# Publications by Felix Parra Diaz

## KNOSOS: a fast orbit-averaging neoclassical code for arbitrary stellarator geometry

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KNOSOS (KiNetic Orbit-averaging SOlver for Stellarators) is a freely available, open-source code that calculates neoclassical transport in low-collisionality plasmas of three-dimensional magnetic confinement devices by solving the radially local drift-kinetic and quasineutrality equations. The main feature of KNOSOS is that it relies on orbit-averaging, which removes the dependence on the coordinate along the magnetic field line, and allows to solve the drift-kinetic equation very fast. KNOSOS treats rigorously the effect of the component of the magnetic drift that is tangent to magnetic surfaces, and of the component of the electrostatic potential that varies on the flux-surface, {\varphi}_1. Furthermore, the equation solved is linear in {\varphi}_1, which permits an efficient solution of the quasineutrality equation. As long as the radially local approach is valid, KNOSOS can be applied to the calculation of neoclassical transport in stellarators (helias, heliotrons, heliacs, etc.) and tokamaks with broken axisymmetry. In this paper, we show several calculations for the stellarators W7-X, LHD, NCSX and TJ-II that provide benchmark with standard local codes and demonstrate the advantages of this approach.

## Long-wavelength limit of gyrokinetics in a turbulent tokamak and its intrinsic ambipolarity

ArXiv (0)

Recently, the electrostatic gyrokinetic Hamiltonian and change of coordinates have been computed to order $\epsilon^2$ in general magnetic geometry. Here $\epsilon$ is the gyrokinetic expansion parameter, the gyroradius over the macroscopic scale length. Starting from these results, the long-wavelength limit of the gyrokinetic Fokker-Planck and quasineutrality equations is taken for tokamak geometry. Employing the set of equations derived in the present article, it is possible to calculate the long-wavelength components of the distribution functions and of the poloidal electric field to order $\epsilon^2$. These higher-order pieces contain both neoclassical and turbulent contributions, and constitute one of the necessary ingredients (the other is given by the short-wavelength components up to second order) that will eventually enter a complete model for the radial transport of toroidal angular momentum in a tokamak in the low flow ordering. Finally, we provide an explicit and detailed proof that the system consisting of second-order gyrokinetic Fokker-Planck and quasineutrality equations leaves the long-wavelength radial electric field undetermined; that is, the turbulent tokamak is intrinsically ambipolar.

## A current driven electromagnetic mode in sheared and toroidal configurations

ArXiv (0)

The induced electric field in a tokamak drives a parallel electron current flow. In an inhomogeneous, finite beta plasma, when this electron flow is comparable to the ion thermal speed, the Alfven mode wave solutions of the electromagnetic gyrokinetic equation can become nearly purely growing kink modes. Using the new "low-flow" version of the gyrokinetic code GS2 developed for momentum transport studies [Barnes et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 055005], we are able to model the effect of the induced parallel electric field on the electron distribution to study the destabilizing influence of current on stability. We identify high mode number kink modes in GS2 simulations and make comparisons to analytical theory in sheared magnetic geometry. We demonstrate reassuring agreement with analytical results both in terms of parametric dependences of mode frequencies and growth rates, and regarding the radial mode structure.

## Up-down symmetry of the turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks

ArXiv (0)

Two symmetries of the local nonlinear delta-f gyrokinetic system of equations in tokamaks in the high flow regime are presented. The turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum changes sign under an up-down reflection of the tokamak and a sign change of both the rotation and the rotation shear. Thus, the turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum must vanish for up-down symmetric tokamaks in the absence of both rotation and rotation shear. This has important implications for the modeling of spontaneous rotation.

## When omnigeneity fails

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A generic non-symmetric magnetic field does not confine magnetized charged particles for long times due to secular magnetic drifts. Stellarator magnetic fields should be omnigeneous (that is, designed such that the secular drifts vanish), but perfect omnigeneity is technically impossible. There always are small deviations from omnigeneity that necessarily have large gradients. The amplification of the energy flux caused by a deviation of size $\epsilon$ is calculated and it is shown that the scaling with $\epsilon$ of the amplification factor can be as large as linear. In opposition to common wisdom, most of the transport is not due to particles trapped in ripple wells, but to the perturbed motion of particles trapped in the omnigeneous magnetic wells around their bounce points.