# Publications by Alexander Lvovsky

## Squeezed Light

in *Photonics: Scientific Foundations, Technology and Applications*, **1** (2015) 121-163

© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The basic idea of squeezing can be understood by considering the quantum harmonic oscillator, familiar from undergraduate quantum mechanics. Squeezing is best visualized by means of the Wigner function-the quantum analog of the phase-space probability density. This chapter discusses the photon number decomposition of the two-mode squeezed state. Most frequently, squeezing is obtained by nonlinear optical wave-mixing processes, in which pairs of photons are emitted into degenerate (single-mode squeezing) or non-degenerate (two-mode squeezing) modes. In order to mathematically describe nonlinear-optical squeezing, the chapter describes the equations for the propagation of classical electromagnetic fields through a nonlinear medium. Amplitude squeezing is then readily observed by measuring the intensity with a single high-efficiency detector and evaluating the variance of the photocurrent noise.

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