Publications by Kerri Donaldson Hanna

Spectral characterization of analog samples in anticipation of OSIRIS-REx's arrival at Bennu: A blind test study

Icarus Elsevier 319 (2018) 701-723

KL Donaldson Hanna, DL Schrader, EA Cloutis, GD Cody, AJ King, TJ McCoy, DM Applin, JP Mann, NE Bowles, Brucato, HC Connolly, E Dotto, LP Keller, LF Lim, BE Clark, VE Hamilton, C Lantz, DS Lauretta, SS Russell, PF Schofield

We present spectral measurements of a suite of mineral mixtures and meteorites that are possible analogs for asteroid (101955) Bennu, the target asteroid for NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission. The sample suite, which includes anhydrous and hydrated mineral mixtures and a suite of chondritic meteorites (CM, CI, CV, CR, and L5), was chosen to characterize the spectral effects due to varying amounts of aqueous alteration and minor amounts of organic material. Our results demonstrate the utility of mineral mixtures for understanding the mixing behavior of meteoritic materials and identifying spectrally dominant species across the visible to near-infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) spectral ranges. Our measurements demonstrate that, even with subtle signatures in the spectra of chondritic meteorites, we can identify diagnostic features related to the minerals comprising each of the samples. Also, the complementary nature of the two spectral ranges regarding their ability to detect different mixture and meteorite components can be used to characterize analog sample compositions better. However, we observe differences in the VNIR and TIR spectra between the mineral mixtures and the meteorites. These differences likely result from (1) differences in the types and physical disposition of constituents in the mixtures versus in meteorites, (2) missing phases observed in meteorites that we did not add to the mixtures, and (3) albedo differences among the samples. In addition to the initial characterization of the analog samples, we will use these spectral measurements to test phase detection and abundance determination algorithms in anticipation of mapping Bennu's surface properties and selecting a sampling site.

CASTAway: An asteroid main belt tour and survey.

Advances in Space Research Elsevier 62 (2017) 1998-2025

NE Bowles, C Snodgrass, JP Sanchez, JA Arnold, P Eccleston, T Andert, A Probst, G Naletto, AC Vandaele, D de Leon, A Nathues, IR Thomas, N Thomas, L Jorda, V da Deppo, H Haack, SF Green, B Carry, KL Donaldson Hanna, J Leif Jorgensen, A Kereszturi, FE DeMeo, JK Davies

CASTAway is a mission concept to explore our Solar System’s main asteroid belt. Asteroids and comets provide a window into the formation and evolution of our Solar System and the composition of these objects can be inferred from space-based remote sensing using spectroscopic techniques. Variations in composition across the asteroid populations provide a tracer for the dynamical evolution of the Solar System. The mission combines a long-range (point source) telescopic survey of over 10,000 objects, targeted close encounters with 10 – 20 asteroids and serendipitous searches to constrain the distribution of smaller (e.g. 10 m) size objects into a single concept. With a carefully targeted trajectory that loops through the asteroid belt, CASTAway would provide a comprehensive survey of the main belt at multiple scales. The scientific payload comprises a 50 cm diameter telescope that includes an integrated low-resolution (R = 30 – 100) spectrometer and visible context imager, a thermal (e.g. 6 – 16 μm) imager for use during the flybys, and modified star tracker cameras to detect small (~10 m) asteroids. The CASTAway spacecraft and payload have high levels of technology readiness and are designed to fit within the programmatic and cost caps for a European Space Agency medium class mission, whilst delivering a significant increase in knowledge of our Solar System.

The Castalia mission to Main Belt Comet 133P/Elst-Pizarro

Advances in Space Research (2017)

C Snodgrass, GH Jones, H Boehnhardt, A Gibbings, M Homeister, N Andre, P Beck, MS Bentley, I Bertini, N Bowles, MT Capria, C Carr, M Ceriotti, AJ Coates, V Della Corte, KL Donaldson Hanna, A Fitzsimmons, PJ Gutiérrez, OR Hainaut, A Herique, M Hilchenbach, HH Hsieh, E Jehin, O Karatekin, W Kofman, LM Lara, K Laudan, J Licandro, SC Lowry, F Marzari, A Masters, KJ Meech, F Moreno, A Morse, R Orosei, A Pack, D Plettemeier, D Prialnik, A Rotundi, M Rubin, JP Sánchez, S Sheridan, M Trieloff, A Winterboer

The Oxford space environment goniometer: A new experimental setup for making directional emissivity measurements under a simulated space environment.

The Review of scientific instruments 88 (2017) 124502-124502

TJ Warren, NE Bowles, K Donaldson Hanna, IR Thomas

Measurements of the light scattering behaviour of the regoliths of airless bodies via remote sensing techniques in the Solar System, across wavelengths from the visible to the far infrared, are essential in understanding their surface properties. A key parameter is knowledge of the angular behaviour of scattered light, usually represented mathematically by a phase function. The phase function is believed to be dependent on many factors including the following: surface composition, surface roughness across all length scales, and the wavelength of radiation. Although there have been many phase function measurements of regolith analog materials across visible wavelengths, there have been no equivalent measurements made in the thermal infrared (TIR). This may have been due to a lack of TIR instruments as part of planetary remote sensing payloads. However, since the launch of Diviner to the Moon in 2009, OSIRIS-Rex to the asteroid Bennu in 2016, and the planned launch of BepiColombo to Mercury in 2018, there is now a large quantity of TIR remote sensing data that need to be interpreted. It is therefore important to extend laboratory phase function measurements to the TIR. This paper describes the design, build, calibration, and initial measurements from a new laboratory instrument that is able to make phase function measurements of analog planetary regoliths across wavelengths from the visible to the TIR.

Assessing the shock state of the lunar highlands: Implications for the petrogenesis and chronology of crustal anorthosites.

Scientific reports 7 (2017) 5888-5888

JF Pernet-Fisher, KH Joy, DJP Martin, KL Donaldson Hanna

Our understanding of the formation and evolution of the primary lunar crust is based on geochemical systematics from the lunar ferroan anorthosite (FAN) suite. Recently, much effort has been made to understand this suite's petrologic history to constrain the timing of crystallisation and to interpret FAN chemical diversity. We investigate the shock histories of lunar anorthosites by combining Optical Microscope (OM) 'cold' cathodoluminescence (CL)-imaging and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses. In the first combined study of its kind, this study demonstrates that over ~4.5 Ga of impact processing, plagioclase is on average weakly shocked (<15 GPa) and examples of high shock states (>30 GPa; maskelynite) are uncommon. To investigate how plagioclase trace-element systematics are affected by moderate to weak shock (~5 to 30 GPa) we couple REE+Y abundances with FTIR analyses for FAN clasts from lunar meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 2995. We observe weak correlations between plagioclase shock state and some REE+Y systematics (e.g., La/Y and Sm/Nd ratios). This observation could prove significant to our understanding of how crystallisation ages are evaluated (e.g., plagioclase-whole rock Sm-Nd isochrons) and for what trace-elements can be used to differentiate between lunar lithologies and assess magma source compositional differences.

Effects of varying environmental conditions on emissivity spectra of bulk lunar soils: Application to Diviner thermal infrared observations of the Moon

ICARUS 283 (2017) 326-342

KLD Hanna, BT Greenhagen, PWR III, CM Pieters, JF Mustard, NE Bowles, DA Paige, TD Glotch, C Thompson

Young lunar volcanic features: Thermophysical properties and formation

ICARUS 290 (2017) 224-237

CM Elder, PO Hayne, JL Bandfield, RR Ghent, J-P Williams, KLD Hanna, DA Paige

Space weathering effects in Diviner Lunar Radiometer multispectral infrared measurements of the lunar Christiansen Feature: Characteristics and mitigation

Icarus Elsevier 283 (2016) 343-351

PG Lucey, BT Greenhagen, E Song, JA Arnold, M Lemelin, K Donaldson-Hanna, NE Bowles, TD Glotch, DA Paige

Multispectral infrared measurements by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Renaissance Orbiter enable the characterization of the position of the Christiansen Feature, a thermal infrared spectral feature that laboratory work has shown is proportional to the bulk silica content of lunar surface materials. Diviner measurements show that the position of this feature is also influenced by the changes in optical and physical properties of the lunar surface with exposure to space, the process known as space weathering. Large rayed craters and lunar swirls show corresponding Christiansen Feature anomalies. The space weathering effect is likely due to differences in thermal gradients in the optical surface imposed by the space weathering control of albedo. However, inspected at high resolution, locations with extreme compositions and Christiansen Feature wavelength positions – silica-rich and olivine-rich areas – do not have extreme albedos, and fall off the albedo- Christiansen Feature wavelength position trend occupied by most of the Moon. These areas demonstrate that the Christiansen Feature wavelength position contains compositional information and is not solely dictated by albedo. An optical maturity parameter derived from near-IR measurements is used to partly correct Diviner data for space weathering influences.

Reflectance spectroscopy of chromium-bearing spinel with application to recent orbital data from the Moon

AMERICAN MINERALOGIST 101 (2016) 726-734

KB Williams, CRM Jackson, LC Cheeks, KL Donaldson-Hanna, SW Parman, CM Pieters, MD Dyar, TC Prissel

Global assessment of pure crystalline plagioclase across the Moon and implications for the evolution of the primary crust


KLD Hanna, LC Cheek, CM Pieters, JF Mustard, BT Greenhagen, IR Thomas, NE Bowles

Visible-infrared spectral properties of iron-bearing aluminate spinel under lunar-like redox conditions 

American Mineralogist Mineralogical Society of America 99 (2014) 1821-1833

CRM Jackson, LC Cheek, KB Williams, KD Hanna, CM Pieters, SW Parman, RF Cooper, MD Dyar, M Nelms, MR Salvatore

The distribution of Mg-spinel across the Moon and constraints on crustal origin

American Mineralogist Mineralogical Society of America 99 (2014) 1893-1910

CM Pieters, KD Hanna, L Cheek, D Dhingra, T Prissel, C Jackson, D Moriarty, S Parman, LA Taylor

A robust assessment is made of the distribution and (spatially resolved) geologic context for the newly identified rock type on the Moon, a Mg-spinel-bearing anorthosite (pink-spinel anorthosite, PSA). Essential criteria for confirmed detection of Mg-spinel using spectroscopic techniques are presented and these criteria are applied to recent data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper. Altogether, 23 regions containing confirmed exposures of the new Mg-spinel rock type are identified. All exposures are in highly feldspathic terrain and are small—a few hundred meters—but distinct and verifiable, most resulting from multiple measurements. Each confirmed detection is classified according to geologic context along with other lithologies identified in the same locale. Confirmed locations include areas along the inner rings of four mascon basins, knobs within central peaks of a few craters, and dispersed exposures within the terraced walls of several large craters. Unexpected detections of Mg-spinel are also found at a few areas of hypothesized non-mare volcanism. The small Mg-spinel exposures are shown to be global in distribution, but generally associated with areas of thin crust. Confirmation of Mg-spinel exposures as part of the inner ring of four mascon basins indicates this PSA rock type is principally of lower crust origin and predates the basin-forming era.

The distribution and purity of anorthosite across the Orientale basin: New perspectives from Moon Mineralogy Mapper data

Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets American Geophysical Union (AGU) 118 (2013) 1805-1820

LC Cheek, KL Donaldson Hanna, CM Pieters, JW Head, JL Whitten

Laboratory emissivity measurements of the plagioclase solid solution series under varying environmental conditions

Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets 117 (2012)

KL Donaldson Hanna, IR Thomas, NE Bowles, BT Greenhagen, CM Pieters, JF Mustard, CRM Jackson, MB Wyatt

New laboratory thermal infrared emissivity measurements of the plagioclase solid solution series over the 1700∼400cm-1 (6-25m) spectral range are presented. Thermal infrared (TIR) spectral changes for fine-particulate samples (0-25m) are characterized for the first time under different laboratory environmental conditions: ambient (terrestrial-like), half-vacuum (Mars-like), vacuum, and vacuum with cooled chamber (lunar-like). Under all environmental conditions the Christiansen Feature (CF) is observed to vary in a systematic way with Na-rich end-member (albite) having a CF position at the highest wave number (shortest wavelength) and the Ca-rich end-member (anorthite) having a CF position with the lowest wave number (longest wavelength). As pressure decreases to<10-3mbar four observations are made: (1) the CF position shifts to higher wave numbers, (2) the spectral contrast of the CF increases relative to the RB, (3) the spectral contrast of the RB in the ∼1200-900 spectral range decreases while the spectral contrast of the RB in the ∼800-400 spectral range either increases or remains the same and (4) the TF disappears. A relationship between the wavelength position of the CF measured under simulated lunar conditions and plagioclase composition (An#) is developed. Although its exact form may evolve with additional data, this linear relationship should be applied to current and future TIR data sets of the Moon. Our new spectral measurements demonstrate how sensitive thermal infrared emissivity spectra of plagioclase feldspars are to the environmental conditions under which they are measured and provide important constraints for interpreting current and future thermal infrared data sets. © 2012 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Thermal infrared emissivity measurements under a simulated lunar environment: Application to the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets 117 (2012)

KL Donaldson Hanna, MB Wyatt, IR Thomas, NE Bowles, BT Greenhagen, A Maturilli, J Helbert, DA Paige

We present new laboratory thermal infrared emissivity spectra of the major silicate minerals identified on the Moon measured under lunar environmental conditions and evaluate their application to lunar remote sensing data sets. Thermal infrared spectral changes between ambient and lunar environmental conditions are characterized for the first time over the 400∼1700 cm -1 (6-25 m) spectral range for a fine-particulate mineral suite including plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (enstatite and augite), and olivine (forsterite). The lunar environment introduces observable effects in thermal infrared emissivity spectra of fine particulate minerals, which include: (1) a shift in the Christiansen feature (CF) position to higher wave numbers (shorter wavelengths), (2) an increase in the overall spectral contrast, and (3) decreases in the spectral contrast of the reststrahlen bands and transparency features. Our new measurements demonstrate the high sensitivity of thermal infrared emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured and provide important constraints for interpreting new thermal infrared data sets of the Moon, including the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Full resolution laboratory mineral spectra convolved to Diviner's three spectral channels show that spectral shape, CF position and band ratios can be used to distinguish between individual mineral groups and lunar lithologies. The integration of the thermal infrared CF position with near infrared spectral parameters allows for robust mineralogical identifications and provides a framework for future integrations of data sets across two different wavelength regimes. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

A new experimental setup for making thermal emission measurements in a simulated lunar environment.

Review of scientific instruments 83 (2012) 124502-

IR Thomas, BT Greenhagen, N Bowles, K Donaldson Hanna, J Temple, SB Calcutt

One of the key problems in determining lunar surface composition for thermal-infrared measurements is the lack of comparable laboratory-measured spectra. As the surface is typically composed of fine-grained particulates, the lunar environment induces a thermal gradient within the near sub-surface, altering the emission spectra: this environment must therefore be simulated in the laboratory, considerably increasing the complexity of the measurement. Previous measurements have created this thermal gradient by either heating the cup in which the sample sits or by illuminating the sample using a solar-like source. This is the first setup able to measure in both configurations, allowing direct comparisons to be made between the two. Also, measurements across a wider spectral range and at a much higher spectral resolution can be acquired using this new setup. These are required to support new measurements made by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer, the first multi-spectral thermal-infrared instrument to orbit the Moon. Results from the two different heating methods are presented, with measurements of a fine-grained quartz sample compared to previous similar measurements, plus measurements of a common lunar highland material, anorthite. The results show that quartz gives the same results for both methods of heating, as predicted by previous studies, though the anorthite spectra are different. The new calibration pipeline required to convert the raw data into emissivity spectra is described also.

Analysis of lunar pyroclastic deposit FeO abundances by LRO Diviner

Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets American Geophysical Union (AGU) 117 (2012) n/a-n/a

CC Allen, BT Greenhagen, KL Donaldson Hanna, DA Paige

Highly silicic compositions on the moon

Science 329 (2010) 1510-1513

TD Glotch, PG Lucey, JL Bandfield, BT Greenhagen, IR Thomas, RC Elphic, N Bowles, MB Wyatt, CC Allen, KD Hanna, DA Paige

Using data from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, we show that four regions of the Moon previously described as "red spots" exhibit mid-infrared spectra best explained by quartz, silica-rich glass, or alkali feldspar. These lithologies are consistent with evolved rocks similar to lunar granites in the Apollo samples. The spectral character of these spots is distinct from surrounding mare and highlands material and from regions composed of pure plagioclase feldspar. The variety of landforms associated with the silicic spectral character suggests that both extrusive and intrusive silicic magmatism occurred on the Moon. Basaltic underplating is the preferred mechanism for silicic magma generation, leading to the formation of extrusive landforms. This mechanism or silicate liquid immiscibility could lead to the formation of intrusive bodies.

Global Silicate Mineralogy of the Moon from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer

SCIENCE 329 (2010) 1507-1509

BT Greenhagen, PG Lucey, MB Wyatt, TD Glotch, CC Allen, JA Arnold, JL Bandfield, NE Bowles, KLD Hanna, PO Hayne, E Song, IR Thomas, DA Paige

Vesta and the HED meteorites: Mid-infrared modeling of minerals and their abundances

Meteoritics & Planetary Science Wiley 44 (2009) 1755-1770

KD Hanna, AL Sprague