# Publications by Thorsten Hesjedal

## Controlling spin-dependent tunneling by bandgap tuning in epitaxial rocksalt MgZnO films

Scientific Reports Nature Publishing Group 4 (2014) 1-8

D Li, S-G Wang, R Ward, T Hesjedal, X-G Zhang, A Kohn, E Amsellem, G Yang, J Liu, J Jiang, H-X Wei, X Han

Widespread application of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) for information storage has so far been limited by the complicated interplay between tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio and the product of resistance and junction area (RA). An intricate connection exists between TMR ratio, $RA$ value and the bandgap and crystal structure of the barrier, a connection that must be unravelled to optimise device performance and enable further applications to be developed. Here, we demonstrate a novel method to tailor the bandgap of an ultrathin, epitaxial Zn-doped MgO tunnel barrier with rocksalt structure. This structure is attractive due to its good Δ_1 spin filtering effect, and we show that MTJs based on tunable MgZnO barriers allow effective balancing of TMR ratio and $RA$ value. In this way spin-dependent transport properties can be controlled, a key challenge for the development of spintronic devices.

## Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory

Scientific Reports Nature Publishing Group 4 (2014) 6109-

S Zhang, J Zhang, A Baker, S Wang, G Yu, T Hesjedal

Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered ‘quantised’ Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory.

## A new topological insulator built from quasi one-dimensional atomic ribbons

Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters 9 (2015) 130-135

P Schönherr, S Zhang, Y Liu, P Kusch, S Reich, T Giles, D Daisenberger, D Prabhakaran, Y Chen, T Hesjedal

© 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. A novel topological insulator with orthorhombic crystal structure is demonstrated. It is characterized by quasi one-dimensional, conducting atomic chains instead of the layered, two-dimensional sheets known from the established Bi2(Se,Te)3 system. The Sb-doped Bi2Se3 nanowires are grown in a TiO2-catalyzed process by chemical vapor deposition. The binary Bi2Se3 is transformed from rhombohedral to orthorhombic by substituting Sb on ∼38% of the Bi sites. Pure Sb2Se3 is a topologically trivial band insulator with an orthorhombic crystal structure at ambient conditions, and it is known to transform into a topological insulator at high pressure. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows a topological surface state, while Sb doping also tunes the Fermi level to reside in the bandgap.

## Magnetic proximity-enhanced Curie temperature of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 thin films

Physical Review B American Physical Society 92 (2015) 094420

A Baker, AI Figuorea, K Kummer, LJ Collins-McIntyre, T Hesjedal, G van der Laan

We report a study on the transition temperature, T_C, of a Cr-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator thin film, where an increase in the ferromagnetic onset can provide a pathway towards low-power spintronics applications. Arrott plots, obtained by Cr L_2,3 x-ray magnetic circular dichroism as a function of field at various low temperatures, give a T_C ~7 K. This is similar to the bulk value of the sample, which means that there is no indication the spontaneous magnetization is different near the surface. Evaporation of a thin layer of Co onto the pristine surface of the in-situ cleaved sample increases the ordering temperature to ~19 K. X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that Cr enters the Bi2Se3 host matrix in a divalent state, and is unchanged by the Co deposition.

## Spin pumping in ferromagnet-topological insulator-ferromagnet heterostructures

Scientific Reports Nature Publishing Group 5 (2014) 7907-

A Baker, AI Figueroa, L Collins-Mcintyre, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

Topological insulators (TIs) are enticing prospects for the future of spintronics due to their large spin-orbit coupling and dissipationless, counter-propagating conduction channels in the surface state. However, a means to interact with and exploit the topological surface state remains elusive. Here, we report a study of spin pumping at the TI-ferromagnet interface, investigating spin transfer dynamics in a spin-valve like structure using element specific time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and ferromagnetic resonance. Gilbert damping increases approximate ly linearly with increasing TI thickness, indicating efficient behaviour as a spin sink. However, layer-resolved measurements suggest that a dynamic coupling is limited. These results shed new light on the spin dynamics of this novel material class, and suggest great potential for TIs in spintronic devices, through their novel magneto dynamics that persist even up to room temperature.

## Growth of Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 on amorphous fused silica by MBE

physica status solidi (b) 252 (2015) 1334-1338

LJ Collins-McIntyre, W Wang, B Zhou, Speller, Chen, T Hesjedal

Topological insulator (TI) thin films of Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 have been successfully grown on amorphous fused silica (vitreous SiO2) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. We find that such growth is possible and investigations by X-ray diffraction reveal good crystalline quality with a high degree of order along the caxis. Atomic force microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray reflectivity are used to study the surface morphology and structural film parameters. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy studies confirm the existence of a topological surface state. This work shows that TI films can be grown on amorphous substrates, while maintaining the topological surface state despite the lack of in-plane rotational order of the domains. The growth on fused silica presents a promising route to detailed thermoelectric measurements of TI films, free from unwanted thermal, electrical, and piezoelectric influences from the substrate.

## Transverse field muon-spin rotation signature of the skyrmion lattice phase in Cu2OSeO3

Physical Review A American Physical Society 91 (2015) 224408

T Lancaster, RC Williams, IO Thomas, F Xiao, FL Pratt, SJ Blundell, T Hesjedal, SJ Clark, PD Hatton, MC Hatnean, DS Keeble, G Balakrishnan, JC Loudon

We present the results of transverse field (TF) muon-spin rotation (μ+SR) measurements on Cu2OSeO3, which has a skyrmion-lattice (SL) phase. We measure the response of the TF μ+SR signal in that phase along with the surrounding ones, and suggest how the phases might be distinguished using the results of these measurements. Dipole field simulations support the conclusion that the muon is sensitive to the SL via the TF line shape and, based on this interpretation, our measurements suggest that the SL is quasistatic on a time scale τ&gt;100 ns.

## Modelling ferromagnetic resonance in magnetic multilayers: Exchange coupling and demagnetisation-driven effects

JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 115 (2014) ARTN 17D140

AA Baker, CS Davies, AI Figueroa, LR Shelford, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

## Catalyst-free growth of Bi2Te3 nanostructures by molecular beam epitaxy

APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 105 (2014) ARTN 153114

SE Harrison, P Schoenherr, Y Huo, JS Harris, T Hesjedal

## Preparation of layered thin film samples for angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 105 (2014) ARTN 121608

SE Harrison, B Zhou, Y Huo, A Pushp, AJ Kellock, SSP Parkin, JS Harris, Y Chen, T Hesjedal

## X-ray magnetic spectroscopy of MBE-grown Mn-doped Bi2Se3 thin films

AIP ADVANCES 4 (2014) ARTN 127136

LJ Collins-McIntyre, MD Watson, AA Baker, SL Zhang, AI Coldea, SE Harrison, A Pushp, AJ Kellock, SSP Parkin, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

## Controlled removal of amorphous Se capping layer from a topological insulator

APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 105 (2014) ARTN 241605

K Virwani, SE Harrison, A Pushp, T Topuria, E Delenia, P Rice, A Kellock, L Collins-McIntyre, J Harris, T Hesjedal, S Parkin

## Magnetic ordering in Cr-doped Bi₂Se₃ thin films

Europhysics Letters: a letters journal exploring the frontiers of physics European Physical Society 107 (2014) 57009-57009

L Collins-Mcintyre, SE Harrison, P Schoenherr, N-J Steinke, C Kinane, T Charlton, D Alba-Veneroa, A Phusp, A Kellock, SSP Parkin, JS Harris, S Langridge, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

We report the structural and magnetic study of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 thin films using x-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetometry and polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR). Epitaxial layers were grown on c-plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy in a two-step process. High-resolution XRD shows the exceptionally high crystalline quality of the doped films with no parasitic phases up to a Cr concentration of 12% (in % of the Bi sites occupied by substitutional Cr). The magnetic moment, measured by SQUID magnetometry, was found to be ${\sim}2.1\ \mu_\text{B}$ per Cr ion. The magnetic hysteresis curve shows an open loop with a coercive field of ${\sim}10\ \text{mT}$ . The ferromagnetic transition temperature was determined to be $8.5\ \text{K}$ analyzing the magnetization-temperature gradient. PNR shows the film to be homogeneously ferromagnetic with no enhanced magnetism near the surface or interface.

## Comparison of Au and TiO2 based catalysts for the synthesis of chalcogenide nanowires

APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 104 (2014) ARTN 253103

P Schoenherr, D Prabhakaran, W Jones, N Dimitratos, M Bowker, T Hesjedal

## Vapour-liquid-solid growth of ternary Bi2Se2Te nanowires.

Nanoscale research letters 9 (2014) 127-

P Schönherr, LJ Collins-McIntyre, S Zhang, P Kusch, S Reich, T Giles, D Daisenberger, D Prabhakaran, T Hesjedal

: High-density growth of single-crystalline Bi2Se2Te nanowires was achieved via the vapour-liquid-solid process. The stoichiometry of samples grown at various substrate temperatures is precisely determined based on energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy on individual nanowires. We discuss the growth mechanism and present insights into the catalyst-precursor interaction.

## Engineering of Bi2Se3 nanowires by laser cutting

EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL-APPLIED PHYSICS 66 (2014) ARTN 10401

P Schoenherr, AA Baker, P Kusch, S Reich, T Hesjedal

## Magnetic Cr doping of Bi2Se3: Evidence for divalent Cr from x-ray spectroscopy

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 90 (2014) ARTN 134402

AI Figueroa, G van der Laan, LJ Collins-McIntyre, S-L Zhang, AA Baker, SE Harrison, P Schoenherr, G Cibin, T Hesjedal

## Study of Gd-doped Bi2Te3 thin films: Molecular beam epitaxy growth and magnetic properties

Journal of Applied Physics 115 (2014) 2

SE Harrison, LJ Collins-McIntyre, S Li, AA Baker, LR Shelford, Y Huo, A Pushp, SSP Parkin, JS Harris, E Arenholz, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal

## Nonvolatile full adder based on a single multivalued Hall junction

SPIN World Scientific Publishing (2013)

SL Zhang, LJ Collins-McIntyre, JY Zhang, SG Wang, GH Yu, T Hesjedal

Multivalued logic devices are promising candidates for achieving high-density, low-power memory and logic functionalities. We present a ferromagnetic multilayer Hall junction device with four distinct resistance - and thus logic - states. The states can be encoded as a quaternary bit and decoded into two binary bits. We demonstrate a nonvolatile full adder that is based on a single Hall junction, the extraordinary Hall balance. The device can be easily integrated into complex logic circuits for logic-in-memory architectures.

## Extraordinary hall balance

Scientific Reports 3 (2013)

SL Zhang, Y Liu, LJ Collins-McIntyre, T Hesjedal, JY Zhang, SG Wang, GH Yu

Magnetoresistance (MR) effects are at the heart of modern information technology. However, future progress of giant and tunnelling MR based storage and logic devices is limited by the usable MR ratios of currently about 200% at room-temperature. Colossal MR structures, on the other hand, achieve their high MR ratios of up to 106% only at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. We introduce the extraordinary Hall balance (EHB) and demonstrate room-temperature MR ratios in excess of 31,000%. The new device concept exploits the extraordinary Hall effect in two separated ferromagnetic layers with perpendicular anisotropy in which the Hall voltages can be configured to be carefully balanced or tipped out of balance. Reprogrammable logic and memory is realised using a single EHB element. PACS numbers: 85.75.Nn,85.70.Kh,72.15.Gd,75.60.Ej.