Publications by Johan Fopma


Sedimentation and fouling of optical surfaces at the ANTARES site

Astroparticle Physics 19 (2003) 253-267

P Amram, M Anghinolfi, S Anvar, FE Ardellier-Desages, E Aslanides, JJ Aubert, R Azoulay, D Bailey, S Basa, M Battaglieri, R Bellotti, J Beltramelli, Y Benhammou, R Berthier, V Bertin, M Billault, R Blaes, RW Bland, F Blondeau, N de Botton, J Boulesteix, CB Brooks, J Brunner, F Cafagna, A Calzas, A Capone, L Caponetto, C Cârloganu, E Carmona, J Carr, SL Cartwright, S Cecchini, F Ciacio, M Circella, C Compère, S Cooper, P Coyle, S Cuneo, M Danilov, R van Dantzig, C de Marzo, JJ Destelle, R de Vita, G Dispau, F Druillole, J Engelen, F Feinstein, C Ferdi, D Festy, J Fopma, JM Gallone, G Giacomelli, P Goret, JF Gournay, G Hallewell, A Heijboer, JJ Hernández-Rey, JR Hubbard, M Jaquet, M de Jong, M Karolak, P Keller, P Kooijman, A Kouchner, VA Kudryavtsev, H Lafoux, P Lagier, P Lamare, JC Languillat, L Laubier, JP Laugier, B Leilde, H le Provost, A le Van Suu, L Lo Nigro, D Lo Presti, S Loucatos, F Louis, V Lyashuk, P Magnier, M Marcelin, A Margiotta, R Masullo, F Mazéas, B Mazeau, A Mazure, JE McMillan, E Migneco, C Millot, P Mols, F Montanet, T Montaruli, L Moscoso, M Musumeci, E Nezri, GJ Nooren, JEJ Oberski, C Olivetto, A Oppelt-Pohl, N Palanque-Delabrouille

ANTARES is a project leading towards the construction and deployment of a neutrino telescope in the deep Mediterranean Sea. The telescope will use an array of photomultiplier tubes to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by muons resulting from the interaction with matter of high energy neutrinos. In the vicinity of the deployment site the ANTARES Collaboration has performed a series of in situ measurements to study the change in light transmission through glass surfaces during immersions of several months. The average loss of light transmission is estimated to be only ∼2% at the equator of a glass sphere one year after deployment. It decreases with increasing zenith angle, and tends to saturate with time. The transmission loss, therefore, is expected to remain small for the several year lifetime of the ANTARES detector whose optical modules are oriented downwards. The measurements were complemented by the analysis of the 210 Pb activity profile in sediment cores and the study of biofouling on glass plates. Despite a significant sedimentation rate at the site, in the 0.02-0.05 cm yr -1 range, the sediments adhere loosely to the glass surfaces and can be washed off by water currents. Further, fouling by deposits of light-absorbing particulates is only significant for surfaces facing upwards. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.


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