Keeffe, GDO Gann, MJ Parnell, J Paton, SJM Peeters, T Pershing, L Pickard, D Pracsovics, G Prior, A Reichold, R Richardson, M Rigan, J Rose, R Rosero, J Rumleskie, I Semenec, K Singh, P Skensved, MI Stringer, R Svoboda, B Tam, L Tian, J Tseng, E Turner, R Van Berg, JGC Veinot, CJ Virtue, E Vazquez-Jauregui, J Wang, JJ Weigand, JR Wilson, P Woosaree, A Wright, JP Yanez, M Yeh, K Zuber, A Zummo, SNO Collaboration

Absolute Distance Measurement using Frequency Scanning Interferometry

in Modern Interferometry Length Metrology, (2018)


Scattering length monitoring at the SNO plus detector

Journal of Physics : Conference Series Institute of Physics (IoP) 888 (2017)

S Langrock, J Lidgard, E Turner, L Segui, A Reichold, JR Wilson, SNO Collaboration

Absolute multilateration between spheres

Measurement Science and Technology IOP Publishing 28 (2017) 1-11

JE Muelaner, W Wadsworth, M Azini, G Mullineux, B Hughes, A Reichold

Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as absolute multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using absolute distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m−1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-topart interchangeability.

Experimental and theoretical studies of the properties of coherent Smith-Purcell radiation

Proceedings of International Particle Accelerator Conference 8-13 May 2016, Busan, Korea Joint Accelerator Conferences Website (JACoW) (2016)

F Bakkali Taheri, IV Konoplev, G Doucas, A Reichold, R Bartolini, N Delerue, J Barros, C Clarke

Recent advances in physics of particles accelerators and lasers have shifted dramatically the expectations of bunch length and capability to generate electron bunches with specific longitudinal profiles [1,2]. This has stimulated interest in analysis of spectrum of coherent radiation to enable the longitudinal bunch profile diagnostics at femtosecond-scale. Spectral analysis of coherent Smith- Purcell radiation (cSPr) is particularly relevant as it allows non-invasive and cost-effective monitoring of electron bunch profiles. In this paper, the recent results observed from the E203 experiment (FACET, SLAC) are presented. Consistency of the cSPr as diagnostic tool is discussed, as well as the properties of cSPr such as directionality and polarization.

Measurement of event-shape observables in Z→ℓ+ℓ− events in pp collisions at s√=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

European Physical Journal C Springer Berlin Heidelberg 76 (2016) 375

K Motohashi, R Mount, E Mountricha, SV Mouraviev, EJW Moyse, S Muanza, RD Mudd, F Mueller, J Mueller, RSP Mueller, T Mueller, D Muenstermann, P Mullen, GA Mullier, FJ Munoz Sanchez, JA Murillo Quijada, WJ Murray, H Musheghyan, M Muskinja, AG Myagkov, M Myska, BP Nachman, O Nackenhorst, J Nadal, K Nagai

Event-shape observables measured using charged particles in inclusive Z-boson events are presented, using the electron and muon decay modes of the Z bosons. The measurements are based on an integrated luminosity of 1.1 fb−1 of proton–proton collisions recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy √s = 7 TeV. Chargedparticle distributions, excluding the lepton–antilepton pair from the Z-boson decay, are measured in different ranges of transverse momentum of the Z boson. Distributions include multiplicity, scalar sum of transverse momenta, beam thrust, transverse thrust, spherocity, and F-parameter, which are in particular sensitive to properties of the underlying event at small values of the Z-boson transverse momentum. The measured observables are compared with predictions from Pythia8, Sherpa, and Herwig7. Typically, all three Monte Carlo generators provide predictions that are in better agreement with the data at high Z-boson transverse momenta than at low Z-boson transverse momenta, and for the observables that are less sensitive to the number of charged particles in the event.

Current status and future prospects of the SNO+ experiment

Advances in High Energy Physics Hindawi Publishing Corporation 2016 (2016) 6194250-6194250

SD Biller, LA Cavalli, JT Dunger, NA Jelley, C Jones, PG Jones, J Lidgard, K Majumdar, A Reichold, L Segui, JC-L Tseng

SNO+ is a large liquid scintillator-based experiment located 2km underground at SNOLAB, Sudbury, Canada. It reuses the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory detector, consisting of a 12m diameter acrylic vessel which will be filled with about 780 tonnes of ultra-pure liquid scintillator. Designed as a multipurpose neutrino experiment, the primary goal of SNO+ is a search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay (0$\nu\beta\beta$) of 130Te. In Phase I, the detector will be loaded with 0.3% natural tellurium, corresponding to nearly 800 kg of 130Te, with an expected effective Majorana neutrino mass sensitivity in the region of 55-133 meV, just above the inverted mass hierarchy. Recently, the possibility of deploying up to ten times more natural tellurium has been investigated, which would enable SNO+ to achieve sensitivity deep into the parameter space for the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy in the future. Additionally, SNO+ aims to measure reactor antineutrino oscillations, low-energy solar neutrinos, and geoneutrinos, to be sensitive to supernova neutrinos, and to search for exotic physics. A first phase with the detector filled with water will begin soon, with the scintillator phase expected to start after a few months of water data taking. The 0$\nu\beta\beta$ Phase I is foreseen for 2017.

Reconstruction of longitudinal electrons bunch profiles at FACET, SLAC

IPAC 2014: Proceedings of the 5th International Particle Accelerator Conference (2014) 3453-3455

J Barros, N Delerue, S Jenzer, M Vieille Grosjean, F Bakkali Taheri, G Doucas, I Konoplev, A Reichold, C Clarke

Copyright © 2014 CC-BY-3.0 and by the respective authors. The E-203 collaboration is testing a device on FACET at SLAC to measure the longitudinal profile of electron bunches using Smith-Purcell radiation [1]. At FACET the electron bunches have an energy of 20 GeV and a duration of a few hundred femtoseconds [2]. Smith-Purcell radiation is emitted when a charged particle passes close to the surface of a metallic grating. We have studied the stability of the measurement from pulse to pulse and the resolution of the measure depending on the number of gratings used.

Reconstruction of the time profile of 20.35 GeV, subpicosecond long electron bunches by means of coherent Smith-Purcell radiation


HL Andrews, FB Taheri, J Barros, R Bartolini, V Bharadwaj, C Clarke, N Delerue, G Doucas, N Fuster-Martinez, M Vieille-Grosjean, IV Konoplev, M Labat, S Le Corre, C Perry, A Reichold, S Stevenson

Multi-channel absolute distance measurement system with sub ppm-accuracy and 20 m range using frequency scanning interferometry and gas absorption cells.

Optics express 22 (2014) 24869-24893

J Dale, B Hughes, AJ Lancaster, AJ Lewis, AJH Reichold, MS Warden

We present an implementation of an absolute distance measurement system which uses frequency scanning interferometry (FSI). The technique, referred to as dynamic FSI, uses two frequency scanning lasers, a gas absorption cell and a reference interferometer to determine the unknown optical path length difference (OPD) of one or many measurement interferometers. The gas absorption cell is the length reference for the measurement system and is traceable to international standards through knowledge of the frequencies of its absorption features. The OPD of the measurement interferometers can vary during the measurement and the variation is measured at the sampling rate of the system (2.77 MHz in the system described here). The system is shown to measure distances from 0.2 m to 20 m with a combined relative uncertainty of 0.41 × 10⁻⁶ at the two sigma level (k = 2). It will be shown that within a scan the change in OPD of the measurement interferometer can be determined to a resolution of 40 nm.

Some properties of coherent smith-purcell radiation from electron bunches and gratings of finite dimensions

International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, IRMMW-THz (2013)

IV Konoplev, FB Taheri, G Doucas, A Reichold, R Bartolini, N Delerue, C Clarke, V Bharadwaj

There is a strong interest in the development of single shot diagnostics of fs relativistic electron bunches within a number of research areas including compact particle accelerators and THz and X-ray sources of radiation. The goal of this work is to investigate some properties of coherent Smith-Purcell radiation and to use it for the reconstruction of the longitudinal profile of a fs-long electron bunch. © 2013 IEEE.

Longitudinal profile monitor using smith-purcell radiation: Recent results from the E-203 Collaboration

IBIC 2013: Proceedings of the 2nd International Beam Instrumentation Conference (2013) 464-466

N Delerue, J Barros, S Le Corre, M Vieille Grosjean, F Bakkali Taheri, R Bartolini, G Doucas, IV Konoplev, C Perry, A Reichold, S Stevenson, N Fuster Martinez, H Andrews, V Bharadwaj, C Clarke, M Labat

Copyright © 2013 by JACoW. We report on recent measurements made at FACET by the E-203 collaboration to test a longitudinal bunch profile monitor based on Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The capacity of this monitor to resolve sub-picosecond bunches will be shown as well as a comparison of profile reconstructed for different data sets. We also present recent electromagnetic simulations of the interactions between the beam and the grating as well as the expected resolution of such monitor with a "notch collimator".

Presentation of the smith-purcell experiment at SOLEIL

IBIC 2013: Proceedings of the 2nd International Beam Instrumentation Conference (2013) 460-463

N Delerue, J Barros, S Jenzer, M Vieille Grosjean, A Faus-Golfe, N Fuster Martinez, J Resta-López, G Doucas, I Konoplev, A Reichold, M Labat, L Cassinari

Copyright © 2013 by JACoW. The potential of Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation as a longitudinal bunch profile monitor has already been demonstrated and has recently been extended to the sub-picosecond range. As a critical step toward the construction of a single shot bunch profile monitor using Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation it is important to measure very accurately the distribution of such radiation. Optimum background suppression techniques need to be found and relatively cheap detectors suitable for the far infra-red need to be qualified. To perform these tasks a test stand has been installed at the end of the linac of the synchrotron SOLEIL. This test stand and the first results from its commissioning will be presented here.


Proceedings of IPAC2013, Shanghai, China (2013)

A Reichold, F Bakkali Taheri, I Konoplev, G Doucas


Proceedings of IPAC2013, Shanghai, China (2013)

A Reichold, C Perry, F Bakkali, G Doucas, I Konoplev, R Bartolini

Spectra of coherent smith-purcell radiation observed from short electron bunches: Numerical and experimental studies

IPAC 2013: Proceedings of the 4th International Particle Accelerator Conference (2013) 801-803

FB Taheri, IV Konoplev, G Doucas, A Reichold, RJDA Smith, R Bartolini, N Delerue, H Andrews, N Fuster-Martínez, C Clarke, V Bharadwaj, PH Stoltz

To stimulate and support the progress in areas of compact particle accelerators, within research fields including X-ray and THz (T-ray) sources of radiation, non-invasive, electron beam diagnostics that are capable of measuring a single femtosecond electron bunch are required. At the current stage such beam diagnostics for femtosecond-long electron bunches are still not available. The goal of the work presented is to understand the spectral characteristics of coherent Smith-Purcell radiation to enable its quick and reliable interpretation including the longitudinal profile reconstruction of electron bunches. The research presented comprises results from numerical modelling and experimental studies. We use a PiC numerical model to analyse the dependence of radiated spectra dependence on the electron bunch profile, and discuss our results in the context of new experimental data from the E203 experiment at SLAC. Copyright © 2013 by JACoW.

Feasibility study of a 2nd generation smith-purcell radiation monitor for the ESTB at SLAC

IPAC 2013: Proceedings of the 4th International Particle Accelerator Conference (2013) 634-636

N Fuster-Martínez, A Faus-Golfe, J Resta-López, N Delerue, J Barros, M Vieille-Grosjean, A Reichold, C Perry, F Bakkali, G Doucas, I Konoplev, R Bartolini, S Stevenson, H Andrews, C Clarke, V Bharadwaj

The use of a radiative process such as the Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation (CSPR) is a very promising noninvasive technique for the reconstruction of the time profile of relativistic electron bunches. Currently existing CSPR monitors do not have yet single-shot capability. Here we study the feasibility of using a CSPR based monitor for bunch length measurement at the End Station Test Beam (ESTB) at SLAC. The aim is to design a second-generation device with single-shot capability, and use it as a diagnostic tool at ESTB. Simulations of the spectral CSPR energy distribution and feasibility study have been performed for the optimization of the parameters and design of such a device. Copyright © 2013 by JACoW.

Single hadron response measurement and calorimeter jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

European Physical Journal C 73 (2013)

G Aad, B Abbott, J Abdallah, AA Abdelalim, A Abdesselam, O Abdinov, B Abi, M Abolins, OSA Zeid, H Abramowicz, H Abreu, E Acerbi, BS Acharya, L Adamczyk, DL Adams, TN Addy, J Adelman, M Aderholz, S Adomeit, P Adragna, T Adye, S Aefsky, JA Aguilar-Saavedra, M Aharrouche, SP Ahlen, F Ahles, A Ahmad, M Ahsan, G Aielli, T Akdogan, TPA Åkesson, G Akimoto, AV Akimov, A Akiyama, MS Alam, MA Alam, J Albert, S Albrand, M Aleksa, IN Aleksandrov, F Alessandria, C Alexa, G Alexander, G Alexandre, T Alexopoulos, M Alhroob, M Aliev, G Alimonti, J Alison, M Aliyev, BMM Allbrooke, PP Allport, SE Allwood-Spiers, J Almond, A Aloisio, R Alon, A Alonso, BA Gonzalez, MG Alviggi, K Amako, P Amaral, C Amelung, VV Ammosov, A Amorim, G Amorós, N Amram, C Anastopoulos, LS Ancu, N Andari, T Andeen, CF Anders, G Anders, KJ Anderson, A Andreazza, V Andrei, ML Andrieux, XS Anduaga, A Angerami, F Anghinolfi, A Anisenkov, N Anjos, A Annovi, A Antonaki, M Antonelli, A Antonov, J Antos, F Anulli, S Aoun, LA Bella, R Apolle, G Arabidze, I Aracena, Y Arai, ATH Arce, S Arfaoui, JF Arguin, E Arik, M Arik, AJ Armbruster, O Arnaez

© 2013, CERN for the benefit of the ATLAS collaboration. The uncertainty on the calorimeter energy response to jets of particles is derived for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First, the calorimeter response to single isolated charged hadrons is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation using proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of √s = 900 GeV and 7 TeV collected during 2009 and 2010. Then, using the decay of K<inf>s</inf> and Λ particles, the calorimeter response to specific types of particles (positively and negatively charged pions, protons, and anti-protons) is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo predictions. Finally, the jet energy scale uncertainty is determined by propagating the response uncertainty for single charged and neutral particles to jets. The response uncertainty is 2–5 % for central isolated hadrons and 1–3 % for the final calorimeter jet energy scale.