# Publications by Paul Fendley

## Onsager symmetries in $U(1)$ -invariant clock models

Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment IOP Science **2019** (2019) 043107

We show how the Onsager algebra, used in the original solution of the two-dimensional Ising model, arises as an infinite-dimensional symmetry of certain self-dual models that also have a symmetry. We describe in detail the example of nearest-neighbour n-state clock chains whose symmetry is enhanced to . As a consequence of the Onsager-algebra symmetry, the spectrum of these models possesses degeneracies with multiplicities 2 N for positive integer N. We construct the elements of the algebra explicitly from transfer matrices built from non-fundamental representations of the quantum-group algebra . We analyse the spectra further by using both the coordinate Bethe ansatz and a functional approach, and show that the degeneracies result from special exact n-string solutions of the Bethe equations. We also find a family of commuting chiral Hamiltonians that break the degeneracies and allow an integrable interpolation between ferro- and antiferromagnets.

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