Publications by Stephan Juricke

Seasonal to annual ocean forecasting skill and the role of model and observational uncertainty

Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society Wiley 144 (2018) 1947-1964

S Juricke, D Macleod, A Weisheimer, L Zanna, T Palmer

Accurate forecasts of the ocean state and the estimation of forecast uncertainties are crucial when it comes to providing skilful seasonal predictions. In this study we analyse the predictive skill and reliability of the ocean component in a seasonal forecasting system. Furthermore, we assess the effects of accounting for model and observational uncertainties. Ensemble forcasts are carried out with an updated version of the ECMWF seasonal forecasting model System 4, with a forecast length of ten months, initialized every May between 1981 and 2010. We find that, for essential quantities such as sea surface temperature and upper ocean 300 m heat content, the ocean forecasts are generally underdispersive and skilful beyond the first month mainly in the Tropics and parts of the North Atlantic. The reference reanalysis used for the forecast evaluation considerably affects diagnostics of forecast skill and reliability, throughout the entire ten‐month forecasts but mostly during the first three months. Accounting for parametrization uncertainty by implementing stochastic parametrization perturbations has a positive impact on both reliability (from month 3 onwards) as well as forecast skill (from month 8 onwards). Skill improvements extend also to atmospheric variables such as 2 m temperature, mostly in the extratropical Pacific but also over the midlatitudes of the Americas. Hence, while model uncertainty impacts the skill of seasonal forecasts, observational uncertainty impacts our assessment of that skill. Future ocean model development should therefore aim not only to reduce model errors but to simultaneously assess and estimate uncertainties.

Stochastic representations of model uncertainties at ECMWF: state of the art and future vision

Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society Wiley 143 (2017) 2315-2339

M Leutbecher, S-J Lock, P Ollinaho, STK Lang, G Balsamo, P Bechtold, M Bonavita, HM Christensen, M Diamantakis, E Dutra, S English, M Fisher, R Forbes, J Goddard, T Haiden, R Hogan, S Juricke, H Lawrence, S Malardel, S Massart, I Sandu, P Smolarkiewicz, A Subramanian, F Vitart, N Wedi

Members in ensemble forecasts differ due to the representations of initial uncertainties and model uncertainties. The inclusion of stochastic schemes to represent model uncertainties has improved the probabilistic skill of the ECMWF ensemble by increasing reliability and reducing the error of the ensemble mean. Recent progress, challenges and future directions regarding stochastic representations of model uncertainties at ECMWF are described in this paper. The coming years are likely to see a further increase in the use of ensemble methods in forecasts and assimilation. This will put increasing demands on the methods used to perturb the forecast model. An area that is receiving a greater attention than 5 to 10 years ago is the physical consistency of the perturbations. Other areas where future efforts will be directed are the expansion of uncertainty representations to the dynamical core and to other components of the Earth system as well as the overall computational efficiency of representing model uncertainty.

A simulation of small to giant Antarctic iceberg evolution: differential impact on climatology estimates

Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans American Geophysical Union 122 (2017) 3170-3190

T Rackow, C Wesche, R Timmermann, HH Hellmer, S Juricke, T Jung

We present a simulation of Antarctic iceberg drift and melting that includes small, medium‐sized, and giant tabular icebergs with a realistic size distribution. For the first time, an iceberg model is initialized with a set of nearly 7000 observed iceberg positions and sizes around Antarctica. The study highlights the necessity to account for larger and giant icebergs in order to obtain accurate melt climatologies. We simulate drift and lateral melt using iceberg‐draft averaged ocean currents, temperature, and salinity. A new basal melting scheme, originally applied in ice shelf melting studies, uses in situ temperature, salinity, and relative velocities at an iceberg's bottom. Climatology estimates of Antarctic iceberg melting based on simulations of small (≤2.2 km), “small‐to‐medium‐sized" (≤10 km), and small‐to‐giant icebergs (including icebergs >10 km) exhibit differential characteristics: successive inclusion of larger icebergs leads to a reduced seasonality of the iceberg meltwater flux and a shift of the mass input to the area north of 58°S, while less meltwater is released into the coastal areas. This suggests that estimates of meltwater input solely based on the simulation of small icebergs introduce a systematic meridional bias; they underestimate the northward mass transport and are, thus, closer to the rather crude treatment of iceberg melting as coastal runoff in models without an interactive iceberg model. Future ocean simulations will benefit from the improved meridional distribution of iceberg melt, especially in climate change scenarios where the impact of iceberg melt is likely to increase due to increased calving from the Antarctic ice sheet.

Climate SPHINX: evaluating the impact of resolution and stochastic physics parameterisations in the EC-Earth global climate model

Geoscientific Model Development Copernicus Publications 10 (2017) 1383-1402

P Davini, J von Hardenburg, S Corti, HM Christensen, S Juricke, A Subramanian, PAG Watson, A Weisheimer, TN Palmer

The Climate SPHINX (Stochastic Physics HIgh resolutioN eXperiments) project is a comprehensive set of ensemble simulations aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of present and future climate to model resolution and stochastic parameterisation. The EC-Earth Earth system model is used to explore the impact of stochastic physics in a large ensemble of 30-year climate integrations at five different atmospheric horizontal resolutions (from 125 up to 16 km). The project includes more than 120 simulations in both a historical scenario (1979–2008) and a climate change projection (2039–2068), together with coupled transient runs (1850–2100). A total of 20.4 million core hours have been used, made available from a single year grant from PRACE (the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe), and close to 1.5 PB of output data have been produced on Super- MUC IBM Petascale System at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) in Garching, Germany. About 140 TB of postprocessed data are stored on the CINECA supercomputing centre archives and are freely accessible to the community thanks to an EUDAT data pilot project. This paper presents the technical and scientific set-up of the experiments, including the details on the forcing used for the simulations performed, defining the SPHINX v1.0 protocol. In addition, an overview of preliminary results is given. An improvement in the simulation of Euro-Atlantic atmospheric blocking following resolution increase is observed. It is also shown that including stochastic parameterisation in the low-resolution runs helps to improve some aspects of the tropical climate – specifically the Madden–Julian Oscillation and the tropical rainfall variability. These findings show the importance of representing the impact of small-scale processes on the large-scale climate variability either explicitly (with highresolution simulations) or stochastically (in low-resolution simulations).

Stochastic parameterization: Towards a new view of weather and climate models

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society American Meteorological Society 98 (2017) 565–588-

J Berner, U Achatz, L Batté, L Bengtsson, A De la Cámara, HM Christensen, M Colangeli, DRB Coleman, D Crommelin, SI Dolaptchiev, CLE Franzke, P Friederichs, P Imkeller, H Järvinen, S Juricke, V Kitsios, F Lott, V Lucarini, S Mahajan, TN Palmer, C Penland, M Sakradzija, J-S Von Storch, A Weisheimer, PD Williams

The last decade has seen the success of stochastic parameterizations in short-term, medium-range, and seasonal forecasts: operational weather centers now routinely use stochastic parameterization schemes to represent model inadequacy better and to improve the quantification of forecast uncertainty. Developed initially for numerical weather prediction, the inclusion of stochastic parameterizations not only provides better estimates of uncertainty, but it is also extremely promising for reducing long-standing climate biases and is relevant for determining the climate response to external forcing. This article highlights recent developments from different research groups that show that the stochastic representation of unresolved processes in the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and cryosphere of comprehensive weather and climate models 1) gives rise to more reliable probabilistic forecasts of weather and climate and 2) reduces systematic model bias. We make a case that the use of mathematically stringent methods for the derivation of stochastic dynamic equations will lead to substantial improvements in our ability to accurately simulate weather and climate at all scales. Recent work in mathematics, statistical mechanics, and turbulence is reviewed; its relevance for the climate problem is demonstrated; and future research directions are outlined.

Stochastic subgrid-scale ocean mixing: Impacts on low-frequency variability

Journal of Climate American Meteorological Society 30 (2017) 4997-5019

S Juricke, TN Palmer, L Zanna

In global ocean models, the representation of small-scale, high-frequency processes considerably influences the large-scale oceanic circulation and its low-frequency variability. This study investigates the impact of stochastic perturbation schemes based on three different subgrid-scale parameterizations in multidecadal ocean-only simulations with the ocean model NEMO at 1° resolution. The three parameterizations are an enhanced vertical diffusion scheme for unstable stratification, the Gent-McWilliams (GM) scheme, and a turbulent kinetic energy mixing scheme, all commonly used in state-of-the-art ocean models. The focus here is on changes in interannual variability caused by the comparatively high-frequency stochastic perturbations with subseasonal decorrelation time scales. These perturbations lead to significant improvements in the representation of low-frequency variability in the ocean, with the stochastic GM scheme showing the strongest impact. Interannual variability of the Southern Ocean eddy and Eulerian streamfunctions is increased by an order of magnitude and by 20%, respectively. Interannual sea surface height variability is increased by about 20%-25% as well, especially in the Southern Ocean and in the Kuroshio region, consistent with a strong underestimation of interannual variability in the model when compared to reanalysis and altimetry observations. These results suggest that enhancing subgrid-scale variability in ocean models can improve model variability and potentially its response to forcing on much longer time scales, while also providing an estimate of model uncertainty.

Oceanic stochastic parametrizations in a seasonal forecast system

Monthly Weather Review American Meteorological Society 144 (2016) 1867-1875

M Andrejczuk, FC Cooper, S Juricke, TN Palmer, A Weisheimer, L Zanna

Stochastic parametrization provides a methodology for representing model uncertainty in ensemble forecasts. Here we study the impact of three existing stochastic parametrizations in the ocean component of a coupled model, on forecast reliability over seasonal timescales. The relative impacts of these schemes upon the ocean mean state and ensemble spread are analyzed. The oceanic variability induced by the atmospheric forcing of the coupled system is, in most regions, the major source of ensemble spread. The largest impact on spread and bias came from the Stochastically Perturbed Parametrization Tendency (SPPT) scheme - which has proven particularly effective in the atmosphere. The key regions affected are eddy-active regions, namely the western boundary currents and the Southern Ocean where ensemble spread is increased. However, unlike its impact in the atmosphere, SPPT in the ocean did not result in a significant decrease in forecast error. Whilst there are good grounds for implementing stochastic schemes in ocean models, our results suggest that they will have to be more sophisticated. Some suggestions for next-generation stochastic schemes are made.

Towards multi-resolution global climate modeling with ECHAM6–FESOM. Part I: model formulation and mean climate

Climate Dynamics Springer Science and Business Media LLC 44 (2015) 757-780

D Sidorenko, T Rackow, T Jung, T Semmler, D Barbi, S Danilov, K Dethloff, W Dorn, K Fieg, HF Goessling, D Handorf, S Harig, W Hiller, S Juricke, M Losch, J Schröter, DV Sein, Q Wang

Influence of stochastic sea ice parametrization on climate and the role of atmosphere-sea ice-ocean interaction

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences Royal Society 372 (2014) 20130283-20130283

S Juricke, T Jung

The influence of a stochastic sea ice strength parametrization on the mean climate is investigated in a coupled atmosphere–sea ice–ocean model. The results are compared with an uncoupled simulation with a prescribed atmosphere. It is found that the stochastic sea ice parametrization causes an effective weakening of the sea ice. In the uncoupled model this leads to an Arctic sea ice volume increase of about 10–20% after an accumulation period of approximately 20–30 years. In the coupled model, no such increase is found. Rather, the stochastic perturbations lead to a spatial redistribution of the Arctic sea ice thickness field. A mechanism involving a slightly negative atmospheric feedback is proposed that can explain the different responses in the coupled and uncoupled system. Changes in integrated Antarctic sea ice quantities caused by the stochastic parametrization are generally small, as memory is lost during the melting season because of an almost complete loss of sea ice. However, stochastic sea ice perturbations affect regional sea ice characteristics in the Southern Hemisphere, both in the uncoupled and coupled model. Remote impacts of the stochastic sea ice parametrization on the mean climate of non-polar regions were found to be small.

Potential sea ice predictability and the role of stochastic sea ice strength perturbations

Geophysical Research Letters American Geophysical Union 41 (2014) 8396-8403

S Juricke, HF Goessling, T Jung

Ensemble experiments with a climate model are carried out in order to explore how incorporating a stochastic ice strength parameterization to account for model uncertainty affects estimates of potential sea ice predictability on time scales from days to seasons. The impact of this new parameterization depends strongly on the spatial scale, lead time and the hemisphere being considered: Whereas the representation of model uncertainty increases the ensemble spread of Arctic sea ice thickness predictions generated by atmospheric initial perturbations up to about 4 weeks into the forecast, rather small changes are found for longer lead times as well as integrated quantities such as total sea ice area. The regions where initial condition uncertainty generates spread in sea ice thickness on subseasonal time scales (primarily along the ice edge) differ from that of the stochastic sea ice strength parameterization (along the coast lines and in the interior of the Arctic). For the Antarctic the influence of the stochastic sea ice strength parameterization is much weaker due to the predominance of thinner first year ice. These results suggest that sea ice data assimilation and prediction on subseasonal time scales could benefit from taking model uncertainty into account, especially in the Arctic.

Effects of stochastic ice strength perturbation on Arctic finite element sea ice modeling

Journal of Climate American Meteorological Society 26 (2013) 3785-3802

S Juricke, P Lemke, R Timmermann, T Rackow

The ice strength parameter P* is a key parameter in dynamic/thermodynamic sea ice models that cannot be measured directly. Stochastically perturbing P* in the Finite Element Sea Ice–Ocean Model (FESOM) of the Alfred Wegener Institute aims at investigating the effect of uncertainty pertaining to this parameterization. Three different approaches using symmetric perturbations have been applied: 1) reassignment of uncorrelated noise fields to perturb P* at every grid point, 2) a Markov chain time correlation, and 3) a Markov chain time correlation with some spatial correlation between nodes. Despite symmetric perturbations, results show an increase of Arctic sea ice volume and a decrease of Arctic sea ice area for all three approaches. In particular, the introduction of spatial correlation leads to a substantial increase in sea ice volume and mean thickness. The strongest response can be seen for multiyear ice north of the Greenland coast. An ensemble of eight perturbed simulations generates a spread in the multiyear ice comparable to the interannual variability of the model. Results cannot be reproduced by a simple constant global modification of P*.