Publications by Chris Lintott

AGN photoionization of gas in companion galaxies as a probe of AGN radiation in time and direction


WC Keel, VN Bennert, A Pancoast, CE Harris, A Nierenberg, SD Chojnowski, AV Moiseev, DV Oparin, CJ Lintott, K Schawinski, G Mitchell, C Cornen

The Fifteenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys: First Release of MaNGA-derived Quantities, Data Visualization Tools, and Stellar Library


DS Aguado, R Ahumada, A Almeida, SF Anderson, BH Andrews, B Anguiano, E Aquino Ortiz, A Aragon-Salamanca, M Argudo-Fernandez, M Aubert, V Avila-Reese, C Badenes, SB Rembold, K Barger, J Barrera-Ballesteros, D Bates, J Bautista, RL Beaton, TC Beers, F Belfiore, M Bernardi, M Bershady, F Beutler, J Bird, D Bizyaev, GA Blanc, MR Blanton, M Blomqvist, AS Bolton, M Boquien, J Borissova, J Bovy, WN Brandt, J Brinkmann, JR Brownstein, K Bundy, A Burgasser, N Byler, MC Diaz, M Cappellari, R Carrera, B Cervantes Sodi, Y Chen, B Cherinka, PD Choi, H Chung, D Coffey, JM Comerford, J Comparat, K Covey, GDS Ilha, L da Costa, YS Dai, G Damke, J Darling, R Davies, K Dawson, V de Sainte Agathe, AD Machado, A Del Moro, N De Lee, AM Diamond-Stanic, HD Sanchez, J Donor, N Drory, HDM des Bourboux, C Duckworth, T Dwelly, G Ebelke, E Emsellem, S Escoffier, JG Fernandez-Trincado, D Feuillet, J-L Fischer, SW Fleming, A Fraser-McKelvie, G Freischlad, PM Frinchaboy, H Fu, L Galbany, R Garcia-Dias, DA Garcia-Hernandez, LA Garma Oehmichen, MA Geimba Maia, H Gil-Marin, K Grabowski, M Gu, H Guo, J Ha, E Harrington, S Hasselquist, CR Hayes, F Hearty, H Hernandez Toledo, H Hicks, DW Hogg, K Holley-Bockelmann, JA Holtzman, B-C Hsieh, JAS Hunt, HS Hwang, HJ Ibarra-Medel, CE Jimenez Angel, J Johnson, A Jones, H Jonsson, K Kinemuchi, J Kollmeier, C Krawczyk, K Kreckel, S Kruk, I Lacerna, T-W Lan, RR Lane, DR Law, Y-B Lee, C Li, J Lian, L Lin, Y-T Lin, C Lintott, D Long, P Longa-Pena, JT Mackereth, A de la Macorra, SR Majewski, O Malanushenko, A Manchado, C Maraston, V Mariappan, M Marinelli, R Marques-Chaves, T Masseron, KL Masters, RM McDermid, N Medina Pena, S Meneses-Goytia, A Merloni, M Merrifield, S Meszaros, D Minniti, R Minsley, D Muna, AD Myers, P Nair, JC do Nascimento, JA Newman, C Nitschelm, MD Olmstead, A Oravetz, D Oravetz, RA Ortega Minakata, Z Pace, N Padilla, PA Palicio, K Pan, H-A Pan, T Parikh, PJ III, S Peirani, S Penny, WJ Percival, I Perez-Fournon, T Peterken, MH Pinsonneault, A Prakash, MJ Raddick, A Raichoor, RA Riffel, R Riffel, H-W Rix, AC Robin, A Roman-Lopes, B Rose, AJ Ross, G Rossi, K Rowlands, KHR Rubin, SF Sanchez, JR Sanchez-Gallego, C Sayres, A Schaefer, RP Schiavon, JS Schimoia, E Schlafly, D Schlegel, DP Schneider, M Schultheis, H-J Seo, SJ Shamsi, Z Shao, S Shen, S Shetty, G Simonian, RJ Smethurst, J Sobeck, BJ Souter, A Spindler, DV Stark, KG Stassun, M Steinmetz, T Storchi-Bergmann, GS Stringfellow, G Suarez, J Sun, M Taghizadeh-Popp, MS Talbot, J Tayar, AR Thakar, D Thomas, P Tissera, R Tojeiro, NW Troup, E Unda-Sanzana, O Valenzuela, M Vargas-Magana, J Antonio Vazquez-Mata, D Wake, BA Weaver, A-M Weijmans, KB Westfall, V Wild, J Wilson, E Woods, R Yan, M Yang, O Zamora, G Zasowski, K Zhang, Z Zheng, G Zhu, JC Zinn, H Zou

The Frequency of Dust Lanes in Edge-on Spiral Galaxies Identified by Galaxy Zoo in KiDS Imaging of GAMA Targets


BW Holwerda, L Kelvin, I Baldry, C Lintott, M Alpaslan, KA Pimbblet, J Liske, T Kitching, S Bamford, J de Jong, M Bilicki, A Hopkins, J Bridge, R Steele, A Jacques, S Goswami, S Kusmic, W Roemer, S Kruk, CC Popescu, K Kuijken, L Wang, A Wright, T Kitching

The Effect of Minor and Major Mergers on the Evolution of Low-excitation Radio Galaxies


YA Gordon, KA Pimbblet, S Kaviraj, MS Owers, CP O'Dea, M Walmsley, SA Baum, JP Crossett, A Fraser-McKelvie, CJ Lintott, JCS Pierce

Galaxy Zoo: Unwinding the winding problem - Observations of spiral bulge prominence and arm pitch angles suggest local spiral galaxies are winding

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 487 (2019) 1808-1820

KL Masters, CJ Lintott, RE Hart, SJ Kruk, RJ Smethurst, KV Casteels, WC Keel, BD Simmons, DO Stanescu, J Tate, S Tomi

© 2019 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. We use classifications provided by citizen scientists though Galaxy Zoo to investigate the correlation between bulge size and arm winding in spiral galaxies.Whilst the traditional spiral sequence is based on a combination of both measures, and is supposed to favour arm winding where disagreement exists, we demonstrate that, in modern usage, the spiral classifications Sa-Sd are predominantly based on bulge size, with no reference to spiral arms. Furthermore, in a volume limited sample of galaxies with both automated and visual measures of bulge prominence and spiral arm tightness, there is at best a weak correlation between the two. Galaxies with small bulges have a wide range of arm winding, while those with larger bulges favour tighter arms. This observation, interpreted as revealing a variable winding speed as a function of bulge size, may be providing evidence that the majority of spiral arms are not static density waves, but rather wind-up over time. This suggests the 'winding problem' could be solved by the constant reforming of spiral arms, rather than needing a static density wave. We further observe that galaxies exhibiting strong bars tend to have more loosely wound arms at a given bulge size than unbarred spirals. This observations suggests that the presence of a bar may slow the winding speed of spirals, and may also drive other processes (such as density waves) that generate spiral arms. It is remarkable that after over 170 years of observations of spiral arms in galaxies our understanding of them remains incomplete.

Machine Learning for the Zwicky Transient Facility


A Mahabal, U Rebbapragada, R Walters, FJ Masci, N Blagorodnova, J van Roestel, Q-Z Ye, R Biswas, K Burdge, C-K Chang, DA Duev, VZ Golkhou, AA Miller, J Nordin, C Ward, S Adams, EC Bellm, D Branton, B Bue, C Cannella, A Connolly, R Dekany, U Feindt, T Hung, L Fortson, S Frederick, C Fremling, S Gezari, M Graham, S Groom, MM Kasliwal, S Kulkarni, T Kupfer, HW Lin, C Lintott, R Lunnan, J Parejko, TA Prince, R Riddle, B Rusholme, N Saunders, N Sedaghat, DL Shupe, LP Singer, MT Soumagnac, P Szkody, Y Tachibana, K Tirumala, S van Velzen, D Wright

Everyone counts? Design considerations in online citizen science

Journal of Science Communication 18 (2019)

H Spiers, A Swanson, L Fortson, BD Simmons, L Trouille, S Blickhan, C Lintott

© 2019, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati. Effective classification of large datasets is a ubiquitous challenge across multiple knowledge domains. One solution gaining in popularity is to perform distributed data analysis via online citizen science platforms, such as the Zooniverse. The resulting growth in project numbers is increasing the need to improve understanding of the volunteer experience; as the sustainability of citizen science is dependent on our ability to design for engagement and usability. Here, we examine volunteer interaction with 63 projects, representing the most comprehensive collection of online citizen science project data gathered to date. Together, this analysis demonstrates how subtle project design changes can influence many facets of volunteer interaction, including when and how much volunteers interact, and, importantly, who participates. Our findings highlight the tension between designing for social good and broad community engagement, versus optimizing for scientific and analytical efficiency.

Citizen science frontiers: Efficiency, engagement, and serendipitous discovery with human-machine systems.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116 (2019) 1902-1909

L Trouille, CJ Lintott, LF Fortson

Citizen science has proved to be a unique and effective tool in helping science and society cope with the ever-growing data rates and volumes that characterize the modern research landscape. It also serves a critical role in engaging the public with research in a direct, authentic fashion and by doing so promotes a better understanding of the processes of science. To take full advantage of the onslaught of data being experienced across the disciplines, it is essential that citizen science platforms leverage the complementary strengths of humans and machines. This Perspectives piece explores the issues encountered in designing human-machine systems optimized for both efficiency and volunteer engagement, while striving to safeguard and encourage opportunities for serendipitous discovery. We discuss case studies from Zooniverse, a large online citizen science platform, and show that combining human and machine classifications can efficiently produce results superior to those of either one alone and how smart task allocation can lead to further efficiencies in the system. While these examples make clear the promise of human-machine integration within an online citizen science system, we then explore in detail how system design choices can inadvertently lower volunteer engagement, create exclusionary practices, and reduce opportunity for serendipitous discovery. Throughout we investigate the tensions that arise when designing a human-machine system serving the dual goals of carrying out research in the most efficient manner possible while empowering a broad community to authentically engage in this research.

SNITCH: seeking a simple, informative star formation history inference tool


RJ Smethurst, M Merrifield, CJ Lintott, KL Masters, BD Simmons, A Fraser-McKelvie, T Peterken, M Boquien, RA Riffel, N Drory

Identification of low surface brightness tidal features in galaxies using convolutional neural networks

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press (OUP) 483 (2019) 2968-2982

M Walmsley, AMN Ferguson, RG Mann, CJ Lintott

LSST: From Science Drivers to Reference Design and Anticipated Data Products


Z Ivezic, SM Kahn, JA Tyson, B Abel, E Acosta, R Allsman, D Alonso, Y AlSayyad, SF Anderson, J Andrew, JRP Angel, GZ Angeli, R Ansari, P Antilogus, C Araujo, R Armstrong, KT Arndt, P Astier, E Aubourg, N Auza, TS Axelrod, DJ Bard, JD Barr, A Barrau, JG Bartlett, AE Bauer, BJ Bauman, S Baumont, E Bechtol, K Bechtol, AC Becker, J Becla, C Beldica, S Bellavia, FB Bianco, R Biswas, G Blanc, J Blazek, RD Blandford, JS Bloom, J Bogart, TW Bond, MT Booth, AW Borgland, K Borne, JF Bosch, D Boutigny, CA Brackett, A Bradshaw, WN Brandt, ME Brown, JS Bullock, P Burchat, DL Burke, G Cagnoli, D Calabrese, S Callahan, AL Callen, JL Carlin, EL Carlson, S Chandrasekharan, G Charles-Emerson, S Chesley, EC Cheu, H-F Chiang, J Chiang, C Chirino, D Chow, DR Ciardi, CF Claver, J Cohen-Tanugi, JJ Cockrum, R Coles, AJ Connolly, KH Cook, A Cooray, KR Covey, C Cribbs, W Cui, R Cutri, PN Daly, SF Daniel, F Daruich, G Daubard, G Daues, W Dawson, F Delgado, A Dellapenna, R de Peyster, M de Val-Borro, SW Digel, P Doherty, R Dubois, GP Dubois-Felsmann, J Durech, F Economou, T Eifler, M Eracleous, BL Emmons, AF Neto, H Ferguson, E Figueroa, M Fisher-Levine, W Focke, MD Foss, J Frank, MD Freemon, E Gangler, E Gawiser, JC Geary, P Gee, M Geha, CJB Gessner, RR Gibson, DK Gilmore, T Glanzman, W Glick, T Goldina, DA Goldstein, I Goodenow, ML Graham, WJ Gressler, P Gris, LP Guy, A Guyonnet, G Haller, R Harris, PA Hascall, J Haupt, F Hernandez, S Herrmann, E Hileman, J Hoblitt, JA Hodgson, C Hogan, JD Howard, D Huang, ME Huffer, P Ingraham, WR Innes, SH Jacoby, B Jain, F Jammes, MJ Jee, T Jenness, G Jernigan, D Jevremovic, K Johns, AS Johnson, MWG Johnson, RL Jones, C Juramy-Gilles, M Juric, JS Kalirai, NJ Kallivayalil, B Kalmbach, JP Kantor, P Karst, MM Kasliwal, H Kelly, R Kessler, V Kinnison, D Kirkby, L Knox, IV Kotov, VL Krabbendam, KS Krughoff, P Kubanek, J Kuczewski, S Kulkarni, J Ku, NR Kurita, CS Lage, R Lambert, T Lange, JB Langton, L Le Guillou, D Levine, M Liang, K-T Lim, CJ Lintott, KE Long, M Lopez, PJ Lotz, RH Lupton, NB Lust, LA MacArthur, A Mahabal, R Mandelbaum, TW Markiewicz, DS Marsh, PJ Marshall, S Marshall, M May, R McKercher, MichelleMcQueen, J Meyers, M Migliore, M Miller, DJ Mills, C Miraval, J Moeyens, FE Moolekamp, DG Monet, M Moniez, S Monkewitz, C Montgomery, CB Morrison, F Mueller, GP Muller, FM Arancibia, DR Neill, SP Newbry, J-Y Nief, A Nomerotski, M Nordby, P O'Connor, J Oliver, SS Olivier, K Olsen, W O'Mullane, S Ortiz, S Osier, RE Owen, R Pain, PE Palecek, JK Parejko, JB Parsons, NM Pease, JM Peterson, JR Peterson, DL Petravick, MEL Petrick, CE Petry, F Pierfederici, S Pietrowicz, R Pike, PA Pinto, R Plante, S Plate, JP Plutchak, PA Price, M Prouza, V Radeka, J Rajagopal, AP Rasmussen, N Regnault, KA Reil, DJ Reiss, MA Reuter, ST Ridgway, VJ Riot, S Ritz, S Robinson, W Roby, A Roodman, W Rosing, C Roucelle, MR Rumore, S Russo, A Saha, B Sassolas, TL Schalk, P Schellart, RH Schindler, S Schmidt, DP Schneider, MD Schneider, W Schoening, G Schumacher, ME Schwamb, J Sebag, B Selvy, GH Sembroski, LG Seppala, A Serio, E Serrano, RA Shaw, I Shipsey, J Sick, N Silvestri, T Colin, JA Smith, RC Smith, Shahram, C Soldahl, L Storrie-Lombardi, E Stover, MA Strauss, RA Street, CW Stubbs, IS Sullivan, D Sweeney, JD Swinbank, A Szalay, P Takacs, SA Tether, JJ Thaler, JG Thayer, S Thomas, AJ Thornton, V Thukral, J Tice, DE Trilling, M Turri, R Van Berg, D Vanden Berk, K Vetter, F Virieux, T Vucina, W Wahl, L Walkowicz, B Walsh, CW Walter, DL Wang, S-Y Wang, M Warner, O Wiecha, B Willman, SE Winters, D Wittman, SC Wolff, WM Wood-Vasey, X Wu, B Xin, P Yoachim, H Zhan

Getting Connected: An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship Between Social Capital and Philanthropy Among Online Volunteers


J Cox, EY Oh, B Simmons, G Graham, A Greenhill, C Lintott, K Masters, R Meriton

K2-288Bb: A Small Temperate Planet in a Low-mass Binary System Discovered by Citizen Scientists


AD Feinstein, JE Schlieder, JH Livingston, DR Ciardi, AW Howard, L Arnold, G Barentsen, M Bristow, JL Christiansen, IJM Crossfield, CD Dressing, EJ Gonzales, M Kosiarek, CJ Lintott, G Miller, FY Morales, EA Petigura, B Thackeray, J Ault, E Baeten, AF Jonkeren, J Langley, H Moshinaly, K Pearson, C Tanner, J Treasure

Integrating human and machine intelligence in galaxy morphology classification tasks

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Blackwell Publishing Inc. (2018)

MR Beck, C Scarlata, LF Fortson, CJ Lintott, BD Simmons, MA Galloway, KW Willett, H Dickinson, KL Masters, PJ Marshall, D Wright

Quantifying galaxy morphology is a challenging yet scientifically rewarding task. As the scale of data continues to increase with upcoming surveys, traditional classification methods will struggle to handle the load. We present a solution through an integration of visual and automated classifications, preserving the best features of both human and machine. We demonstrate the effectiveness of such a system through a re-analysis of visual galaxy morphology classifications collected during the Galaxy Zoo 2 (GZ2) project. We reprocess the top level question of the GZ2 decision tree with a Bayesian classification aggregation algorithm dubbed SWAP, originally developed for the Space Warps gravitational lens project. Through a simple binary classification scheme we increase the classification rate nearly 5-fold, classifying 226,124 galaxies in 92 days of GZ2 project time while reproducing labels derived from GZ2 classification data with 95.7% accuracy. We next combine this with a Random Forest machine learning algorithm that learns on a suite of nonparametric morphology indicators widely used for automated morphologies. We develop a decision engine that delegates tasks between human and machine, and demonstrate that the combined system provides at least a factor of 8 increase in the classification rate, classifying 210,803 galaxies in just 32 days of GZ2 project time with 93.1% accuracy. As the Random Forest algorithm requires a minimal amount of computation cost, this result has important implications for galaxy morphology identification tasks in the era of Euclid and other large scale surveys.

Time-lapse imagery and volunteer classifications from the Zooniverse Penguin Watch project.

Scientific data 5 (2018) 180124-

FM Jones, C Allen, C Arteta, J Arthur, C Black, LM Emmerson, R Freeman, G Hines, CJ Lintott, Z Macháčková, G Miller, R Simpson, C Southwell, HR Torsey, A Zisserman, T Hart

Automated time-lapse cameras can facilitate reliable and consistent monitoring of wild animal populations. In this report, data from 73,802 images taken by 15 different Penguin Watch cameras are presented, capturing the dynamics of penguin (Spheniscidae; Pygoscelis spp.) breeding colonies across the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands and South Georgia (03/2012 to 01/2014). Citizen science provides a means by which large and otherwise intractable photographic data sets can be processed, and here we describe the methodology associated with the Zooniverse project Penguin Watch, and provide validation of the method. We present anonymised volunteer classifications for the 73,802 images, alongside the associated metadata (including date/time and temperature information). In addition to the benefits for ecological monitoring, such as easy detection of animal attendance patterns, this type of annotated time-lapse imagery can be employed as a training tool for machine learning algorithms to automate data extraction, and we encourage the use of this data set for computer vision development.

Doing Good Online: The Changing Relationships Between Motivations, Activity, and Retention Among Online Volunteers


J Cox, EY Oh, B Simmons, G Graham, A Greenhill, C Lintott, K Masters, J Woodcock

SDSS-IV MaNGA: the different quenching histories of fast and slow rotatorsSDSS-IV MaNGA: the different quenching histories of fast and slow rotators


RJ Smethurst, KL Masters, CJ Lintott, A Weijmans, M Merrifield, SJ Penny, A Aragon-Salamanca, J Brownstein, K Bundy, N Drory, DR Law, RC Nichol

Galaxy Zoo: secular evolution of barred galaxies from structural decomposition of multiband images


SJ Kruk, CJ Lintott, SP Bamford, KL Masters, BD Simmons, B Haussler, CN Cardamone, RE Hart, L Kelvin, K Schawinski, RJ Smethurst, M Vika

The K2-138 System: A Near-resonant Chain of Five Sub-Neptune Planets Discovered by Citizen Scientists


JL Christiansen, IJM Crossfield, G Barentsen, CJ Lintott, T Barclay, BD Simmons, E Petigura, JE Schlieder, CD Dressing, A Vanderburg, C Allen, A McMaster, G Miller, M Veldthuis, S Allen, Z Wolfenbarger, B Cox, J Zemiro, AW Howard, J Livingston, E Sinukoff, T Catron, A Grey, JJE Kusch, I Terentev, M Vales, MH Kristiansen

The First Post-Kepler Brightness Dips of KIC 8462852


TS Boyajian, R Alonso, A Ammerman, D Armstrong, AA Ramos, K Barkaoui, TG Beatty, Z Benkhaldoun, P Benni, RO Bentley, A Berdyugin, S Berdyugina, S Bergeron, A Bieryla, MG Blain, AC Blanco, EHL Bodman, A Boucher, M Bradley, SM Brincat, TG Brink, J Briol, DJA Brown, J Budaj, A Burdanov, B Cale, MA Carbo, RC Garcia, WJ Clark, GC Clayton, JL Clem, PH Coker, EM Cook, CM Copperwheat, JL Curtis, RM Cutri, B Cseh, CH Cynamon, AJ Daniels, JRA Davenport, HJ Deeg, R De Lorenzo, T De Jaeger, J-B Desrosiers, J Dolan, DJ Dowhos, F Dubois, R Durkee, S Dvorak, L Easley, N Edwards, TG Ellis, E Erdelyi, S Ertel, RG Farfan, J Farihi, AV Filippenko, E Foxell, D Gandolfi, F Garcia, F Giddens, M Gillon, J-L Gonzalez-Carballo, C Gonzalez-Fernandez, JIG Hernandez, KA Graham, KA Greene, J Gregorio, N Hallakoun, O Hanyecz, GR Harp, GW Henry, E Herrero, CF Hildbold, D Hinzel, G Holgado, B Ignacz, I Ilyin, VD Ivanov, E Jehin, HE Jermak, S Johnston, S Kafka, C Kalup, E Kardasis, S Kaspi, GM Kennedy, F Kiefer, CL Kielty, D Kessler, H Kiiskinen, TL Killestein, RA King, V Kollar, H Korhonen, C Kotnik, R Konyves-Toth, L Kriskovics, N Krumm, V Krushinsky, E Kundra, F-R Lachapelle, D LaCourse, P Lake, K Lam, GP Lamb, D Lane, MW Lau, P Lewin, C Lintott, C Lisse, L Logie, N Longeard, ML Villanueva, EW Ludington, A Mainzer, L Malo, C Maloney, A Mann, A Mantero, M Marengo, J Marchant, MJM Gonzalez, JR Masiero, JC Mauerhan, J McCormac, A McNeely, HYA Meng, M Miller, LA Molnar, JC Morales, BM Morris, MW Muterspaugh, D Nespral, CR Nugent, KM Nugent, A Odasso, D O'Keeffe, A Oksanen, JM O'Meara, A Ordasi, H Osborn, JJ Ott, JR Parks, DR Perez, V Petriew, R Pickard, A Pal, P Plavchan, D Pollacco, FP Nunez, FJ Pozuelos, S Rau, S Redfield, H Relles, I Ribas, J Richards, JLO Saario, EJ Safron, JM Sallai, K Sarneczky, BE Schaefer, CF Schumer, M Schwartzendruber, MH Siegel, APV Siemion, BD Simmons, JD Simon, S Simon-Diaz, ML Sitko, H Socas-Navarro, A Sodor, D Starkey, IA Steele, G Stone, KG Strassmeier, RA Street, T Sullivan, J Suomela, JJ Swift, GM Szabo, R Szabo, R Szakats, T Szalai, AM Tanner, B Toledo-Padron, T Tordai, AHMJ Triaud, JD Turner, JH Ulowetz, M Urbanik, S Vanaverbeke, A Vanderburg, K Vida, BP Vietje, J Vinko, K Von Braun, EO Waagen, D Walsh, CA Watson, RC Weir, K Wenzel, CW Plaza, MW Williamson, JT Wright, MC Wyatt, W Zheng, G Zsidi