Publications by Chris Lintott

Galaxy Zoo: The Environmental Dependence of Bars and Bulges in Disc Galaxies

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RA Skibba, KL Masters, RC Nichol, I Zehavi, B Hoyle, EM Edmondson, SP Bamford, CN Cardamone, WC Keel, C Lintott, K Schawinski

We present an analysis of the environmental dependence of bars and bulges in disc galaxies, using a volume-limited catalogue of 15810 galaxies at z<0.06 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with visual morphologies from the Galaxy Zoo 2 project. We find that the likelihood of having a bar, or bulge, in disc galaxies increases when the galaxies have redder (optical) colours and larger stellar masses, and observe a transition in the bar and bulge likelihoods, such that massive disc galaxies are more likely to host bars and bulges. We use galaxy clustering methods to demonstrate statistically significant environmental correlations of barred, and bulge-dominated, galaxies, from projected separations of 150 kpc/h to 3 Mpc/h. These environmental correlations appear to be independent of each other: i.e., bulge-dominated disc galaxies exhibit a significant bar-environment correlation, and barred disc galaxies show a bulge-environment correlation. We demonstrate that approximately half (50 +/- 10%) of the bar-environment correlation can be explained by the fact that more massive dark matter haloes host redder disc galaxies, which are then more likely to have bars. Likewise, we show that the environmental dependence of stellar mass can only explain a small fraction (25 +/- 10%) of the bar-environment correlation. Therefore, a significant fraction of our observed environmental dependence of barred galaxies is not due to colour or stellar mass dependences, and hence could be due to another galaxy property. Finally, by analyzing the projected clustering of barred and unbarred disc galaxies with halo occupation models, we argue that barred galaxies are in slightly higher-mass haloes than unbarred ones, and some of them (approximately 25%) are satellite galaxies in groups. We also discuss implications about the effects of minor mergers and interactions on bar formation.

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