Publications by Chris Lintott


Galaxy Zoo: the interplay of quenching mechanisms in the group environment

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 469 (2017) 3670-3687

RJ Smethurst, CJ Lintott, SP Bamford, RE Hart, SJ Kruk, KL Masters, RC Nichol, BD Simmons


Galaxy Zoo: finding offset discs and bars in SDSS galaxies

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 469 (2017) 3363-3373

SJ Kruk, CJ Lintott, BD Simmons, SP Bamford, CN Cardamone, L Fortson, RE Hart, B Haussler, KL Masters, RC Nichol, K Schawinski, RJ Smethurst


Supermassive black holes in disc-dominated galaxies outgrow their bulges and co-evolve with their host galaxies

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 470 (2017) 1559-1569

BD Simmons, RJ Smethurst, C Lintott


Galaxy Zoo: morphological classifications for 120 000 galaxies in HST legacy imaging

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 464 (2017) 4176-4203

KW Willett, MA Galloway, SP Bamford, CJ Lintott, KL Masters, C Scarlata, BD Simmons, M Beck, CN Cardamone, E Cheung, EM Edmondson, LF Fortson, RL Griffith, B Haussler, A Han, R Hart, T Melvin, M Parrish, K Schawinski, RJ Smethurst, AM Smith


Galaxy Zoo: quantitative visual morphological classifications for 48 000 galaxies from CANDELS

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 464 (2017) 4420-4447

BD Simmons, C Lintott, KW Willett, KL Masters, JS Kartaltepe, B Haussler, S Kaviraj, C Krawczyk, SJ Kruk, DH McIntosh, RJ Smethurst, RC Nichol, C Scarlata, K Schawinski, CJ Conselice, O Almaini, HC Ferguson, L Fortson, W Hartley, D Kocevski, AM Koekemoer, A Mortlock, JA Newman, SP Bamford, NA Grogin, RA Lucas, NP Hathi, E McGrath, M Peth, J Pforr, Z Rizer, S Wuyts, G Barro, EF Bell, M Castellano, T Dahlen, A Dekel, J Ownsworth, SM Faber, SL Finkelstein, A Fontana, A Galametz, R Grutzbauch, D Koo, J Lotz, B Mobasher, M Mozena, M Salvato, T Wiklind


Science learning via participation in online citizen science

Journal of Science Communication 15 (2016)

K Masters, EY Oh, J Cox, B Simmons, C Lintott, G Graham, A Greenhill, K Holmes

We investigate the development of scientific content knowledge of volunteers participating in online citizen science projects in the Zooniverse (www.zooniverse.org). We use econometric methods to test how measures of project participation relate to success in a science quiz, controlling for factors known to correlate with scientific knowledge. Citizen scientists believe they are learning about both the content and processes of science through their participation. We don't directly test the latter, but we find evidence to support the former - that more actively engaged participants perform better in a pro ject-specific science knowledge quiz, even after controlling for their general science knowledge. We interpret this as evidence of learning of science content inspired by participation in online citizen science.


Extended X-ray emission in the IC 2497 - Hanny's Voorwerp system: Energy injection in the gas around a fading AGN

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 457 (2016) 3629-3636

LF Sartori, K Schawinski, M Koss, E Treister, W Peter Maksym, WC Keel, C Megan Urry, CJ Lintott, O Ivy Wong

© 2016 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. We present deep Chandra X-ray observations of the core of IC 2497, the galaxy associated with Hanny's Voorwerp and hosting a fading AGN.We find extended soft X-ray emission from hot gas around the low intrinsic luminosity (unobscured) AGN (L bol ~ 10 42 -10 44 erg s -1 ). The temperature structure in the hot gas suggests the presence of a bubble or cavity around the fading AGN (E bub ~ 10 54 -10 55 erg). A possible scenario is that this bubble is inflated by the fading AGN, which after changing accretion state is now in a kinetic mode. Other possibilities are that the bubble has been inflated by the past luminous quasar (L bol ~ 10 46 erg s -1 ), or that the temperature gradient is an indication of a shock front from a superwind driven by the AGN. We discuss the possible scenarios and the impl ications for the AGN-host galaxy interaction, as well as an analogy between AGN and X-ray binaries lifecycles.We conclude that the AGN could inject mechanical energy into the host galaxy at the end of its lifecycle, and thus provide a source for mechanical feedback, in a similar way as observed for X-ray binaries.


Planet Hunters IX. KIC 8462852-where's the flux?

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 457 (2016) 3988-4004

TS Boyajian, DM LaCourse, SA Rappaport, D Fabrycky, DA Fischer, D Gandolfi, GM Kennedy, H Korhonen, MC Liu, A Moor, K Olah, K Vida, MC Wyatt, WMJ Best, J Brewer, F Ciesla, B Csak, HJ Deeg, TJ Dupuy, G Handler, K Heng, SB Howell, ST Ishikawa, J Kovacs, T Kozakis, L Kriskovics, J Lehtinen, C Lintott, S Lynn, D Nespral, S Nikbakhsh, K Schawinski, JR Schmitt, AM Smith, G Szabo, R Szabo, J Viuho, J Wang, A Weiksnar, M Bosch, JL Connors, S Goodman, G Green, AJ Hoekstra, T Jebson, KJ Jek, MR Omohundro, HM Schwengeler, A Szewczyk


The Moon Zoo citizen science project: Preliminary results for the Apollo 17 landing site

ICARUS 271 (2016) 30-48

R Bugiolacchi, S Bamford, P Tar, N Thacker, IA Crawford, KH Joy, PM Grindrod, C Lintott


A generalized approach for producing, quantifying, and validating citizen science data from wildlife images.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 30 (2016) 520-531

A Swanson, M Kosmala, C Lintott, C Packer

Citizen science has the potential to expand the scope and scale of research in ecology and conservation, but many professional researchers remain skeptical of data produced by nonexperts. We devised an approach for producing accurate, reliable data from untrained, nonexpert volunteers. On the citizen science website www.snapshotserengeti.org, more than 28,000 volunteers classified 1.51 million images taken in a large-scale camera-trap survey in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Each image was circulated to, on average, 27 volunteers, and their classifications were aggregated using a simple plurality algorithm. We validated the aggregated answers against a data set of 3829 images verified by experts and calculated 3 certainty metrics-level of agreement among classifications (evenness), fraction of classifications supporting the aggregated answer (fraction support), and fraction of classifiers who reported "nothing here" for an image that was ultimately classified as containing an animal (fraction blank)-to measure confidence that an aggregated answer was correct. Overall, aggregated volunteer answers agreed with the expert-verified data on 98% of images, but accuracy differed by species commonness such that rare species had higher rates of false positives and false negatives. Easily calculated analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey tests indicated that the certainty metrics were significant indicators of whether each image was correctly classified or classifiable. Thus, the certainty metrics can be used to identify images for expert review. Bootstrapping analyses further indicated that 90% of images were correctly classified with just 5 volunteers per image. Species classifications based on the plurality vote of multiple citizen scientists can provide a reliable foundation for large-scale monitoring of African wildlife.


PLANET HUNTERS. X. SEARCHING FOR NEARBY NEIGHBORS OF 75 PLANET AND ECLIPSING BINARY CANDIDATES FROM THE K2 KEPLER EXTENDED MISSION

ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL 151 (2016) ARTN 159

JR Schmitt, A Tokovinin, J Wang, DA Fischer, MH Kristiansen, DM LaCourse, R Gagliano, AJV Tan, HM Schwengeler, MR Omohundro, A Venner, I Terentev, AR Schmitt, TL Jacobs, T Winarski, J Sejpka, KJ Jek, TS Boyajian, JM Brewer, ST Ishikawa, C Lintott, S Lynn, K Schawinski, ME Schwamb, A Weiksnar


The milky way project and atlasgal: The distribution and physical properties of cold clumps near infrared bubbles

Astrophysical Journal 825 (2016)

S Kendrew, H Beuther, R Simpson, T Csengeri, M Wienen, CJ Lintott, MS Povich, C Beaumont, F Schuller

© 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We present a statistical study of the distribution and physical properties of cold, dense material in and around the inner Galactic Plane near-infrared bubbles as cataloged by the Milky Way Project citizen scientists. Using data from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy 870 μm survey, we show that 48 ± 2% of all cold clumps in the studied survey region (|l| ≤ 65°, |b| ≤ 1°) are found in close proximity to a bubble, and 25 ± 2% appear directly projected toward a bubble rim. A two-point correlation analysis confirms the strong correlation of massive cold clumps with expanding bubbles. It shows an overdensity of clumps along bubble rims that grows with increasing bubble size, which shows how interstellar medium material is reordered on large scales by bubble expansion around regions of massive star formation. The highest column density clumps appear to be resistent to the expansion, remaining overdense toward the bubbles' interior rather than being swept up by the expanding edge. Spectroscopic observations in ammonia show that cold dust clumps near bubbles appear to be denser, hotter, and more turbulent than those in the field, offering circumstantial evidence that bubble-associated clumps are more likely to be forming stars. These observed differences in physical conditions persist beyond the region of the bubble rims.


Galaxy Zoo: evidence for rapid, recent quenching within a population of AGN host galaxies

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 463 (2016) 2986-2996

RJ Smethurst, CJ Lintott, BD Simmons, K Schawinski, SP Bamford, CN Cardamone, SJ Kruk, KL Masters, CM Urry, KW Willett, OI Wong


Galaxy Zoo: Mergers - Dynamical models of interacting galaxies

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 459 (2016) 720-745

AJ Holincheck, JF Wallin, K Borne, L Fortson, C Lintott, AM Smith, S Bamford, WC Keel, M Parrish


PLANET HUNTERS. VIII. CHARACTERIZATION OF 41 LONG-PERIOD EXOPLANET CANDIDATES FROM KEPLER ARCHIVAL DATA

ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 815 (2015) ARTN 127

J Wang, DA Fischer, T Barclay, A Picard, B Ma, BP Bowler, JR Schmitt, TS Boyajian, KJ Jek, D LaCourse, C Baranec, R Riddle, NM Law, C Lintott, K Schawinski, DJ Simister, B Gregoire, SP Babin, T Poile, TL Jacobs, T Jebson, MR Omohundro, HM Schwengeler, J Sejpka, IA Terentev, R Gagliano, J-P Paakkonen, HKO Berge, T Winarski, GR Green, AR Schmitt, MH Kristiansen, A Hoekstra


Ideas for Citizen Science in Astronomy

ANNUAL REVIEW OF ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS, VOL 53 53 (2015) 247-278

PJ Marshall, CJ Lintott, LN Fletcher


Galaxy Zoo: Are bars responsible for the feeding of active galactic nuclei at 0.2 < z < 1.0?

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 447 (2015) 506-516

E Cheung, JR Trump, E Athanassoula, SP Bamford, EF Bell, A Bosma, CN Cardamone, KRV Casteels, SM Faber, JJ Fang, LF Fortson, DD Kocevski, DC Koo, S Laine, C Lintott, KL Masters, T Melvin, RC Nichol, K Schawinski, B Simmons, R Smethurst, KW Willett


HST IMAGING OF FADING AGN CANDIDATES. I. HOST-GALAXY PROPERTIES AND ORIGIN OF THE EXTENDED GAS

ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL 149 (2015) ARTN 155

WC Keel, WP Maksym, VN Bennert, CJ Lintott, SD Chojnowski, A Moiseev, A Smirnova, K Schawinski, CM Urry, DA Evans, A Pancoast, B Scott, C Showley, K Flatland


Crowd-sourced assessment of technical skills: A novel method to evaluate surgical performance

Journal of Surgical Research 187 (2014) 65-71

C Chen, L White, T Kowalewski, R Aggarwal, C Lintott, B Comstock, K Kuksenok, C Aragon, D Holst, T Lendvay

Background Validated methods of objective assessments of surgical skills are resource intensive. We sought to test a web-based grading tool using crowdsourcing called Crowd-Sourced Assessment of Technical Skill. Materials and methods Institutional Review Board approval was granted to test the accuracy of Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk and Facebook crowdworkers compared with experienced surgical faculty grading a recorded dry-laboratory robotic surgical suturing performance using three performance domains from a validated assessment tool. Assessor free-text comments describing their rating rationale were used to explore a relationship between the language used by the crowd and grading accuracy. Results Of a total possible global performance score of 3-15, 10 experienced surgeons graded the suturing video at a mean score of 12.11 (95% confidence interval [CI] , 11.11-13.11). Mechanical Turk and Facebook graders rated the video at mean scores of 12.21 (95% CI, 11.98-12.43) and 12.06 (95% CI, 11.57-12.55), respectively. It took 24 h to obtain responses from 501 Mechanical Turk subjects, whereas it took 24 d for 10 faculty surgeons to complete the 3-min survey. Facebook subjects (110) responded within 25 d. Language analysis indicated that crowdworkers who used negation words (i.e., "but," "although," and so forth) scored the performance more equivalently to experienced surgeons than crowdworkers who did not (P < 0.00001). Conclusions For a robotic suturing performance, we have shown that surgery-naive crowdworkers can rapidly assess skill equivalent to experienced faculty surgeons using Crowd-Sourced Assessment of Technical Skill. It remains to be seen whether crowds can discriminate different levels of skill and can accurately assess human surgery performances. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


The ultraviolet attenuation law in backlit spiral galaxies Based in part on observations made with the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer. GALEX is operated for NASA by the California Institute of Technology under NASA contract NAS5-98034.

Astronomical Journal 147 (2014)

WC Keel, AM Manning, BW Holwerda, CJ Lintott, K Schawinski

The effective extinction law (attenuation behavior) in galaxies in the emitted ultraviolet (UV) regime is well known only for actively star-forming objects and combines effects of the grain properties, fine structure in the dust distribution, and relative distributions of stars and dust. We use Galaxy Evolution Explorer, XMM Optical Monitor, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to explore the UV attenuation in the outer parts of spiral disks which are backlit by other UV-bright galaxies, starting with the candidate list of pairs provided by Galaxy Zoo participants. New optical images help to constrain the geometry and structure of the target galaxies. Our analysis incorporates galaxy symmetry, using non-overlapping regions of each galaxy to derive error estimates on the attenuation measurements. The entire sample has an attenuation law across the optical and UV that is close to the Calzetti et al. form; the UV slope for the overall sample is substantially shallower than found by Wild et al., which is a reasonable match to the more distant galaxies in our sample but not to the weighted combination including NGC 2207. The nearby, bright spiral NGC 2207 alone gives an accuracy almost equal to the rest of our sample, and its outer arms have a very low level of foreground starlight. Thus, this widespread, fairly "gray" law can be produced from the distribution of dust alone, without a necessary contribution from differential escape of stars from dense clouds. Our results indicate that the extrapolation needed to compare attenuation between backlit galaxies at moderate redshifts from HST data, and local systems from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and similar data, is mild enough to allow the use of galaxy overlaps to trace the cosmic history of dust in galaxies. For NGC 2207, HST data in the near-UV F336W band show that the covering factor of clouds with small optical attenuation becomes a dominant factor farther into the UV, which opens the possibility that widespread diffuse dust dominates over dust in star-forming regions deep into the UV. Comparison with published radiative-transfer models indicates that the role of dust clumping dominates over differences in grain populations at this coarse spatial resolution. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Pages