Publications by Muhammad Firmansyah

Time-resolved XUV opacity measurements of warm-dense aluminium

Physical Review Letters American Physical Society 124 (2020) 225002

S Vinko, V Vozda, J Andreasson, O Ciricosta, P Hollebon, M Kasim, DS Rackstraw, J Wark

The free-free opacity in plasmas is fundamental to our understanding of energy transport in stellar interiors and for inertial confinement fusion research. However, theoretical predictions in the challenging dense plasma regime are conflicting and there is a dearth of accurate experimental data to allow for direct model validation. Here we present time-resolved transmission measurements in solid-density Al heated by an XUV free-electron laser. We use a novel functional optimization approach to extract the temperature-dependent absorption coefficient directly from an oversampled pool of single-shot measurements, and find a pronounced enhancement of the opacity as the plasma is heated to temperatures of order of the Fermi energy. Plasma heating and opacity enhancement are observed on ultrafast timescales, within the duration of the femtosecond XUV pulse. We attribute further rises in the opacity on ps timescales to melt and the formation of warm dense matter.

Inverse problem instabilities in large-scale modelling of matter in extreme conditions

Physics of Plasmas AIP Publishing 26 (2019) 112706

MF Kasim, TP Galligan, J Topp-Mugglestone, G Gregori, S Vinko

Our understanding of physical systems often depends on our ability to match complex computational modeling with the measured experimental outcomes. However, simulations with large parameter spaces suffer from inverse problem instabilities, where similar simulated outputs can map back to very different sets of input parameters. While of fundamental importance, such instabilities are seldom resolved due to the intractably large number of simulations required to comprehensively explore parameter space. Here, we show how Bayesian inference can be used to address inverse problem instabilities in the interpretation of x-ray emission spectroscopy and inelastic x-ray scattering diagnostics. We find that the extraction of information from measurements on the basis of agreement with simulations alone is unreliable and leads to a significant underestimation of uncertainties. We describe how to statistically quantify the effect of unstable inverse models and describe an approach to experimental design that mitigates its impact.

Wakefields in a cluster plasma

Physical Review Special Topics: Accelerators and Beams American Physical Society 22 (2019) 113501

M Mayr, L Ceurvorst, M Kasim, J Sadler, B Spiers, K Glize, A Savin, N Bourgeois, F Keeble, A Ross, D Symes, R Aboushelbaya, R Fonseca, J Holloway, N Ratan, R Trines, R Wang, R Bingham, P Burrows, M Wing, R Pattathil, P Norreys

We report the first comprehensive study of large amplitude Langmuir waves in a plasma of nanometer-scale clusters. Using an oblique angle single-shot frequency domain holography diagnostic, the shape of these wakefields is captured for the first time. The wavefronts are observed to curve backwards, in contrast to the forwards curvature of wakefields in uniform plasma. Due to the expansion of the clusters, the first wakefield period is longer than those trailing it. The features of the data are well described by fully relativistic two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and by a quasianalytic solution for a one-dimensional, nonlinear wakefield in a cluster plasma.

Retrieving fields from proton radiography without source profiles

Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics American Physical Society (2019)

MF Kasim, A BOTT, P Tzeferacos, DQ Lamb, G GREGORI, SM Vinko

Proton radiography is a technique in high energy density science to diagnose magnetic and/or electric fields in a plasma by firing a proton beam and detecting its modulated intensity profile on a screen. Current approaches to retrieve the integrated field from the modulated intensity profile require the unmodulated beam intensity profile before the interaction, which is rarely available experimentally due to shot-to-shot variability. In this paper, we present a statistical method to retrieve the integrated field without needing to know the exact source profile. We apply our method to experimental data, showing the robustness of our approach. Our proposed technique allows not only for the retrieval of the path-integrated fields, but also of the statistical properties of the fields.

Advantages to a diverging Raman amplifier

Communications Physics Nature Publishing Group 1 (2018) 19

J Sadler, LO Silva, RA Fonseca, K Glize, M Kasim, A Savin, R Aboushelbaya, M Mayr, B Spiers, RH-W Wang, R Bingham, RMGM Trines, P Norreys

The plasma Raman instability can efficiently compress a nanosecond long high power laser pulse to sub-picosecond duration. Although many authors envisaged a converging beam geometry for Raman amplification, here we propose the exact opposite geometry; the amplification should start at the intense focus of the seed. We generalise the coupled laser envelope equations to include this non-collimated case. The new geometry completely eradicates the usual trailing secondary peaks of the output pulse, which typically lower the efficiency by half. It also reduces, by orders of magnitude, the initial seed pulse energy required for efficient operation. As in the collimated case, the evolution is self-similar, although the temporal pulse envelope is different. A two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation demonstrates efficient amplification of a diverging seed with only 0:3mJ energy. The pulse has no secondary peaks and almost constant intensity as it amplifies and diverges.

Validating continuum lowering models via multi-wavelength measurements of integrated x-ray emission

Scientific Reports Springer Nature 8 (2018) 6276

MF Kasim, JS Wark, S Vinko

X-ray emission spectroscopy is a well-established technique used to study continuum lowering in dense plasmas. It relies on accurate atomic physics models to robustly reproduce high-resolution emission spectra, and depends on our ability to identify spectroscopic signatures such as emission lines or ionization edges of individual charge states within the plasma. Here we describe a method that forgoes these requirements, enabling the validation of different continuum lowering models based solely on the total intensity of plasma emission in systems driven by narrow-bandwidth x-ray pulses across a range of wavelengths. The method is tested on published Al spectroscopy data and applied to the new case of solid-density partially-ionized Fe plasmas, where extracting ionization edges directly is precluded by the significant overlap of emission from a wide range of charge states.

Channel optimization of high-intensity laser beams in millimeter-scale plasmas

Physical Review E American Physical Society 97 (2018) 043208

L Ceurvorst, A Savin, N Ratan, J Sadler, P Norreys, H Habara, KA Tanaka, S Zhang, Wei, S Ivancic, D Froula, W Theobald

Channeling experiments were performed at the OMEGA EP facility using relativistic intensity ( > 10 18 W / cm 2 ) kilojoule laser pulses through large density scale length ( ∼ 390 – 570 μ m ) laser-produced plasmas, demonstrating the effects of the pulse's focal location and intensity as well as the plasma's temperature on the resulting channel formation. The results show deeper channeling when focused into hot plasmas and at lower densities, as expected. However, contrary to previous large-scale particle-in-cell studies, the results also indicate deeper penetration by short (10 ps), intense pulses compared to their longer-duration equivalents. This new observation has many implications for future laser-plasma research in the relativistic regime.

Quantitative shadowgraphy and proton radiography for large intensity modulations

Physical Review E - Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics American Physical Society (2017)

M Kasim, L Ceurvorst, N Ratan, J Sadler, N Chen, A Savert, R Trines, R Bingham, PN Burrows, MC Kaluza, P Norreys

Shadowgraphy is a technique widely used to diagnose objects or systems in various fields in physics and engineering. In shadowgraphy, an optical beam is deflected by the object and then the intensity modulation is captured on a screen placed some distance away. However, retrieving quantitative information from the shadowgrams themselves is a challenging task because of the non-linear nature of the process. Here, a novel method to retrieve quantitative information from shadowgrams, based on computational geometry, is presented for the first time. This process can also be applied to proton radiography for electric and magnetic field diagnosis in high-energy-density plasmas and has been benchmarked using a toroidal magnetic field as the object, among others. It is shown that the method can accurately retrieve quantitative parameters with error bars less than 10%, even when caustics are present. The method is also shown to be robust enough to process real experimental results with simple pre- and post-processing techniques. This adds a powerful new tool for research in various fields in engineering and physics for both techniques.

Dense plasma heating by crossing relativistic electron beams

Physical Review E American Physical Society 95 (2016) 013211

N Ratan, NJ Sircombe, LA Ceurvorst, J Sadler, MF Kasim, J Holloway, MC Levy, R Trines, R Bingham, P Norreys

Here we investigate, using relativistic fluid theory and Vlasov-Maxwell simulations, the local heating of a dense plasma by two crossing electron beams. Heating occurs as an instability of the electron beams drives Langmuir waves which couple nonlinearly into damped ion-acoustic waves. Simulations show a factor 2.8 increase in electron kinetic energy with a coupling efficiency of 18%. Our results support applications to the production of warm dense matter and as a driver for inertial fusion plasmas.

Mitigating the hosing instability in relativistic laser-plasma interactions

New Journal of Physics Institute of Physics 18 (2016) 053023-

L Ceurvorst, N Ratan, MC Levy, M Kasim, J Sadler, RHH Scott, RMGM Trines, TW Huang, M Skramic, M Vranic, LO Silva, PA Norreys

A new physical model of the hosing instability that includes relativistic laser pulses and moderate densities is presented and derives the density dependence of the hosing equation. This is tested against two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. These simulations further examine the feasibility of using multiple pulses to mitigate the hosing instability in a Nd:glass-type parameter space. An examination of the effects of planar versus cylindrical exponential density gradients on the hosing instability is also presented. The results show that strongly relativistic pulses and more planar geometries are capable of mitigating the hosing instability which is in line with the predictions of the physical model.

AWAKE: A Proton-Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings Elsevier (2016)

C Bracco, LD Amorim, R Assmann, F Batsch, R Bingham, G Burt, B Buttenschön, A Butterworth, A Caldwell, S Chattopadhyay, S Cipiccia, LC Deacon, S Doebert, U Dorda, E Feldbaumer, RA Fonseca, V Fedossev, B Goddard, J Grebenyuk, O Grulke, E Gschwendtner, J Hansen, C Hessler, W Hofle, J Holloway

© 2015 Elsevier B.V..The AWAKE Collaboration has been formed in order to demonstrate proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration for the first time. This acceleration technique could lead to future colliders of high energy but of a much reduced length when compared to proposed linear accelerators. The CERN SPS proton beam in the CNGS facility will be injected into a 10 m plasma cell where the long proton bunches will be modulated into significantly shorter micro-bunches. These micro-bunches will then initiate a strong wakefield in the plasma with peak fields above 1 GV/m that will be harnessed to accelerate a bunch of electrons from about 20 MeV to the GeV scale within a few meters. The experimental program is based on detailed numerical simulations of beam and plasma interactions. The main accelerator components, the experimental area and infrastructure required as well as the plasma cell and the diagnostic equipment are discussed in detail. First protons to the experiment are expected at the end of 2016 and this will be followed by an initial three-four years experimental program. The experiment will inform future larger-scale tests of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration and applications to high energy colliders.

Prospects for Multi kJ plasma ampliefiers

Optics InfoBase Conference Papers Part F38-FiO 2016 (2014)

J Sadler, R Trines, L Ceurvorst, N Ratan, M Kasim, R Bingham, P Norreys

© OSA 2016.Plasma amplifiers potentially offer a route to low cost, high efficiency, multi-kJ, tunable laser pulses. I will describe numerical simulations underpinning careful experiment design and interpretation to optimize this process at the University of Rochester.

Compression of X-ray free electron laser pulses to attosecond duration

Scientific Reports Nature Publishing Group 5 (2015) 16755-16755

JD Sadler, R Nathvani, P Oleśkiewicz, LA Ceurvorst, N Ratan, MF Kasim, RMGM Trines, R Bingham, P Norreys

State of the art X-ray Free Electron Laser facilities currently provide the brightest X-ray pulses available, typically with mJ energy and several hundred femtosecond duration. Here we present one- and two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations, utilising the process of stimulated Raman amplification, showing that these pulses are compressed to a temporally coherent, sub-femtosecond pulse at 8% efficiency. Pulses of this type may pave the way for routine time resolution of electrons in nm size potentials. Furthermore, evidence is presented that significant Landau damping and wave-breaking may be beneficial in distorting the rear of the interaction and further reducing the final pulse duration.

Quantitative single shot and spatially resolved plasma wakefield diagnostics

Physical Review Special Topics: Accelerators and Beams American Physical Society 18 (2015)

M Kasim, J Holloway, L Ceurvorst, MC Levy, N Ratan, J Sadler, R Bingham, P Burrows, R Trines, M Wing, P Norreys

Diagnosing plasma conditions can give great advantages in optimizing plasma wakefield accelerator experiments. One possible method is that of photon acceleration. By propagating a laser probe pulse through a plasma wakefield and extracting the imposed frequency modulation, one can obtain an image of the density modulation of the wakefield. In order to diagnose the wakefield parameters at a chosen point in the plasma, the probe pulse crosses the plasma at oblique angles relative to the wakefield. In this paper, mathematical expressions relating the frequency modulation of the laser pulse and the wakefield density profile of the plasma for oblique crossing angles are derived. Multidimensional particle-in-cell simulation results presented in this paper confirm that the frequency modulation profiles and the density modulation profiles agree to within 10%. Limitations to the accuracy of the measurement are discussed in this paper. This technique opens new possibilities to quantitatively diagnose the plasma wakefield density at known positions within the plasma column.

Simulation of density measurements in plasma wakefields using photon acceleration


MF Kasim, N Ratan, L Ceurvorst, J Sadler, PN Burrows, R Trines, J Holloway, M Wing, R Bingham, P Norreys

FPGA Implementation of Fast Serial 64-Points FFT/IFFT Block without Reordering Block


MF Kasim, T Adiono, M Fahreza, MF Zakiy, IEEE

Real-time Architecture and FPGA Implementation of Adaptive General Spectral Substraction Method


MF Kasim, T Adiono, M Fahreza, MF Zakiy

FPGA Implementation of Fixed-Point Divider Using Pre-Computed Values


MF Kasim, T Adiono, M Fahreza, MF Zakiy